Skip to main content

Full text of "Historical sketches of hymns, their writers, and their influence"

See other formats





? I = 




FROM THE LIBRARY OF 

REV. LOUIS FITZGERALD BENSON, D. D. 

BEQUEATHED BY HIM TO 

THE LIBRARY OF 

» 
PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY 



3£V7 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Princeton Theological Seminary Library 



http://archive.org/details/hissketchOObelc 



• 



HISTORICAL SKETC 




HYMNS, 



THEIR WRITERS, AND THEIR INFLUENCE. 



JOSEPH BELCHER, D.D. 

AUTHOR OF "\VILUAM CAREY: A BIOGRAPHY;" ' ; GEORGE VHITEFIELD : A BIOGRAPHY; 
"RELIGIOUi DENOMINATION'S OF THE UNITED STATES," ETC. ETC. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
LINDSAY & BLAKISTON. 

NEW YORK : SHELDON & COMPANY. 
1859. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859. by 

LINDSAY & BLAKISTON, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern 

District of Pennsylvania. 



STEREOTYPED BY I.. JOHNSON & CO. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

COLLINS, PRINTER. 



PREFACE. 



That the subject of this volume is of great interest 
no reader will deny. That more than one writer 
has published important matters relating to it is 
well known ; but assuredly comparatively little truly 
interesting to the mass of Christian readers has yet 
been collected. No one is - more aware of the diffi- 
culties of the task than the author of the present 
small work, for which he has been collecting mate- 
rials for many years. Importunity of friends may 
truly be pleaded in this instance; and he has at least 
the confidence that he has done what he could, and 
will rejoice if his work shall provoke a wiser man 
to produce a better. 

To the casual reader it may appear that a small 
degree of labor, given now and then in moments of 
leisure, would soon produce a volume like that now 
in his hand. It would, however, convince such a 
one of his mistake were he to attempt the task. lie 
would soon find that the most attractive volume 
must often be laid aside, that " AV must be given 



6 PREFACE. 

to the kindest invitation to the tempting social 
party, and that even the meetings of the most de- 
lightful revival of religion recorded in history must 
be sacrificed, to complete what years and disease tell 
him may not otherwise be accomplished before death 
summons him from earth.* To verify a fact, to con- 
firm a date, or to answer what some might consider 
an unimportant query, has often demanded hours 
which inclination or the gratification of friendship 
would have otherwise claimed. 

The author feels a pleasing confidence that his 
labors will tend to increase an interest in the great 
duty and privilege of praise, and do somewhat to 
advance a spirit of union with those, not a few of 
whom are now in a better world, who have so greatly 
aided our worship on earth. As such, he commends 
his feeble effort to the favor of his adorable Master 
and to the kindness of his readers. 

J. B. 

Philadelphia, July, 1S59. 



* The Rev. Dr. Belcher seems to have anticipated a result which 
has since taken place. He departed this life on Sunday morning, 
July 10th, 1859, not many hours after his labors had ceased on 
this volume. 



CONTENTS 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

PAGE 

Definition of a Hymn — Character and Influence, by Henry 
Ward Beecher — Musical Establishment of David — Extract 
from Dr. Lyman Coleman — Singing of the Early Chris- 
tian Church — Hymns of the Early Fathers — Chrysostom 
— Augustine — Singing and Death of William the Con- 
queror — Latin Singing now practised in Winchester Col- 
lege — The Gospel perpetuated by Old Hymns — Singing in 
the Dark Ages — Revised at the Reformation — Congrega- 
tional Singing in England — Divisions in Churches on 
the Subject — Influence of Calvin — Luther — Royalists and 
Roundheads at York Minster — Mace — Baxter — Pilgrim 
Fathers — Symmes — Cotton Mather — Decline in Singing — 
Its Revival — Curious Facts — Singing in the Revival of 
1735 — Early Printing of Hymns and Music — Remarkable 
Poetical Compositions — Dr. Lowell Mason — Amusing 
Facts — Singing in the Methodist Church — Wesley — 
Whitefield — True Use of Music — Instruments in Churches 
— Singing in Brazil — Alterations in Hymns — Real Im- 
provements — Importance of Chanting — Length of Church 
Services — Hints on Good Singing 19 



CONT] NTS. 



AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

PAOI 

Sarah F. Adams 73 

Joseph Addison 73 

Christopher Angelus 74 

Rev. James Allen 75 

Mrs. G. "W. Anderson 70 

Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D 7<J 

Rev. John Bakewell 77 

Rev. Thomas Baldwin, D.D 78 

Mrs. Anna L. Barbauld 79 

Bernard Barton 79 

Rev. Christopher Batty 81 

Rev. Richard Baxter 82 

Rev. Benjamin Beddome 83 

Rev. Charles Beecher 86 

Bernard 86 

Rev. John Berridge 87 

Rev. G. W. Bethune, D.D 90 

Rev. Thomas Blacklock, D.D 91 

Rev. James Boden 92 

Rev. Horatius Bonar, D.D 93 

Rev. T. E. Bond, M.D 94 

John Bowdler 95 

John Bowring, LL.D 95 

Frederika Bremer 95 

Rev. Jehoiada Brewer 96 

Rev. John N. Brown, D.D 97 

Phoebe H. Brown 97 

Rev. Simon Browne 98 

Elizabeth Barrett Browning 100 

John H. Bryant 101 

William Cullen Bryant 102 

William Budden.... 102 

Rev. W. M. Bunting 103 

Rev. John Bunvnn 104 



CONTENTS. 9 

FAfll 

Rev. George Binder 104 

Bishop Burgess, D.I) 105 

Rev. Richard Burnham 106 

Robert Burns 10G 

Thomas Campbell 107 

Rev. John Cawood 108 

Rev. Richard Cecil 108 

Thomas Von Celano 109 

Rev. John Cennick Ill 

Rev. E. H. Chapin, D.D 112 

Charlemagne 113 

Rev. Ingram Cobbin 114 

Rev. W. B. Collyer, D.D., LL.D 115 

Josiah Conder 116 

Rev. Thomas Cotterill 116 

Nathanael Cotton, M.D 117 

William Cowper 118 

Rev. A. C. Coxe, D.D 126 

Rev. W. Croswell, D.D 126 

Robert Cruttenden 127 

Rev. J. W. Cunningham 128 

Rev. S. S. Cutting 129 

Rev. Thomas Dale 129 

Rev. President Davies 130 

Rev. Eliel Davis 130 

Rev. David Denham 131 

Rev. David Dickson 132 

Bishop Doane 13-4 

Rev. Philip Doddridge, D.D 134 

JohnDryden 141 

Rev. George Duffield, Jr 142 

Rev. Timothy Dwight, D.D 143 

Rev. Sidney Dyer 144 

Rev. J. W. Eastburne 144 

Charlotte Elliott 144 

Rev. R. Elliott 145 

James Edmeston 146 



]0 CONTENTS. 

PA'iK 

Rev. William Enfield, LL.D 140 

Jlev. Jonathan Evans L46 

Rev. John Fawcett, D.D 147 

John Fellows 150 

Eliza Lee Follen l'>[ 

luv. Benjamin Francis 151 

Rev. Richard Furman, D.D 153 

Rev. W. II. Furness, D.D 153 

Thomas H. Gallaudet, LL.D 154 

Kev. John Gambold 154 

Rev. Paul Gerhard 15G 

Rev. Thomas Gibbons, D.D L~>7 

Ann Gilbert 1 -u 

Rev. Thomas Gisborne 158 

LordGlenelg 158 

John Mason Good, M.D 159 

Hannah F. Gould 159 

James Grant 1G0 

Thomas Greene 1G1 

Rev. Joseph Grigg 161 

Madame Guion 161 

Rev. William Hammond 163 

Rev. Joseph Hart 164 

Rev. Thomas Haweis, LL.B. and 1VLD 165 

Bishop Heber 167 

Rev. George Herbert 168 

Rev. James Hervey 171 

Rev. Rowland Hill 172 

Bishop Home 173 

Rev. Joseph Humphries 174 

Rev. G. B. Ide, D.D 174 

Rev. William Jay 175 

Rev. Edmund Jones 175 

Rev. Adoniram Judson, D.D 176 

Rev. Thomas Kelly 177 

Bishop Ken 179 

John Kent 182 



CONTENTS. 11 

pagk 

Francis S. Key 183 

Rev. William Kingsbury 184 

Rev. Andrew Kippis, D.D 185 

Rev. Mr. Kirkham 18G 

Rev. John Langford 180 

Rev. John Leland 187 

Rev. John Logan 187 

Henry W. Longfellow 188 

Ann Lutton 189 

Rev. Henry Francis Lyte 190 

Mrs. Mackay 190 

Rev. Martin Madan 191 

Rev. Basil Manly, Jr 193 

Rev. John Mason 193 

Rev. Samuel Medley 194 

Rev. Henry H. Milman...*. 195 

John Milton 196 

James Montgomery 197 

Thomas Moore 203 

Rev. Thomas Morell 204 

Rev. William A. Muhlenberg, D.D 204 

Rev. John Needham 205 

Rev. James Newton 206 

Rev. John Newton 206 

Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel 210 

Andrews Norton 211 

Rev. John F. Oberlin 211 

Rev. Samson Occum 213 

Rev. Thomas Olivers 214 

Krishna Pal 215 

Mrs. Palmer 216 

Rev. Ray Palmer, D.D 217 

Rev. A. P. Peabody, D.D 217 

Rev. Samuel Pearce 218 

Rev. Edward Perronet '. 219 

Alexander Pope 225 

Rev. Thomas Raffles, D.D., LL.D 226 



12 CONTENTS. 



M01 



Rev. Andrew Reed, D.D , 228 

Rev. Robert Robinson 229 

Rev. John Ryland, D.D 231 

Hon. and Rev. Walter Shirley 234 

Lydia Huntley Sigourney 235 

Rev. S. F. Smith, D.D 236 

Anne Steele 237 

Rev. Samuel Stennett, D.D 239 

Rev. Amos Sutton, D.D 240 

Sternhold and Hopkins 241 

Rev. Joseph Swaine 243 

William B. Tappan 244 

Tate and Brady 245 

G. Tersteegan 246 

Rev. Augustus M. Toplady 247 

Miss Tuck ■ 249 

Rev. Daniel Turner 250 

Rev. Benjamin Wallin 251 

Rev. W.Ward 252 

Rev. Ralph Wardlaw, D.D 253 

Rev. Henry Ware, D.D < 253 

H. S. Washburn '..... 254 

Rev. Isaac Watts, D.D 254 

TheWesleys 268 

Henry Kirke White 291 

John G. Whittier 292 

Rev. William Williams 293 

Nathanael P. Willis 294 

William Wordsworth 295 

Francis Xavier 297 



CONTENTS. 13 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 
PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 

INDIVIDUAL PERSONS. 

PAGE 

A University Student 301 

An English Actress 302 

An Irish Persecutor 304 

A Young Man 305 

An Unhappy Mother 308 

An English Nobleman 309 

An Irish Sunday-Scholar 312 

Governor Hill 315 

Campbell, the Poet 315 

A Taunting Lover 316 

A Dying Jewess 317 

A Chimney-Sweeper 319 

A Suffering Mother 319 

Robert Hall 320 

A Vermont Clergyman 321 

A Sick Child 322 

An Aged Lady 322 

A Young Man in Virginia..... 323 

A Dying Pastor 324 

A Military Officer 32G 

The Blind Psalmist 326 

THE DOMESTIC CIRCLE. 

Two Sisters in New York State 328 

The Young Captive and her Mother 329 

A Family in Louisiana 332 

The Brothers and Sister 333 

2 



14 CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Two Young Women 334 

Quarrelsome Neighbors 335 

Klopstock and his Wife 336 



MINISTERS AND CONGREGATIONS. 

Rev. Samuel Bradburn 337 

Rev. Dr. E. D. Griffin 338 

Rev. Robert Hall 339 

Rev. Dr. Stillman 339 

Rev. Dr. Broaddus 340 

Thoughtless Clergymen 340 

A Tory Minister 342 

Dr. Mason 343 

Mr. Dawson 345 

Fault Found 345 

A Clergyman in Georgia 346 

A Deacon in a Difficulty 347 

Regulations of Singing 348 

Importance of Right Feelings 349 

An Old Parody 351 

Singular Music 351 

Hymns of the Old Style 352 

Singing at Bangor 353 

Redstone Presbytery 356 

Boston Congregations 357 

Coincidence 358 

China 358 

Rev. Dr. Emmons 360 

English Clerks 361 

Facts about Anthems 364 

Congregational Singing 370 

Sacramental Singing 373 

Collegiate Dinner at Andover 373 

Singing on board the North Carolina 373 

Churches in Scotland 374 

An Impressive Scene 375 



CONTENT- 1.) 

PACK 

A Real Amendment 376 

Miscellaneous Facts 378 



GENERAL SOCIETY. 

A Private Circle 379 

A Vast Crowd 380 

Anniversary at Andover 381 

The Missionary's Landing 383 

Officers of the British Navy 385 

New York Merchants 386 

Miscellaneous 388 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES 



CHURCH MUSIC AND CHOIRS. 



»• 



Historical Sketches. 



Before entering on the principal design of this vo- 
lume, it may be proper very briefly to glance at the 
character of hymns, and the opinions entertained of 
them by Christians in successive ages. 

A writer in the " Presbyterian Quarterly Review" not 
long ago, says of a good hymn, " It forms words that 
thrill thousands of all classes and characters, and thrill 
them all at once. Words that will do this must be at 
the same time simple and dramatic, understood in a 
moment, and yet carrying profound feelings — those uni- 
versal things that are ' borne inward unto souls afar/ " 

As to the character and influence of hymns on the 
hearts of Christians, our views are so well delineated by 
the graphic pen of Henry "Ward Beecher, that we shall 
borrow his language, as far more conducive to the benefit 
of the reader than our own : — " Hyinns are the expo- 
nents of the inmost piety of the Church. They are the 
crystalline tears, or blossoms of joy, or holy prayers, or 
incarnated raptures. They are the jewels which the 
Church has worn, — the pearls, the diamonds, and precious 
stones, formed into amulets more potent against sorrow 
and sadness than the most famous charms of wizard or 



20 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

magician. And he who knows the way that hymns 
flowed, knows where the blood of piety ran, and can 
t race its veins and arteries to the very heart. 

" No other composition is like an experimental hymn. 
It is not a mere poetic impulse. It is not a thought, a 
fancy, a feeling threaded upon words. It is the voice 
of experience speaking from the soul a few words that 
condense and often represent a whole life. It is the life, 
too, not of the natural feelings, growing wild, but of 
regenerated feeling, inspired by God to a heavenly des- 
tiny, and making its way through troubles and hin- 
derances, through joys and victories, dark or light, sad 
or serene, yet always struggling forward. Forty years 
the heart may have been in battle, and one verse shall 
express the fruit of the whole. One great hope may 
come to fruit only at the end of many years, and as the 
ripening of many experiences. As there be flowers 
that drink up the dews of spring and summer, and feed 
upon all the rains, and only just before winter burst 
forth into bloom, so is it with some of the noblest blos- 
soms of the soul. The bolt that prostrated Saul gave 
him the exceeding brightness of Christ ; and so some 
hymns could never have been written, but for a heart- 
stroke that wellnigh crushed out the life. It is cleft in 
two by bereavement, and out of the rift comes forth. as 
by resurrection, the form and voice that shall never die 
out of the world. Angels sat at the grave's mouth ; and 
ho hymns are the angels that rise up out of our griefs, 
and darkness, and dismay. 



HISTORICAL 8KETCHES. 21 

u Thus born, a hymn is one of those silent ministers 
which God sends to those who are to be heirs of salva- 
tion. It enters into the tender imagination of childhood, 
and casts down upon the chambers of its thought a holy 
radiance which shall never quite depart. It goes with 
the Christian, singing to him all the way, as if it were 
the airy voice of some guardian spirit. When darkness 
of trouble, settling fast, 'is shutting out every star, a 
hymn bursts through and brings light like a torch. It 
abides by our side in sickness. It goes forth with joy to 
syllable that joy. 

" And thus, after a time, we clothe a hymn with the 
memories and associations of our own life. It is gar- 
landed with flowers which grew in our hearts. Born of 
the experience of one mind, it becomes the unconscious 
record of many minds. We sang it, perhaps, the morn- 
ing that our child died. We sang this one on that Sab- 
bath evening when, after ten years, the family were once 
more all together. There be hymns that were sung while 
the mother lay a-dying ; that were sung when the child, 
just converted, was filling the family with the joy of 
Christ new-born, and laid, not now in a manger, but in 
a heart. And thus, sprung from a wondrous life, they 
lead a life yet more wonderful. When they first come 
to us, they are like the single strokes of a bell ringing 
down to us from above ; but at length a single hymn be- 
comes a whole chime of bells, mingling and discoursing 
to us the harmonies of a life's Christian experience." 

Mr. Beecher elsewhere says, with great truth, that 



22 HISTORICAL SKETCH I 

" when the Church is cold and dead, these hymns which 
were written by God's saints in moments of rapture 
seem extravagant, and we walk over them on dainty 
footsteps of taste ; but let God's Spirit come down upon 
our hearts, and they are as sweetness to our tongues; 
nay, all too poor and meagre for our emotions ; for feel- 
ing is always tropical, and seeks the most intense and 
fervid expression/' 

In glancing at the history of praise and its various 
modes of expression, we may remark that nothing in 
the whole records of history can be found to compare 
with the splendid musical establishments of David, at 
once the king of Israel and the psalmist of the Lord. 
From the narrative given us in the twenty-third chapter 
of the First Book of the Chronicles, we must infer that 
both music and poetry were then in a highly-flourishing 
state. No less than four thousand singers or musicians 
were appointed from among the Levites, under two hun- 
dred and eighty-eight principal singers or leaders of the 
band, and distributed into twenty-four companies, who 
officiated weekly by rotation in the temple, and whose 
whole business it was to perform the sacred hymns 
One portion of them chanted or sung, and the other 
played on different instruments. The chief of these 
were Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun, who were also com- 
posers of hymns. Milton himself must have admitted 
that the choir was worthy in its amplitude of those fre- 
quent songs throughout the law and the prophets which 
he held " incomparable," not in " their divine argument 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 23 

alone, but in the very critical art of composition, over 
all the kinds of lyric poetry." 

Dr. Lyman Coleman, in his "Apostolical and Primitive 
Church" very properly tells us that the singing of songs 
constituted a great part of the religious worship of all 
ancient nations. In all their religious festivals, and in 
their temples, the pagan nations sung to the praise of 
their idol gods. The worship of the Jews, alike in the 
temple, their synagogues, and their private dwellings, 
was celebrated with sacred hymns to God. Christ him- 
self, in his final interview with his disciples before his 
crucifixion, sung with them the customary paschal songs 
at the institution of the Supper, and by his example 
sanctified the use of sacred songs in the Christian Church. 
In the opinion of the most eminent writers, the gift of 
the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost was accom- 
panied by poetic inspiration, to which the disciples gave 
utterance in spiritual songs. Paul and Silas, lacerated 
by the cruel scourging which they had received, and in 
close confinement in " the inner prison," prayed and 
sang praises to God at midnight. The use of " psalms, 
and hymns, and spiritual songs" was enjoined upon the 
churches at Colosse and Ephesus. Many evidences are 
furnished us, too, that in private, as well as in public, 
the first Christians were warmly attached to singing 
the praises of God. 

Indeed, it appears that this practice of uniting to 
sing the high praises of Christ was one of the charges 
brought against the first Christians by their enemies. 



-4 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

Eience Pliny wrote in the commencement of the second 
century to Trajan, the Roman emperor, that they wore 
accustomed to meet before day, to offer praise to Christ 
as a God; and Justin Martyr mentions the songs and 
hymns of the Ephesian Christians: — "We manifest our 
gratitude to him by worshipping him in spiritual songs 
and hymns, praising him for our birth, for our health, 
for the vicissitudes of the seasons, and for the hopes of 
immortality." Xot very long after this, we have a clear 
intimation of the existence of a hymn-book. 

The great topic of the ancient psalms and hymns was 
Christ, the only-begotten of the Father. The doctrine 
was set forth of his being the incarnate Word of God, 
God and man. His mediatorial character was the joy 
of the primitive churches, and this sacred theme in- 
spired their earliest anthems. The manner of their sing- 
ing must have been very simple, consisting of a few 
easy airs, which could be readily learned and by fre- 
quent repetition become familiar to all. Ambrose 
that the injunction of the apostle, forbidding women 
to speak in public, relates not to singing, " for this is 
delightful in every age and suited to every sex;" and 
Chrysostom says, " It was the ancient custom, as it still 
is with us, for all to come together and unitedly to join 
in singing. The young and the old, rich and poor, male 
and female, bond and free, all join in one song. . . . All 
worldly distractions here cease, and the whole congre- 
gation form one general chorus." 

We may add a few lines more on this interesting topic. 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 25 

Several of the Fathers sought to edify their flocks by 
supplying them with devotional poetry; and instances 
are referred to by Eusebius in his "Ecclesiastical History" 
of private individuals composing hymns. Speaking of 
the mode of administering the Lord's Supper, Tertullian 
remarks, in his "Apology" "After the water is brought 
for the hands, and lights, we are invited to sing to God, 
according as each one can propose a subject from the 
Holy Scriptures or of his own composing." Hilary of 
Poictiers, in the fourth century, presented his church 
with a collection of hymns; and the Milanese Christians, 
about the same period, were accustomed to assemble at 
night, to chant those composed by Ambrose, their bishop. 
This practice began in Milan about the time the empe- 
ror persecuted Ambrose. The pious peojilc watched in 
the church, prepared to die with the pastor. Augustine 
says, " There my mother sustained an eminent part in 
watching and praying. Then hymns and psalms, after 
the manner of the East, were sung, with the view of 
preserving the people from weariness ; and thence the 
custom has spread through Christian churches." When 
Chrysostom occupied the episcopal throne of Constan- 
tinople, the Arians were accustomed to parade the 
streets of the city, singing hymns strongly tinctured 
with the peculiarities of their creed ; on which the 
bishop, fearing the propagation of the heresy, furnished 
his choristers with some of his own compositions in 
accordance with the opinions of the orthodox. 

Assuredly this holy duty of singing was not confined 



26 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

io their public assemblies. Jerome says, " Go where 
you will, the ploughman at his plough sings his joyful 
hallelujahs, the busy mower regales himself with his 
psalms, and the vine-dresser is singing one of the songs 
of David." Fearless of reproach, of persecution, and 
of death, they continued, in the face of their enemies, to 
sing their sacred songs in the streets and market-places, 
and at the martyr's stake. Eusebius declares himself 
an eye-witness to the fact that, under their persecutions 
in Thebais, a they continued to their latest breath to 
sing psalms and hymns, and thanksgivings to the God 
of heaven." Speaking of the earliest hymns of the 
Latin Church, Herder asks, " Who can deny their power 
and influence over the soul ? They go with the solitary 
into his cell, and attend the afflicted in distress, in want, 
and to the grave. While singing these, one forgets his 
toil, and his fainting, sorrowful spirit soars in hea- 
venly joys to another world. Back to earth he comes 
to labor, to toil, to suffer in silence, and to conquer. 
How rich the boon, how great the power, of these 
hymns !" 

Nor ought we to forget here the account which Au- 
gustine gives us of the power of this holy music over 
his heart on occasion of his baptism. He says, " Oh, 
how freely was I made to weep by these hymns and 
spiritual songs, transported by the voices of the congre- 
gation sweetly singing! The melody of their voices 
filled my ear, and divine truth was poured into my 
heart. Then burned the sacred flame of devotion in 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 27 

my soul, and gushing tears flowed from my eyes, — as 
well they might." 

We may remark, here, that as early as the fourth 
century the appointment of singers as a distinct class 
crept into the Church, and other evils also, which soon 
tended to impair the purity and lessen the enjoyments 
of Christian worshippers. 

Time has been, even in England, when singing the 
high praises of God was deemed a fit employment in a 
palace. As long ago as 1087, William the Conqueror 
lay on his death-bed. His closing hours formed a night 
of half sleep, half stupor, the struggling expiring body 
taking a dull, painful, unrestful rest before its last long 
earthly repose; but as the sun was just rising above 
the horizon, shedding brightness on the Avails of the 
apartment, William was aroused by the tolling of the 
great cathedral bell, and inquired what the sound meant. 
" It is the hour of praise," was the answer of his attend- 
ants. Then were the priesthood in full choir welcoming 
with voices of gladness the renewed gift of another day, 
in the words common to all the Western liturgies, begin- 
ning,— 

"Jam lucis or to Sidere," 

a translation of the whole of which will be acceptable 
to our readers : — 

"Now that the sun is gleaming bright, 
Implore we, bending low, 
That He, the uncreated Light, 
May guide us as we go. 



28 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

"No sinful word, or deed of wrong, 
Nor thoughts that idly rove, 
But simple truth, be on our tongue, 
And in our hearts be love. 

" And while the hours in order flow, 
Christ, securely fence 
Our gates beleaguered by the foe, 
The gate of every sense, 

" And grant that to thine honor, Lord, 
Our daily toil may tend ; 
That we begin it at thy word, 
And in thy favor end." 

But the day of labor and struggle, sin and repent- 
ance, was already past; and before the close of the 
hymn William lifted up his hands in prayer and ex- 
pired. 

In one congregation alone in England is this beau- 
tiful Latin hymn now sung. "When the scholars of Win- 
chester College annually separate for the Whitsun vaca- 
tion, they sing it in the original Latin. Surely it ought, 
at least in the translation, to be far better known j and, 
so thinking, we have ventured so far to depart from the 
general plan of our volume as to extend its knowledge 
as far as we can. 

As we are speaking of the customs of England in 
reference to the old Latin hymns, we may here say that 
to the present day the choristers and lay clerks of Mag- 
dalene College, Oxford, annually ascend the outside of 
the top of the tower of the building at five o'clock in 
the morning of the first of May, where they sing the 
Te Deum before a vast crowd of spectators. 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 29 

It has been well said that in many cases the ancient 
hymns were the ouly conservatives of gospel truth when 
heterodoxy grew and flourished beneath papal influence. 
They were themselves too pure to be defiled by Romish 
contaminations; and although hymn after hymn was 
added to swell the aggregate by those whose faith suc- 
cumbed to their superstition, yet these have come down 
to us in all their first purity. So far from rejecting 
them, we ought rather to love them the more, because 
they flowed w T ith clear and living stream through the 
barren wastes of error, until at length popery gathered 
up her strength in a useless effort to taint them. As the 
Romish Church added dogma after dogma to her creed, 
the lustre faded from her hymnal, until at last all that 
her votaries could produce were fulsome laudations of 
the saints and idolatrous invocations of Mary. But the 
two classes of hymns must ever be kept distinct : it is 
easy at once to perceive the difference between the ut- 
terance of a Christian soul and the panegyrics- of false 
dogmas and imagined demigods. 

We are told that Augustine was sorely perplexed 
by his love of music, fearing to indulge in ornamental 
psalmody for its own sake, yet conscious that his devo- 
tional feelings had often been powerfully excited by the 
influence of religious song. He says, "When I re- 
member the tears I shed at the psalmody of the Church, 
in the beginning of my recovered faith, and how at this 
time I am moved, not with the singing, but with the 
things sung, when they are sung with a clear voice and 



30 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

modulation most suitable, I acknowledge the great use 
of this institution. Thus I fluctuate between peril of 
pleasure and approved wholesomeness, — inclined the ra- 
ther, though not as pronouncing an irrevocable opinion, 
to approve of the use of singing in the church, that so 
by the delight of the ears the weaker minds may rise to 
the feelings of devotion.'' 

During the disastrous period emphatically termed "the 
dark ages," w T hen ignorance and superstition almost 
universally prevailed in the west of Europe, singing the 
praises of God was a part of divine worship from which 
the people were debarred. Not only were the words 
sung in a language unknown to the great body of the 
people, but the music was so complex that none could 
bear a part in it unless they had studied it scientifically. 

But when the Reformation dawned, it Avas no difficult 
task to induce the people of England to prefer plain 
psalmody, in which they could easily join, to the intri- 
cate music which was too refined and scientific for their 
comprehension; and congregational singing gradually 
found its way into the parish churches, in pursuance of 
a statute of Edward VI., " to use openly any psalm or 
prayer taken out of the Bible, at any due time, not let- 
ting or omitting thereby the service, or any part thereof." 
It is certain that gradually full permission or connivance 
introduced metrical psalmody into the Church of Eng- 
land ; for Strype states that in the month of September, 
1559, " began the new morning prayer at St. Antholin's, 
London, the bell beginning to ring at five, when a psalm 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 31 

was sung after the Geneva fashion, all the congregation, 
men, women, and boys, singing together." 

The late Josiah Condor, in his admirable " View of all 
Religions," testifies to the great influence of congrega- 
tional singing in England at an early period of the Re- 
formation. Bishop Jewel says, " A change now appears 
visible among the people, which nothing promotes more 
than inviting them to sing psalms. This was begun in 
one church in London, and did quickly spread itself, not 
only through the city, but in neighboring places. Some- 
times at Paul's Cross there will be six thousand singing 
together." By the Act of Uniformity, passed in 1548, 
the practice of using any psalm openly " in churches, 
chapels, oratorios, and other places" was authorized. 
At length, after being popular for a while in France and 
Germany, among both Roman Catholics and Protestants, 
as psalmody came to be discountenanced by the former 
as an open declaration of Lutheranism, so in England 
psalm-singing was soon abandoned to the Puritans, and 
became almost a peculiarity of Nonconformity. 

In the reign of Henry YIIL, the Common Prayer 
Book, and the singing of psalms as found in the Bible, 
were generally used as a test for all to sing who loved 
the Reformation ; and in the Confession of the Puritans, 
published in 1571, they say, " We allow the people to 
join in one voice in a psalm-tune, but not in tossing the 
psalm from one side to the other, with intermingling of 
organs." 

We cannot forbear to remark here that some of the 



88 HISTORICAL SKETCH KS. 

best hymns were composed in " the dark ages." They 
were, as Professor Edwards says, "sombre and monoto- 
nous, but simple and sublime, and never to fade till that 
last day which they so often celebrate." As he else- 
where says, " The study of centuries only corroborates 
the universal voice. The reason of this is perfectly 
obvious. The road is not beaten. There is a dewy 
freshness on them, such as Adam saw in Eden. The 
artist can work unrestrained by artificial rules." 

It is remarkable that the Baptists, after the Beforma- 
tion, were very generally opposed to singing in their 
congregations. They had seen so many evils encou- 
raged by those who practised it, that they persuaded 
themselves it was but a human ordinance. The Eev. 
Benjamin Keach, in 1691, published " The Breach Re- 
paired in God's Worship ; or, Psalms and Hymns proved to 
be a Holy Ordinance of Jesus Christ." He first labored 
earnestly, with great prudence, to prevail on his people 
to sing at the close of the Lord's Supper; he then, six 
years afterward, persuaded them to sing on thanks- 
giving-days, and, at the end of fourteen years, to sing in 
each service at the close of the last prayer, that so those 
who objected to it might retire. In all this he was 
strenuously opposed by Mr. Isaac Marlowe, who desig- 
nated the practice as " error, apostasy, human tradition, 
pre-limited forms, mischievous error, and carnal wor- 
ship." In 1692 the General Assembly urged both parties 
to cease from their disputes, and their recommendation 
tended to peace. Still, however, there was difficulty; 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 33 

and ultimately a division took place, and the scccders 
organized a new church in Maze Pond, Southwark, 
u where it was twenty years longer before singing the 
praises of God could be endured." At length, the con- 
gregations, being left to their own calm reflection, gra- 
dually introduced psalmody into their worship. 

While popery never favored congregational singing, 
and among themselves Jesuits were never heard to chant 
the praise of Immanuel, the Eeformers at once saw its 
influence on the great work before them. Calvin in- 
troduced into his congregation at Geneva the elegant 
version of the Psalms into French rhyme which had 
been made by Clement Marot, valet of the bedchamber 
to Francis I. This man, having happily become tired of 
the vanities of profane poetry, and anxious to raise the 
tone of public taste and feeling, aided by Theodore Beza 
and encouraged by the Professor of Hebrew in the Uni- 
versity of Paris, published the Psalms in metre ; and, as 
the translation did not aim at any innovation in public 
worship, it received the sanction of the Sorbonne. This 
version soon eclipsed the madrigals and sonnets of its 
author; and suddenly, in the festive and splendid court 
of Francis I., nothing was heard but the psalms of 
Clement Marot, the royal family and principal nobility 
choosing and adapting them to popular ballad-tunes. 

Under the direction of Calvin, these compositions were 
adapted to plain and easy melodies, and became a cha- 
racteristic of the newly-established worship. Germany 
next caught the sacred ardor, and the choral mode of 



34 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

service yielded to the attractive and popular character 
of a devotional melody in which all might join without 
distinction of rank or character. 

Especially was the practice of congregational singing 
greatly revived, and became almost universal, in Ger- 
many, where, emphatically, the people are all singers. 
From that time to the present it has been rarely the 
fact that any one is found in a German church who does 
not sing. They abound in hymn and tune books ; and 
even to this hour, as we learn from Dr. Lyman Coleman, 
an eye-witness, one-half of the time occupied in public 
worship is taken up in singing. 

Martin Luther well understood this method of propa- 
gating truth and refuting error, and employed it with a 
skilful hand. His own poetical talents and love of music 
were very great. He learned the science with the first 
rudiments of his native language ; and when, as a wan- 
dering minstrel, he earned his daily bread by exercising 
his musical powers in singing before the doors of the 
rich in the streets of Magdeburg and Eisenach, he was 
as truly preparing for the future reformer as when, a 
retired monk in the cloister of Erfurt, he was storing 
his mind with the truths of revelation, with which to 
refute the errors of popery. One of his earliest efforts 
at reform was the publication of a psalm-book, in 1524, 
composed and set to music chiefly by himself. One of 
his earliest hymns was consecrated to the memory of the 
martyrs of Brussels ; and the whole Eeformed Church 
felt the mighty influence of his song. A few sentences 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 35 

Which Luther wrote when he versified some of the 
Psalms and appended them to a collection of hymns 
which he published in 1524, all of which were set to 
music in four parts, cannot be unacceptable. He tells 
us this had been done " for no other reason than because 
of my desire that the young, who ought to be educated 
in music as well as in other good arts, might have some- 
thing to take the place of worldly and amorous songs, 
and so learn something useful and practise something 
virtuous, as becometh the young. I would be glad to 
see all arts, and especially music, employed in the ser- 
vice of Him who created them." 

In the preparation of this music, Walther, a distin- 
guished musician of that day, lent his assistance. He 
says, "I have spent many a happy hour in singing 
with him, and have often seen the dear man so happy 
and joyful in spirit while singing that he could neither 
tire nor be satisfied. He conversed splendidly upon 
music. He also composed music or tunes for the 
Epistles and Gospels, particularly for the words of 
Christ at the institution of the Supper, and sung them 
to me and asked my opinion of them. He kept me 
three weeks writing the notes for a few Gospels and 
Epistles, till the first German mass was sung in the 
parish church, and I was obliged to stay and hear it 
and take a copy of it to Torgua." 

In the writings of this distinguished Keformer we 
find several good paragraphs on music and singing, 
with which the reader will be happy to renew his ac- 



36 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

qnaintanoe. He says, "Music is one of the fairest and 
most glorious gifts of God, to which Satan is a bitter 
enemy; for it removes from the heart the weight of 
sorrows and the fascination of evil thoughts. Music is 
a kind and gentle sort of discipline ; it refines the pas- 
sions and improves the understanding. Even the disso- 
nance of unskilful fiddlers serves to set off the charms 
of true melody, — as white is made more conspicuous by 
the opposition of black. Those who love music are 
gentle and honest in their temper. I always loved 
music, and would not, for a great matter, be without 
the little skill which I possess in the art. 

" Music is one of the best arts : the notes give life to 
the text : it expels melancholy, as we sec in king Saul. 
Kings and princes ought to maintain music, for great 
potentates and rulers should protect good and liberal 
arts and laws : though private people have desire there- 
unto and love it, yet their ability is not adequate. AVe 
read in the Bible that the good and godly kings main- 
tained and paid singers. Music is the best solace for the 
sad and sorrowful mind : by it the heart is refreshed and 
settled again in peace. We must teach music in schools : 
a schoolmaster ought to have skill in music, or I would 
not regard him. Neither should we ordain }~oung men 
as preachers unless they be well exercised in music. 
Singers are merry and free from sorrows and cares." 

None of our readers will be displeased with a glance at 
the public singing in England in the year 1644. At that 
time, when the Eoyalists and the Eoundheads were in 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 37 

incessant collision, both as to political and religious mat- 
ters, and when no small contest was carried on between 
choirs and organs on the one hand and plain congrega- 
tional singing on the other, Master Mace, in his " Music's 
Monument" describes, in the rapturous language we now 
transcribe, the singular compromise between the parties 
at York Minster: — "The psalm-singing was the most 
excellent that has been known or remembered any- 
where in these latter days. Most certain I am that to 
myself it was the very best harmonical music that ever 
I heard, — yea, excelling all other, either private or public, 
cathedral music, and infinitely beyond all verbal expres- 
sion or conceiving. Now, here you must take notice 
that they had there a custom in that church which I 
hear not of in any other cathedral, which was this : 
always before sermon the whole congregation sung a 
psalm together with the choir and the organ. You must 
also know that there was then there a most excellent, 
large, plump, lusty, full-speaking organ, which cost, as I 
am credibly informed, a thousand pounds. This organ, 
I say, when the psalm was set, before the sermon, being 
let out unto all its fulness of stops, together with the 
choir, began the psalm. Now, when the vast concord 
and unity of the whole congregational choir came, as I 
may say, thundering on, even so as to make the very 
ground shake under us, — ah ! the unutterable ravishing 
soul's delight ! — I was so transported and rapt up with 
high contemplation, that there was no room left in my 
body and spirit for any thing below divine and heavenly 



38 HISTORICAL SKETCH KS\ 

raptures. The abundance of people of all ranks, beside 
the soldiers, crowded the church. Oh, how unutterably 
ravishing, soul-delighting !" 

Delightfully are we reminded, by this description, of 
the animated language of the holy Baxter : — " Methinks, 
when we are singing or speaking God's praise in the 
great assemblies, with joyful and fervent souls, I have 
the liveliest foretaste of heaven on earth. I could almost 
wish that our voices were loud enough to reach through 
all the world, and unto heaven itself; nor could I ever 
be offended, as many are, at the organs and other con- 
venient music, soberly and seasonably used, which ex- 
cite and help to tune my soul in so holy a work, in 
which no true assistance is to be despised." 

We joyfully come now to our own happy land ; and 
though it was long before our fathers made much pro- 
gress in the science either of singing or of hymn-writing, 
we are glad to see them cultivating the spirit of praise. 
As Gould says, " Here let us pause for a moment and 
imagine ourselves spectators of the scene when our fore- 
fathers mounted the Plymouth Eock, and listening to 
the first song of praise to Almighty God proceeding 
from strong lungs and pure hearts. There they stood, 
and, with the women and children, burst forth, and with 
united voices rehearsed some tune and words that they 
perhaps had before prepared and had been anxiously 
waiting and longing for an appropriate time to sing. 
That time had come j and think you there would not 
have been a difference between the effect of their sing- 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 39 

ing and that which we so often hear, ' where not the 
heart is found' ? " 

As we have already seen, before the Pilgrim Fathers 
came to this country there had been in England, espe- 
cially among the Baptists, much controversy on the sub- 
ject of singing, and not a few churches divided on the 
subject of its introduction. We believe, however, that, 
whatever differences existed in this country on the 
matters of singing by notes, " lining out the hymns," 
or instrumental music, all approved of singing itself, 
and pretty generally acted on the exhortation of Wil- 
liam Billing : — 

"Ob, praise the Lord with one consent, 
And in this grand design 
Let Britain and the Colonies 
Unanimously join." 

The Eev. Mr. Symmes, speaking of the first settlers 
of New England, tells us that from the first founding 
of the first college singing was a regular study, and 
adds, " There are many persons of credit now living, 
children and grandchildren of the first settlers, who 
can very well remember that their ancestors sung by 
note, and they learned so to sing of them." Dr. Cotton 
Mather, in his " Church Discipline,'' tells us that, before 
1720, " The former and larger prayer of the pastor 
being finished, a psalm usually succeeds. In some 
[places], the assembly being furnished with psalm- 
books, they sing without the stop of reading between 
every line. But ordinarily the psalm is read line after 



40 HISTORICAL SKKTCHK- 

line by him whom the pastor desires to do that service ; 
and the people generally sing in such grave tunes as 
are most usual in the churches of our nation." 

After a while, as every one knows, the Colonies began 
to be disturbed by contention and party strife; religious 
errors also crept in; and the few music-books which 
had been imported were rapidly decreasing: so that at 
the commencement of the eighteenth century scarcely 
any of the congregations could sing more than three or 
four tunes. The knowledge and use of notes had be- 
come neglected, until no two persons sung them alike. 
Every melody was "tortured and twisted as every un- 
skilful throat saw fit." The Eev. Mr. Walker says of 
their singing, that it sounded " like five hundred dif- 
ferent tunes roared out at the same time, so hideously 
and disorderly as is bad beyond expression. I myself 
have twice in one note paused to take breath." Mr. 
Symmes further testifies, " It is with great difficulty 
that this part of worship is performed, and with great 
indecency in some congregations, for want of skill. It 
is to be feared singing must be wholly omitted in some 
places, for want of skill, if this art is not revived." 

JReform, however, was on the way, though attended 
in the outset with no small confusion. September 16, 
1723, the "New England Couranf* contained this para- 
graph : — " Last week a council of churches was held at 
the south part of Braintree, to regulate the disorders 
occasioned by regular singing in that place, — Mr. Xiles, 
the minister, having suspended seven or eight of the 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 41 

church for persisting in their singing by rule, contrary, 
as he apprehended, to the result of a former council j 
but the suspended brethren are restored to communion, 
their suspension declared unjust, and the congregation 
ordered to sing by note and by rule, alternately, for the 
satisfaction of both parties." 

December 9, 1723. — " We have advice from the south 
part of Braintree, that on Sunday, the first instant, Mr. 
Niles, the minister of that place, performed the duties 
of the day at his dwelling-house, among those of the 
congregation who are opposers of regular singing. The 
regular singers met together at the meeting-house, and 
sent for Mr. Niles, who refused to come unless they 
would first promise not to sing regularly; whereupon 
they concluded to edify themselves by the assistance of 
one of the deacons, who, at their desire, prayed with 
them, read a sermon, etc." 

About 1720, singing by note was introduced into Bos- 
ton, in Dr. Coleman's meeting-house, and singing-schools 
were introduced, both there and in other parts of Xew 
England. The most influential of the clergy encouraged 
the cultivation of music ; and the study of it, during the 
controversy, revived in the college. In 1745, the first 
organ was built in this country, by Edward Bromfield, 
Jr., of Boston ; and though this instrument was greatly 
opposed, it soon made its way. Choirs soon followed, 
and the " Records of the Church at Topsfteld," the " His- 
tory of Ipswich/' and other documents, show the ani- 
mated character of this controversy. Two short para- 

4* 



42 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

graphs from the "History of Worcester" will give the 
reader a fair specimen of the proceedings of those 
days : — 

" The final blow was struck to the old system by the 
resolution of the town, August 5th, 1779 : — ' Voted, that 
the singers sit in the front seats of the front gallery, and 
that those gentlemen who have hitherto sat in the front 
seats of said gallery have a right to sit in the front and 
second seat below, and that said singers have said seats 
appropriated to said use. Voted, that said singers be 
requested to take said seats, and carry on the singing in 
public worship.' The Sabbath succeeding the adoption 
of these votes, after the hymn had been read by the 
minister, the aged and venerable Deacon Chamberlain, 
unwilling to desert the custom of his fathers, rose and 
read the first line, according to the usual practice. The 
singers, prepared to carry the alteration into effect, pro- 
ceeded without pausing at the conclusion. The white- 
haired officer of the church, with the full power of his 
voice, read on, until the louder notes of the collected 
body overpowered the attempt to resist the progress of 
improvement, and the deacon, deeply mortified at the 
triumph of musical reformation, took his hat and retired 
from the meeting-house in tears. His conduct was cen- 
sured by the church, and he was for a time deprived of 
its communion, for absenting himself from the public 
services of the Sabbath." 

This was by no means the only instance in which an 
offended deacon showed his displeasure. Another Mas- 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 43 

sachusetts brother in office, determined to take revenge 
on a choir who had led off the singing without giving 
him time to read, patiently waited till they had con- 
cluded, and then, gravely putting on his spectacles, 
opened his book and said, "Now let the people of God 
sing f and, from respect and pity for the good old man, 
they joined with him in his psalm. Nay, even ministers 
did not formerly restrain their feelings on the subject. 
When Dr. Joseph Bellamy once heard his choir sing in 
sad style, he read another psalm, and said, " You must 
try again; for it is impossible to preach after such 
singing." 

Some of our young readers will be pleased to have 
before them a few lines more as to the manner and 
trouble of forming choirs, and the way of choosing a 
leading singer. We give, therefore, a few extracts from 
the " History of Rowley :" — 

1762. — "The parish voted that those who had learned 
the art of singing may have liberty to sit in the front 
gallery. They did not take the liberty f probably be- 
cause they would not sing after the clerk's reading. 

1780. — " The parish requested Jonathan Chaplin, Jr., 
and Lieutenant Spafford to assist Deacon Daniel Spaf- 
ford in raising the tune in the meeting-house." 

1785. — " The parish desire the singers, both male and 
female, to sit in the gallery, and will allow them to sing 
once on each Lord's day without reading by the deacon." 

About 1790, the lining out the psalm or hymn by the 
deacons was whollv discontinued. 



44 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

A few lines from the " Topsfield Church Records' will 
confirm the general views of the subject : — 

" 1764, June 5. — Voted that the pastor be desired, 
Sabbath preceding the next lecture, in the name of the 
church, to desire the congregation, after the lecture 
is over, to tarry and consult with the church about 
choosing some person or persons to set the psalm 
when Captain Averill is absent." 

" 1764, March 13. — Mr. Moses Perkins and Mr. Jacob 
Kimball were, by the brethren of the church, and also 
by the congregation, chosen to set the psalm. 

" Yoted that the said Perkins and Kimball sit in the 
elders' seat." 

In the year 1756, the congregation of the first church 
in Kittery, Mass., who had the Eev. Benjamin Stevens 
for their pastor, " voted that the petitioners for a sing- 
ing-pew have liberty to sit in the hind seat but one, and 
to move the hind seat three inches, at their own cost." 
This was probably an incipient step to the formation of 
a choir. The next year the church "voted that Tate 
and Brady's version of the Psalms, with the addition of 
Scriptural Hymns, collected from Dr. Watts, etc., be sung 
in this church." 

It seems that human nature makes similar manifesta- 
tions of pride in all ages. Dr. Sprague, in his admirable 
"Annals of the American Pulpit" tells us that on one 
occasion the Eev. Samuel Moody, a well-known, eccen- 
tric minister in Maine in the first half of the last cen- 
tury, had a lecture in a private house, and there was no 



HI8T0BI0AL SKETCHES. 45 

one present competent to conduct the singing except 
his own hired man. So Mr. Moody called on John to 
tunc the psalm while the line was given out in detail. 
John obeyed; and after they had got through, Mr. 
Moody said to him, "John, you never shall set the 
p«*lm again; for you arc ready to burst with pride." 

It is pleasant to turn from these facts to observe the 
influence of singing in the great revival which took 
place in our land, under Edwards, Whitefield, and 
others, from 1735 and onw^ards. Jonathan Edwards 
will not be accused of rashness or of overcoloring the 
facts of the case j and he says, " Our public praises were 
then greatly enlivened. God was then served in our 
psalmody, in some measure, in the beauty of holiness. 
It has been observable that there has been scarce any 
part of divine worship wherein good men among us 
have had grace so drawn forth and their hearts so lifted 
up in the ways of God, as in singing his praises. Our 
congregation excelled all that I ever knew before in the 
external part of the duty, — the men generally carrying 
well and regularly three parts of the music, and the 
women a part by themselves; but now they were evi- 
dently wont to sing with unusual elevation of heart and 
voice, which made the duty pleasant indeed." 

To an American Christian it is pleasant to know that 
the very first book printed here was a portion of the in- 
spired volume " done into metre." The first press was 
" put up" at Cambridge, in 1639, by Stephen Day. His 
first book was " The Psalms in Metre, faithfully translated, 



46 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

for the use, edification, and comfort of the saints, in 
public and private, especially in New England, printed at 
Cambridge in 1640." The version was made by Thomas 
Welde, of Roxbury, Eichard Mather, of Dorchester, and 
John Eliot, the Apostle of the Indians. Speaking of 
their work, they say, " We have respected rather a plain 
translation, than to smoothe our verses with the sweet- 
ness of any paraphrase, and so have attended to con- 
science rather than elegance, and fidelity rather than 
poetry, in translating Hebrew words into English lan- 
guage, and David's poetry into English metre." Bless- 
ings on the Pilgrim Fathers, that we find on their re- 
cords, u Stephen Day, being the first that set up print- 
ing, is granted three hundred acres of land, where it 
may be convenient without prejudice to any town." 

We are told that when Eliot translated the Bible into 
the now entirely-forgotten Nipmuck language, which 
was printed at Cambridge in 1663, the whole of the 
type being set up by an Indian, the Psalms were " done" 
into that form of verse which in our hymn-books is 
called " common metre ;" and nothing could be more 
clumsy and uncouth than the structure of the rhymes. 
Even Sternhold and Hopkins may be read with ex- 
quisite pleasure after looking over a few stanzas like 
the following from the nineteenth Psalm : — 

"1. Kesuk kukootumushteaumoo 
God wussohsumoonk 
Mamahehekesuk wumahtuhkon 
Wutanakausnonk. 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 47 

"2. Kohsekoeh kesukodlash 
Kuttoo w:i a nt a monk 
Kali hodgckoe nukonash 
Kcketokon wahteauonk." 

A somewhat remarkable book was issued in 1718, by 
Dr. Cotton Mather, called "Psalterium Americanum : the 
Book of Psalms in a translation exactly conformed unto 
the original, but all in blank verse, fitted unto the tunes 
commonly used in our churches. Which pure offering is 
accompanied with illustrations of digging for hidden 
treasures in it, and rules to employ according to the 
glorious and various intentions of it. Whereunto are 
added some portions of the Sacred Scriptures, to enrich 
the Cantional. Boston, in N. E." 

In this singular production, which is a close transla- 
tion from the Hebrew, Dr. Mather has not only disre- 
garded the modern practice of breaking the lines, whe- 
ther rhymed or not, but he has "run out," to use a 
printer's phrase, the whole matter; so that, while each 
psalm looks exactly like prose, and may be read as such, 
it is in fact modulated so that it may be sung as lyric 
verse. In an " Admonition concerning the Tunes," Dr. 
Mather states that " The director of the psalmody need 
only say, ' Sing with the black letter,' or, ( Sing without 
the black letter/ and the tune will be sufficiently di- 
rected." The following extract from the twenty-third 
Psalm will give the reader some idea of this extraor- 
dinary translation : — 



48 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

"PSALM XXIII. 

"A Psalm of David. 
"1. My Shepherd is th' eternal God, || I shall 
not be in [artp] want : 

"2. In pastures of a tender grass || He [thtt] makes 

me to lie down : || To waters of tranquillities || He 
gently carries me [alortfl]. 

" 3. My feeble and my wandering soul || He [kinlJlj] 

does fetch back again ; || In the plain paths of 
righteousness || He does lead [anfc jguiit] me 
along : || Because of the regard he has [tbtr] 
unto His glorious Name." || 

We hope to be forgiven if we occupy another page or 
two with matter relating to books of hymns and tunes. 

The first book containing music printed in America, 
as we learn from the "American Musical Almanac" for 
1852, was issued in 1690. It was a versification of the 
Psalms, with a collection of tunes, in two parts only, at 
the end. In 1712, another work was issued, entitled "A 
very plain and easy Introduction to the Art of Singing Psalm 
Tunes ; with the Cantas or Trebles of Twenty-Eight Psalm 
Tunes, contrived in such a manner as that the learner may 
attain the skill of singing them with the greatest ease ima- 
ginable. By the Eev. Mr. John Tufts. Price, Qd. 5s. 
the doz." In 1761, a work called " Urania, or a Choice 
Collection of Psalm Tunes, Anthems, and Hymns, by James 
Lyons, A.M.," price, 15s., was published at Philadelphia. 
Tradition says that it ruined its publisher, — which we 
can imagine to be very probable. In 1770, Mr. William 
Billings published his "New England Psalm-Singer, or 
American Chorister," containing one hundred and twenty 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 49 

tunes. Iii the introduction to this work its author boldly 
declared his independence of all the rules of harmony, — 
a declaration which he fully acted out in this and all his 
future works. We may add here that, in 1754, a book- 
seller in Philadelphia advertised, as just published, " The 
Youth's Entertaining Amusement; or, a Plain Guide to 
Psalmody : being a choice Collection of Tunes sung in tJie 
English Protestant Congregation in Philadelphia; with 
Pules for Learning. By William Dawson." This title, 
probably unintentionally, expresses with great simpli- 
city a fact, — that young persons, and many of their 
friends too, often resort to the practice of psalmody 
— which should be a holy exercise — for mere amuse- 
ment. 

Let not the young author who is conscious of the 
possession of talent be discouraged by difficulties at the 
outset of his career, but go on till he achieves success. 
This, no doubt, would be the counsel of the eminent 
singer, Dr. Lowell Mason: at all events, this was his 
own early conduct. 

In early life, while engaged in conducting the choir 
of a church in Savannah, Georgia, he felt the want 
of a collection of church-music even tolerably adapted 
to the wants of choirs, and was thus led to compile 
such a work himself, more with a view of preparing 
a book for his own choir than with any expectation 
of producing a work which should be generally used. 

Having finished his manuscript, our young author ob- 
tained leave of absence from the bank in which he was 



50 HISTORICAL SKETCH] 

then a clerk, and directed his steps northward in search 
of a publisher. Arriving at Philadelphia, he ottered to 
give the copyright to any house which would publish 
the work and give him a few copies for his own use ; but 
in the estimation of the booksellers and music-mer- 
chants it was too hazardous an enterprise for wise men 
to engage in. Failing in Philadelphia, he went to Boston, 
and made the same offer to the publishers of that city. 
But the shrewd Yankee publishers laughed at him, and 
intimated that their forecast and prudence were not to 
be so easily thrown off their balance. 

Finding that every one looked at his book so coldly, 
our young author put his manuscript crotchets and qua- 
vers into his pocket, and was about returning to Savan- 
nah, when he accidentally met a gentleman of consi- 
derable knowledge of music, who wished to examine the 
volume. Having done this, he expressed his satisfaction, 
and asked Mason what he intended to do with it. " Take 
it home with me," was the reply. The gentleman pro- 
posed to show it to the Handel and Haydn Society, who 
at once published the book, giving its author a share in 
the copyright. His remarkable success as a teacher 
is well known. 

One or two amusing matters may here be added, which 
may at least provoke a harmless smile. 

One of our most popular monthly periodicals for 1853 
tells us that, not long since, the chorister of a choir in 
Yermont wrote to a publisher in Boston for a copy of 
that popular singing-book, " The Ancient Lyre." His 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 51 

communication ran. " Please send mc the Ancient Liar, 
well bound." The publisher replied, "My dear Sir: — I 
do not doubt that the devil has been and still is in 
Boston; but it will be difficult to comply with your 
request, for the reason that Boston influence is so strong 
in his favor, it will be impossible to bind him." 

A Boston astrologer long ago predicted that an extra- 
ordinary literary work would be produced in Xew Eng- 
land about the middle of the nineteenth century. Ac- 
cording to " Gleason's Pictorial Drawing-Room Compa- 
nion" the prediction was fulfilled in 1853, to the letter. 
A Boston publishing-house "got up" a Quaker hymn- 
book, having heard that no work of the kind existed. 
At first it appeared to be " a pretty good opening •" but 
one unlucky circumstance was soon discovered : the 
Quakers never sing. 

The " Bay-State Collection of Sacred Music" includes a 
tune called " California" with the words, — 
"My soul lies cleaving to the dust/' 

A correspondent of the "Newark (X.J.) Advertiser" 
writing from Bramfield, Connecticut, says, " By the way, 
a good story may be told of our chorister's attempt at 
improving the psalmody as well as the music of our 
church. He set some music of his own to the ninety- 
second Psalm of Watts, in which occur the lines, — 

' Oh, may my heart in tune be found, 
Like David's harp of solemn sound!' 

" Calling on his pastor, he asked his approbation of a 



52 QISTORICAL HKETCHSfi 

new version (»i" these lines, which would render theiu 
more readily adapted to the music he had composed. 
He suggested that they should read, — 

'Oh, may my heart be tuned within, 
Like David's sacred violin '.' 

" The good pastor had somewhat of an inclination to 
laugh in the singing-man's face; but, maintaining his 
gravity as he best could, he thought he could suggest a 
further improvement of the version, admirable as it was. 
The highly-delighted chorister begged him to do so; 
and the minister wrote before his parishioner, — 

' Oh, may my heart go diddle, diddle, 
Like Uncle David's sacred fiddle!' 

" The poor man, after a vain attempt to justify his 
own parody, retired to sing the psalm as it stands." 

It sometimes happens that preachers and choristers 
are not entirely united in their views, even in the church 
itself. Some years since, a Millerite preacher in Vermont 
declared, during the delivery of a sermon, that he did not 
expect to die, but anticipated being alive when Christ 
came, and hoped to dwell with him on this earth for- 
ever. The chorister took quite a different view of the 
matter, and selected, as the closing piece for the choir, — 

" I would not live alway : I ask not to stay 
Where storm after storm rises dark o'er the way." 

A minister can reprove as readily as a chorister can. 
At a church in Xcw England, a stranger was called to 
officiate in the absence of the pastor, and, not being 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 53 

familiar with some rules of the choir, so much offended 
them that, they would not sing. After several efforts, 
the preacher determined not to be discomfited, and read 
the verse, — 

" Let those refuse to sing 

Who never knew our God ; 
But children of the heavenly King 
May speak their joys abroad." 

This roused the whole choir and consre-ffation, who at 
once joined in with the minister, and the service passed 
off very pleasantly. 

Not many years since, a minister in New Hampshire 

fell, as will sometimes happen, into a difficulty with his 

choir, which for some time prevented their accustomed 

services. At length the choir relented, and appeared, as 

heretofore, at the usual time of service. The minister 

most unexpectedly saw them in their places, and in 

due time, looking very significantly, rose and read the 

hymn — 

"And are ye wretches yet alive, 
And do ye yet rebel ?" 

All parties were pleased when the affair was ended. 

The Methodist body, founded by the Eev. John Wesley, 
have always been a singing community. The two brothers 
Wesley published, during their lives, not less than forty- 
eight books and tracts of hymns, for the use of their 
people. " Some of these," says John Wesley, " had such 
a sale as I never thought of." Nothing, indeed, has con- 
tributed more to their extension than the almost uni- 



54 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

versal discharge of this important part of worship \ and 

especially was this true before the modern introduction 
of choirs. As early as 1752, Mr. Wesley published a 
collection of tunes for the use of his followers; and in 
1761 he published "Select Hymns, with Tunes annexed, 
designed chiefly for the use of the People called Method- 
ists," — in the preface to which he says, "I want the 
people called Methodists to sing true the tunes which 
are in common use among them. At the same time, I 
want them to have in one volume the best hymns we 
have printed, and that in a small and portable volume, 
and one of an easy price. I have been erdeavoring for 
more than twenty years to procure such a book as this, 
but in vain. Masters of music were above following 
any direction but their own; and I was determined 
whoever compiled this should follow my direction, — 
not mending our tunes, but setting them down neither 
better nor worse than they were. At length I have 
prevailed." 

So intent was John "Wesley on this part of his work 
that, in travelling through England, he often stood in 
the pulpit familiarly directing this part of worship, 
calling in turn on the men and the women to take theii 
parts in the holy song. One of the happy effects of 
Methodist singing, which is observed alike in the great 
congregation, the social prayer-meeting, and the family 
circle, is that we have known more than one congrega- 
tion, where there has been very unacceptable preaching, 
kept together by animated Binging. 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. .).) 

The Eev. G. W. Ilervey, in a recent interesting article 
in the " Christian Review" tells us that this eminent man 
-was fully persuaded of the necessity of a musical re- 
viva', which should give utterance to the new expe- 
riences of his converts. Happening one day to hear a 
sailor singing in the street, it struck him that the melody 
he was pouring forth would, above all others, suit the 
words of some of his hymns, and greatly delight and 
edify the people. Knowing how to write music, he 
wrote down the notes on the spot, introduced them into 
his meetings, and always declared that it w r as the most 
solemn and appropriate of all the tunes which were 
sung by his followers. 

Nor was the eminent George Whitefield less interested 
in lively, simple congregational singing. He was- most 
decidedly averse to the cathedral-music of his day, and to 
" the linked sweetness long drawn out" of the parochial 
psalmody of England. He would not suffer a bar of it to 
be warbled in his houses of worship. He also thought 
that the lively ballad-airs of secular origin were more 
suitable to the joy and gladness of the new-born soul. 
He declared that it was shameful to praise God in the 
drawling strains of the Church, and downright sacrilege 
to allow the devil the monopoly of all the jubilant music. 

Every one, too, knows that the great awakening in 
the days of our own Jonathan Edwards was attended by 
general song. He defended the practice in a masterly 
manner, and showed that to complain of it was to re- 
semble the Pharisees, who were disgusted with the mul- 



66 BI8TORI0AL BKETCHK8. 

titude of the disciples when with loud voices they praised 
God and shouted "Hosanna" as Christ entered Jeru- 
salem. 

The Eev. Charles Wesley has a beautiful hymn on 
" The True Use of Music," founded on 1 Cor. xiv. 15, "I 
will sing with the spirit, and I will sing with the under- 
standing also." Well does he say of this charming 
science, — 

" Listed into the cause of sin. 
"Why should a good be evil ! 
Music, alas! too long has been 
Pressed to obey the devil." 

In the hymn now before us he says, — 

ie Still let us on our guard be found, 
And watch against the power of sound 

"With sacred jealousy : 
Lest, haply, sense should damp our zeal, 
And music's charms bewitch and steal 

Our hearts away from thee." 

The venerable John Wesley, who was both a poet and 
a warm lover of music, when asked his opinion of the pro- 
priety of the introduction of instrumental music into the 
worship of the ^Methodists, said, in his own terse manner, 
" I have no objection to instruments of music in our cha- 
pels, provided they are neither heard nor seen." 

The late Dr. Adam Clarke wrote, u Music, as a science. 
I love and admire; but instruments of music in the 
house of God I abominate and abhor. This is the abuse 
of music; and T here register my protest against all 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 57 

such corruptions in the worship of the Author of Chris- 
tianity." 

Certain it is that this "delight of the ears" has done 
very much, in modern times, to increase attendance on 
public worship. One denomination among us, at least, 
has done as much by its singing as by its preaching to 
attract vast crowds. ]STor is this peculiar to Protestants. 
Southey tells us, in his History of Brazil, that, rinding the 
Tupis passionately fond of music, the Jesuit suited him- 
self to their taste, until he began to hope that the fable 
of Orpheus was a type of his mission, and that by songs 
he was to convert the Brazilian pagans. He usually 
took with him four or five choristers on his preach- 
ing expeditions. When they approached an inhabited 
place, one carried the crucifix before them, and the rest 
began singing the litany. The savages, like snakes, 
were won by the voice of the charmer, and everywhere 
received him joyfully. 

\Ye are tempted, in this place, to make a few remarks 
on the almost intolerable evil of making alterations in 
good old-fashioned psalms and hymns, which is generally 
done by persons of great affectation or great conceit, or 
for the sake of a closer conformity to their "new and 
superior music." For some of our hints we own our- 
selves indebted to the " Presbyterian." 

\Ye have elsewhere referred to a most popular and 
useful hymn by Gregg. He wrote the first verse, — 

"Jesus ! and shall it ever be? 
A mortal man ashamed of thee ! 



58 historical BKETOHCB, 

Ashamed of tliee, whom angels praise, 

W 'hose glory shines through endless days!" 

See how miserably the last two lines are converted 
into bathos in a popular hymn-book : — 

" Jesus ! and shall it ever be ? 
A mortal man ashamed of thee ! 
Scorned be the thought by rich and poor ; 
Oh, may I scorn it more and more .'" 

Perhaps the same thinker and would-be "improver'' 
substituted for the following line of Watts, — 

" When God, the mighty Maker, died," 

the softened language, — 

"When Christ, the mighty Saviour, died." 

We cannot doubt that both these alterations were in- 
tended to modify the ascriptions of Deity to the Lord 
Jesus, and are therefore unpardonable, at least with 
those who love the old scriptural doctrine conveyed in 
language which long since became endeared to their 
hearts. 

Here is another exquisite verse from the same au- 
thor: — 

" My willing soul would stay 
In such a frame as this, 
And sit and sing herself away 
To everlasting bliss." 

There is both beauty and poetry in the idea of the 
soul " singing herself away ;" but the " improvers" make 
it read, — 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 59 

11 Till called to rise and soar away 
To everlasting bliss." 

Can any one give us the reason for the change of a 
single word in the last verse of Watts' s seventeenth 
Psalm ? — 

" Then burst the chains with sweet surprise." 

Why must it be so altered as to read — 

" Then burst the chains with glad surprise?" — 

which assuredly destroys the author's idea. 
The poet Cowper wrote in one of his hymns, — 

" What peaceful hours I once enjoyed ! 
How sweet their memory still ! 
But they have left an aching void 
The world can never fill." 

Could words be chosen more precise and expressive ? 
What then must be the effect of such an "improve- 
ment" in the third line ? — 

" But now I feel an aching void,"" — 

as though the victim had a sudden sense of goneness, or 
an attack of the colic. 

Another of Cowper's most precious hymns has suf- 
fered even more cruelly than this, the alteration being 
at once barbarous and unpoetical, though made to render 
it more readily adapted to the music : — 

" Then, in a nobler, sweeter song, 
I'll sing thy power to save, 
When this poor lisping, stammering tongue 
Lies silent in the grave." 



GO HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

The last two lines, slightly altered, have been placed 
first, and the whole verse is thus presented : — 

""When this poor lisping, faltering tongue 
Lies silent in the grave, 
Then, in a nobler, sweeter song 
I'll sing thy power to save." 

We cannot be surprised that Dr. Eethune, himself a 
poet of no mean order, should have once indignantly 
said from the pulpit, " I should like to know who has 
had the presumption to alter Cowper's poetry." 

A recent number of the " Presbyterian Quarterly Review," 
when speaking of Charles Wesley's admirable hymn, — 

"Thou God of glorious majesty!" 

says, with great propriety, " Our menders of sacred 
lyrics have violated all decency in their transformation 
of the original, and have really altered, not the phrase- 
ology merely, but the sense :" — 

" Lo ! on a narrow neck of land, 
'Twixt two unbounded seas I stand, 
Secure, insensible!" 

The poet represents, in this triplet, a half-awakened 
sinner, not wholly alive to his position, just beginning 
to discern, but not fully to apprehend, his danger, — " se- 
cure, insensible," until clearer light falls from the Spirit 
of God upon his soul : then, indeed, he sees the yawning 
gulf beneath him, on either side, and cries out, — 

"A point of time — a moment's space — 
Removes me to that heavenly place, 
Or shuts me up in hell!" 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 61 

How miserably tame and meaningless, compared with 
the original, is the "improved" rendering ! — 

" Yet how insensible !" 

If we needed additional proof that our compilers 
failed to appreciate the living, burning thought of the 
poet, we have it in the next stanza, — 

"0 God, my inmost soul convert, 
And deeply on my thoughtless heart.'' 

The poet wrote " thoughtful heart :" his genius had 
called into being a sinner who had been insensible, — who 
had imagined himself secure on the narrow promontory 
of probationary life, but whose eyes are now open to 
his danger. He begins to think. No longer thought- 
lessly secure, he is now thought-/uZ, and beseeches God 
that eternal things may be impressed more deeply on 
his mind. 

But, as though this amount of alteration were not 
sufficient to satisfy us, the author is made to say, — 

" Give me to feel their solemn -weight, 
And save me ere it be too late."(!) 

"We suppose that if God saves at all, it will be " ere 
it be too late." 

Who can forgive this literary theft of one of the finest 
and boldest lines ever penned by poet ? — 

" And tremble on the brink of fate.'" 

This is true poetry ; and the strong expression at the end 
of the line, which our compilers seem to have shunned, so 



bZ HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

far from being unwarrantably bold, is appropriate and 
effective, and its use is sustained by numerous scriptural 
examples. 

While we are on tbis subject of " emendation" of 
hymns, and especially of the " improved" versions of 
those composed by the Wesleys, we cannot forbear to 
quote the words of John Wesley, in which be "sharply" 
rebukes some of the trespassers on his domain, in 
language like this : — " Many gentlemen have done my 
brother and me, thougb without naming us, the honor 
to reprint many of our hymns. Xow, they are perfectly 
welcome so to do, provided they print them just as they 
are. But I desire they would not attempt to mend 
them ; for they really are not able. Xone of them is 
able to mend either the sense or the verse. Therefore 
I must beg of them one of these two favors : either to 
let them stand just as they are, — to take them for better 
or for worse, — or to add the true meaning at the bottom 
of the page, that we may be no longer accountable for 
the nonsense or for the doggerel of other men." 

After all, however, alterations are sometimes needful, 
and occasionally are great improvements : as, for in- 
stance, John Wesley's own " improvement" of Watts' 
hundredth Psalm. The author wrote its first two lines, — 

•• Nations, attend before his throne, 

With solemn fear, with sacretl joy." 

Wesley changed it to, — 

"Before Jehovah's awful throne, 

Ye nation*, how with sacre<l iov." 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 63 

"Another distinguished hymn of Watts," says the 
unknown author from whom we are quoting, "was 
altered by the same hand, in its first stanza, and the 
change has become classic. No one would propose to 
print the following verse as Watts wrote it : — 

1 He dies ! the heavenly Lover dies ! 

The tidings strike a doleful sound 
On my poor heart-strings. Deep he lies 
In the cold caverns of the ground.' 

Wesley's transformed stanza is almost infinitely pre- 
ferable : — 

' He dies ! the Friend of sinners dies ! 
Lo ! Salem's daughters weep around ; 
A solemn darkness veils the skies, 
A sudden trembling shakes the ground.' " 

Nor can it be denied that our more recent editors do, 
occasionally, give us an emendation ; but we trust that 
in their future acts of this character they will remember 
their vast responsibility, and further, that, of every hun- 
dred of the changes they make, at least ninety and nine 
are for the worse. 

It has long been to us a matter of surprise that our 
congregations do not acquire a habit of chanting, — a 
practice at once both easy and delightful. To use the cor- 
rect language of Dr. Whitaker, in his " Life of St. Neot" 
" The chant not merely assists the voice and gives it a 
larger volume of sound for an extensive church, but, 
what is of much more consequence, augments its de- 
voutness by the modulation of its tones, — by the rapid 
flow at one time, by the solemn slowness at another, — 



64 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

by the rise, the fall, and the swell, much more strongly 
marked than any of these can be in reading, — much 
more expressive of devoutness in the officiating clergy- 
man, and much more impressive of devoutness upon the 
attending congregation. A chanted prayer is thus the 
poetry of devotion, while a prayer read is merely the 
prose of it. So, at least, thought the wisest and the best 
of our ancestors, — men peculiarly qualified to judge, be- 
cause their intellects were exalted and their spirits de- 
vout, — who therefore carried the chanted prayer from 
our churches into their closets." 

May w r e be allowed here to touch on a subject of some 
delicacy ? We refer to the complaint often made as to 
the congregational services in our churches being too 
long, and as to the part to be abbreviated. We are not 
aware of any cases in which a Christian would abridge 
the duty of adoration and prayer: so that the real 
question is, which shall be shortened, the singing or the 
preaching ? Our answer may be given in a few words. 
If the hymn selected be one containing little that is de- 
votional, and only intended to gratify the intellect, or 
if it be chiefly employed to call out the taste and the 
science of the choir and to claim the admiration of the 
unconverted listeners, by all means abbreviate the sing- 
ing; but if the psalmody be strictly what it professes 
to be, — devotional and heavenly, — if many hearts of the 
truly devout are engaged in it, and if it produces a 
soul-subduing influence, raising the heart to God and 
heaven, by no means shorten that portion of the wor- 



HISTORICAL SKETCH I- 05 

ship. There can be no difficulty on the part of the 
preacher, with proper labor and thought, condensing 
the matter of his sermon so as to make it five minutes 
shorter; and it will often prove beneficial to the 
preacher's intellect and heart that his performances 
should pass through such an ordeal. In such matters, 
after all, " wisdom is profitable to direct." 

At the risk of being charged with prolixity in these 
miscellaneous introductory pages, we will refer, in closing, 
to a few general facts, which we hope will not be with- 
out their use to at least some of our friends. 

Bishop Home, in his admirable sermon on Church- 
Music, quotes from Collier, the ecclesiastical historian, 
as saying, "Religious harmony must be moving, but 
noble withal, grave, solemn, and seraphic, fit for a mar- 
tyr to play and an angel to hear." Sad havoc has been 
committed, in modern times, by the introduction into 
many of our churches of vulgar and light productions, 
devoid of the slightest pretensions to taste, and full of 
the grossest offences against the laws of musical com- 
position. Solos, and every attempt at fugue, and the 
like, should be most rigidly excluded. ATe are quite 
aware that a very great number of persons prefer vul- 
gar and trashy compositions to sound classical music, 
and argue that because a melody happens to please 
them, it must necessarily be good. This is just as absurd 
as though an educated man were to maintain that some 
vulgar ballad, full of offences against syntax and pro- 



Of HISTORICAL SKETCH K>. 

sody, was superior poetry. Music has its grammar as 
well as language. 

We have noticed, of late, an increasing love of old con- 
gregational tunes; and perhaps few persons are aware of 
the antiquity of some of these. One called " York" has 
been ascribed to no less a personage than Milton the 
poet; but it was really composed by his father. The his- 
tory of " Old Hundred" is the subject of a volume re- 
cently published by an English clergyman. Martin 
Luther was long considered to be its author; but it 
has now been discovered that it was originated in the 
sixteenth century, by William Franc, a German, though 
it has been considerably changed from the original, — in 
part, probably, by Luther himself. 

To advance the favorable reception of the old tunes, 
it should be remembered that they were formerly sung 
much faster than we sing them, and by a far larger 
number of voices. Our forefathers in the Church were 
cheerful Christians, and a psalm of twelve verses was 
but short to them. Old Hundred is sung as a dirge 
now; but then it was a joyous canticle : — 

"All people that on earth do dwell. 

Sing to the Lord icith cheerful voice.'" 

York, too, now often placed among the dull and obsolete, 
was originally the most lively and popular of tunes. 

Whatever may be the quality of our hymns and tunes, 
we are assuredly far beyond all former years in tho 
quantity we use. Many years ago it was announced that 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 07 

more than sixty thousand copies of the "Methodist Hymn- 
Book" were sold annually in London ; and in the United 
States the number must be much larger. And, as we 
write, an advertisement tells us that "Hallelujah" a 
volume of devotional tunes published in London, con- 
tains compositions in one hundred and thirty-six dif- 
ferent metres. 

A few lines, written some years since by Dr. Joshua 
Leavitt, may be here introduced with advantage. Ho 
says, " In revivals of religion a species of music is sought 
entirely different from that which is ordinarily used. The 
state of feeling is such then that it swells beyond the 
shackles of musical authority, and the music is sought 
for and employed which is known to produce effects. A 
class of tunes which has long been under the sentence 
of banishment from our music-books and singing-schools 
is then sought for. The squeamish affectation of not 
using, in the service of God, music of known power to 
move because it has been already proved in the service 
of the world or of Satan is abandoned. Singing assumes 
a new character, and the rejoicing people of God are 
amazed at its powers. I wish the musicians should ex- 
plain, especially those of them who love revivals. And 
I desire that ministers should ask how they can excuse 
themselves if they thus allow a powerful means of grace 
to be neutralized by submitting all their music to the 
control of a scientific theory. 

" It is not unfrequently found that persons who have 
not what is called a musical ear are yet keenly suscepti- 



G8 HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 

ble to the practical influence of musical sounds. Those 
who are awakened or enlightened by the singing that 
takes place in a revival will not, by any means, be con- 
fined to the singers. Many Christians have seen this, 
and have felt the want of a reform in our musical sys- 
tem. A great deal of that which is found useful in re- 
vivals is passed along by tradition and learned by rote. 
Many congregations where revivals are known are desti- 
tute of such music ; but, where they have a knowledge 
of it, the denunciations of the music-master and the 
organist are disregarded. People icill sing music that 
means something and that meets their feelings more 
than ordinary psalm-tunes. It is astonishing to learn 
the rich variety of such music which is thus preserved 
by tradition, and preserved thus because it is excluded 
from books. All musical writers denounce these tunes 
and proscribe them from their pages, and yet they are 
preserved. There are tunes now sung in prayer-meet- 
ings which have, in this way, outlived whole generations 
of what is called scientific music. Is it not time that 
we should act a little from facts and experience, and 
leave musical theories to their proper sphere, — in the 
speculations of writers whose professed object is some- 
thing aside from the salvation of souls V* 

In entire accordance with these remarks are some 
thus expressed by the venerated theologian, Andrew 
Fuller : — " The criterion of a good tune is not its pleasing 
a scientific ear, but its being quickly caught by a congre- 
gation. It is, I think, by singing as it is by preaching: 



HISTORICAL SKETCHES. 69 

a fine judge of composition will admire a sermon which 
yet makes no manner of impression upon the public 
mind, and therefore cannot be a good one. That is the 
best sermon which is adapted to produce the best ef- 
fects ; and the same may be said of a tune. If it cor- 
responds with the feelings of a pious heart and aids him 
in realizing the sentiments, it will be quickly learnt, and 
be sung with avidity. Where this effect is not produced, 
were I a composer, I would throw away my performance 
and try again." 



AUTHORS 



ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 



Authors and Origin of Hymns. 



SARAH F. ADAMS. 

The admirable hymns published with this signature 
were written by a lady eminent for her musical talents. 
She wrote, besides hymns and criticisms, several works 
collected under the title of " Adoration, Aspiration, and 
Belief." She died in 1848. 



JOSEPH ADDISON. 

Addison, who nourished in the latter part of the 
seventeenth and the early portion of the eighteenth 
centuries, commands the respect of all who value re- 
ligion and morals. Though in the early part of his life 
he devoted himself to j>olitical affairs, he soon abandoned 
them, as also an earlier design of taking orders in the 
English Church, and gave his days and nights to litei'a- 
ture, in which, contrary to the majority of writers, he 
was successful. Especially did he advance literature 
and fine taste by the publication of the " Spectator," the 

happy results of which are still felt in literary circles in 

7 73 



71 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HTM 

England. His hymns, originally printed in the 4% v 
tator," are still increasingly admired, and are extending 
in their usefulness. In 17 10 he was married to the 
Countess Dowager of Warwick, whose son, it will be re- 
membered, he sent for on his death-bed, in 1729, to see 
in what peace a Christian could die. It has been very 
truly said that he has divested vice of its meretricious 
ornaments, and painted religion and virtue in the in 
and graceful attire which charms and elevates the heart. 
In addition to his hymns, he wrote a part of a version 
of the Psalms, which was never completed. 



CHRISTOPHER ANGELUS. 

This eminent person, who died in the seventeenth 
century, was the author of the beautiful hymn, recently 
introduced into one or two of our books, — 

"Loying Shepherd, kind and true." 

His origin was Greek j and, being driven from Pelopon- 
nesus by the Turks, he went to England, and studied 
at the Cambridge University, under the patronage of the 
Bishop of Norwich. He afterward studied at Baliol 
College, Oxford, where he proved very useful in in- 
structing the students in Greek. His most valuable 
work was an account of his sufferings, printed in 1716, 
in Greek and English. The hymn to which we have 
referred is beautiful alike for its simplicity and its evan- 
gelical unction. 



REV. JAMES ALLEN. 75 

REV. JAMES ALLEN. 

"Sinners, will you scorn the message?" 

wafl written by James Allen, who was born in York- 
shire, England, in 1734, and died in his native villa 
in 1804. His father, intending him for the ministry in 
the Established Church, placed him under the care of a 
clergyman, whose immoral conduct, and that of his fol- 
lowers, so disgusted young Allen that he at once dis- 
sented from a Church that could tolerate such men. 
Converted under the ministry of Mr. Ingham, the leader 
of a small sect of the Methodists, Allen joined his con- 
nection, among whom he was a popular minister for 
nine years. He then built a house of worship for him- 
self, in which he successfully labored till his death. 

Before Mr. Allen fully entered on his ministry, he 
spent a few months in the University of Cambridge, 
where he became acquainted with a gentleman named 
Ashton, who settled in Westmoreland. Mr. Allen, many 
years afterward, was preaching near Kendal, where a, 
mob was raised and the preacher made a prisoner. It 
providentially happened that Mr. Ashton was present : 
he rushed through the crowd, took the dissenting minis- 
ter by the hand, expressed his great pleasure at seeing 
him, reminded him of the happy days they had spent 
together at college, and arm in arm walked with him to 
the village. The mob were vexed when they found the 
preacher to be a friend of their squire, and the clergy- 



76 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

man regretted that so worthy a man had left the Esta- 
blished Church. 



MRS. G. W. ANDERSON. 

This estimable lady, the author of the truly beautiful 
hymn — 

" Our country's voice is pleading," 

is, we believe, of English birth, though she came to this 
country in very early life, and has for some years been 
the wife of Professor Gr. W. Anderson, for some time 
engaged in the University at Lewisburg, Pa. We be- 
lieve that Mrs. A. has written nothing but a few hymns, 
with a small volume or two for children, and some arti- 
cles in newspapers and magazines, which have afforded 
much interest and profit to children. We hope she may 
yet contribute largely to our hymnology. 



REV. LEONARD BACON, D.D. 

The hymns of this gentleman, while they aid our devo- 
tion, also command our esteem for their sound judgment, 
correct imagery, and scriptural theology. He was the son 
of a missionary to the Indians, and was born at Detroit 
in 1802, entered Yale College in his sixteenth year, gra- 
duated in 1820, studied theology at Andover, and was 
ordained pastor of the First Congregational Church at 



REV. JOHN BAKE WELL. 77 

New Haven, in 1825, when he was twenty-three years 
of age. Pulpit labors and literature have well occupied 
his days and nights. His love of controversy is well 
known j but generally he has been found on the side of 
scriptural truth. Some years ago he travelled in Eu- 
rope and Asia, and escaped death at the hands of the 
Koords, in Nestoria, in a very extraordinary manner, 
by the influence of woman, — the Agha's wife. His na- 
tural resolution and steadiness of purpose were, under 
God, of no small value in the dangerous circumstances 
in which he was placed. 



REV. JOHN BAKEWELL. 

In reference to the authorship of the beautiful hymn, — 

" Hail ! thou once despised Jesus !" 

or, as in some books, — 

"Paschal Lamb, by God appointed," 

there has been some difference of opinion. It has been 
said by some to have been written by Madan ; and cer- 
tainly he published it in a collection as early as 1760. 
But preponderating evidence will show it to have been 
the production of John Bakewell, of Greenwich, Eng- 
land, who was born in 1721. He was one of the earliest 
Methodist local preachers under the Wesleys, having 
commenced his ministry in 1749. He wrote many 
hymns, and in his own family circle this was regarded 



78 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

as one of the number. It is a fine production, and is 
very properly introduced into most of our collections. 

Mr. Bakewell died in 1819, aged ninety-eight years, 
and was interred in the City-Eoad burying-ground, Lon- 
don. He had been a preacher more than seventy years. 



REV. THOMAS BALDWIN, D.D. 

With what delightful and tearful interest have we 
stood, at the close of a meeting of days, surrounded by 
a group of Christians, and sung what is called " the union 
hymn," — 

" From whence does this union arise?" 

Its author was born in Bozrah, Conn., in 1753, and in 
very early life, though amidst many discouragements, 
his original thinking powers were greatly improved by 
reading. He married while yet young, and before he 
was thirty was sent as a representative to the Legislature 
of his native State. In 1780 he became a decided Chris- 
tian, and shortly afterward was baptized. He had enter- 
tained thoughts of the law, but was gradually led into the 
office of the ministry, to which he was ordained in 1783. 
In 1790 he became the pastor of the Second Baptist 
Church in Boston, a position which he occupied with 
ever-growing success till his sudden decease when on 
a journey from home in 1825. He was very amiable in 
his spirit and deportment, and greatly beloved by a 
very large circle of friends. 



ANNA LETITIA BARBAULD. 79 



ANNA LETITIA BARBAULD. 

Of this lady, the author of several of our hymns, in- 
eluding, — 

"When, as returns this solemn day," 

we have but little to write. She was one of the most dis- 
tinguished female writers of her day within the British 
dominions. Theologically she belonged to the more evan- 
gelical class of English Unitarians, often in her views 
approaching what are considered the orthodox body of 
Christians. She was the daughter of the Rev. John 
Aikin, and at 1774, at the age of thirty-one, was mar- 
ried to the Eev. E. Barbauld, after which she wrote her 
11 Early Lessons," " Hymns for Children," and many other 
works. She died in 1825, in her eighty-second year, her 
husband having died three years before her. It is said 
that, in her early years, Mrs. Barbauld was favored with 
many of the instructions of Dr. Doddridge, and that 
her later years were given to the instruction of young 
ladies. 



BERNARD BARTON. 



This " Quaker poet," as he is usually called, from the 
fact that both his parents and himself lived and died 
among that people, was born in London, in 1784, and 
spent the far larger portion of his years as clerk in a 
bank in Suffolk, having in very early life buried his 



80 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

young and only wife. His literary character has been 
well described by his daughter, who was also his bio- 
grapher : — " He was not learned, — in language, science, 
or philosophy. Nor did he care for the loftiest kind of 
poetry, * the heroics/ as he called it. His favorite au- 
thors were those who dealt most in humor, good sense, 
domestic feeling, and pastoral feeling." The hymn, — 

" The -waters of Bethesda's pool," 

was originally written for a friend greatly oppressed 
with sorrow. 

We are tempted here to quote from one of Barton's 
own letters a scene which occurred at the funeral of a 
young lady which he attended in 1841. "When the 
usual service was ended, the clergyman stated that it 
was the wish of the deceased, or rather of her relatives, 
that a little hymn which had ever been a great favor- 
ite of hers should be sung on this occasion, and he had 
much pleasure in complying with the request. After a 
few minutes, way was made for the children of the 
village school, which this estimable girl had almost 
made and managed, to come up to the grave-side, — 
about twenty or twenty-five little things, with eyes 
and cheeks red with crying. I thought they could 
never have found tongues, poor things ! but, once set 
off, they sung like a little band of cherubs. What 
added to the effect of it, to me, was that it was a little 
almost-forgotten hymn of my own, written years ago, 
which no one present, but myself, was at all aware of." 



n\:\ . CHBISTOPHEB BATTY. 81 

Mr. Barton died in 1840. One of the English peri- 
odicals has said, "Mr. Barton's style is well suited to 
devotional poetry. It has great sweetness and pathos, 
accompanied with no small degree of power, which well 
qualify it for the expression of the higher and purer 
feelings of the heart." 



REV. CHRISTOPHER BATTY. 

"Sweet the moments, rich in blessing," 

was written by the Eev. Christopher Batty, a minister 
among the Inghamites, a small sect of the early Method- 
ists. He was a zealous, laborious, and disinterested 
Christian, and was so much esteemed by a family 
named Green, in the city of York, England, that Mr. 
Green told him that, as he had, under God, led his 
daughter to Christ, and as she had been removed from 
earth, he intended to leave him the whole of his pro- 
perty ; but Mr. Batty positively refused to accept of it. 
AVhile an itinerating minister, Mr. Batty, his two bro- 
thers, — who were also ministers, — and their friends were 
exposed to much persecution. At Gisburn, in Yorkshire, 
they were interrupted in their religious meeting by the 
curate of the parish, heading a large mob, entering the 
place where they were assembled for worship; but, 
amidst all opposition, there and elsewhere the word of 
the Lord had free course and was glorified. Dr. Stevens 
tells us that Mr. Batty often accompanied the Wesleys 



82 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

in their tours for preaching, and stood with them like 
" a good soldier of Jesus Christ." 



REV. RICHARD BAXTER. 

Of this eminent minister of Christ we need not say 
much, as the man must indeed be ignorant who knows 
not the author of " The Saint's Best," and his other 
works, which could not be printed in less than sixty 
octavo volumes. He made no pretensions to poetical 
talent; but we should pity the want of taste on the 
part of the reader who did not highly appreciate the 
hymn, in the Eev. Henry Ward Beecher's " Plymouth 
Collection/' — 

11 Christ leads me through no darker rooms," 

and several others to be found scattered through his pon- 
derous and invaluable volumes. He was born in 1615, 
was ejected from the Church of England by the Act of 
Uniformity, in 1662, and, after enduring great persecu- 
tion, died "in great peace and joy" in 1691. When Dr. 
Samuel Johnson was asked by Boswell which of Bax- 
ter's works he should read, he wisely replied, "Bead 
them all : they are all good." 

Montgomery gives us a somewhat glowing descrip- 
tion of Baxter's hymns and poetry, and tells us that he 
also left, fully prepared for the press, an entire poetical 
version of the Psalms of David, with other hymns, 
which were published in 1692 by his friend Matthew 



REV. BENJAMIN EEDDOMK. 83 

Sylvester. His poetical works have been most cherished 
by those who have read them with most attention. 



REV. BENJAMIN BEDDOME. 

Most of our hymn-books contain a large number of 
compositions by the Eev. Benjamin Beddome, a man 
of considerable talents and high attainments, but who 
spent the far greater portion of a long life in the seclu- 
sion of a small country village. He was the son of a 
Baptist minister, was called by divine grace at the age 
of twenty, and baptized by the Eev. Samuel Wilson, of 
London, about two years afterward. He visited Bour- 
ton-on-the-Water in 1743, and was prevailed on to ac- 
cept a call to the pastorate, three years afterward. In 
1749 he suffered a very severe illness, and on his re- 
covery wrote a hymn which he afterward replaced by 
one commencing, — 

"If I must die, oh, let me die 
Trusting in Jesus' blood,— 
That blood which hath atonement made 
And reconciles to God." 

Not long after his recovery he was earnestly entreated 
to succeed Mr. Wilson, his pastor in London. So deter- 
mined were this church to obtain him that, after sending 
call after call in vain, they deputed one of their number 
to urge the matter with him. This was discovered by 
a poor man, a member of his church, to whom the care 
of the gentleman's horse had been intrusted ; and hav- 



\ AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

ing, with excited feelings, brought the horse to Mr. In <i- 
dome's door ; the poor man said to the Londoner, " Rob- 
bers of churches are the worst of robbers," and at once 
set the horse free to take his own course. Mr. Bed- 
dome's final reply was, " I w T ould rather honor God in 
a station even much inferior to that in which he has 
placed me, than intrude myself into a higher without 
his direction," and remained in his pastorate at Bourton 
till his death. 

That Mr. Beddome's attachment to Bourton was early 
as well as deep, may be seen from some lines he wu*ote 
about 1742, entitled " The Wish :— 

" Lord, in my soul implant thy fear : 
Let faith, and hope, and love be there. 
Preserve me from prevailing vice 
"When Satan tempts or lusts entice. 
Of friendship's sweets may I partake, 
Nor be forsaken, or forsake. 
Let moderate plenty crown my board, 
And God for all be still adored. 
Let the companion of my youth 
Be one of innocence and truth : 
Let modest charms adorn her face, 
And give her thy superior grace : 
By heavenly art first make her thine, 
Then make her willing to be mine. 
My dwelling-place let Bourton be, 
And let me live, and live to thee." 

It was not, however, till 1749 that he entered the 
marriage-state, which was to an excellent young lady, 
daughter of one of his deacons, who was for thirty-four 
years his beloved companion. 



REV. BENJAMIN BEDDOME. 85 

Mr. Beddome's ministrations retained to the very last 
all their liveliness and attractions, improved by the in- 
creased solemnity and wisdom of age. His earnest 
desire that he might not be long laid aside from his 
beluved employment was fully gratified; for, having du- 
ring his infirmities been carried to the house of God, he 
preached sitting, and was only confined to his house 
one Lord's day. Only an hour before his death he was 
found composing a hymn, of which he wrote, — 

" God of my life and of my choice, 
Shall I no longer hear thy voice ? 
Oh, let the Source of joy divine 
With rapture fill this heart of mine. 

" Thou openedst Jonah's prison-doors, — 
Be pleased, Lord, to open ours : 
Then will we to the woidd proclaim 
The various honors of thy name." 

This excellent man fell asleep in Jesus, September 3, 
1795, in the seventy-ninth year of his age, having labored 
at Bourton fifty-two years. In the year 1818 a volume 
of his hymns was published, with a short but beautiful 
preface by the late eloquent Eobert Hall, who says, 
" The man of taste will be gratified with the beautiful 
and original thoughts which many of them exhibit, 
while the experimental Christian will often perceive the 
most sweet movements of his soul strikingly delineated, 
and sentiments portrayed which will find their echo in 
every heart." 



86 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF RYMNS. 

REV. CHARLES BEECHER. 

This gentleman is one of the thirteen children of the 
venerable Dr. Lyman Beecher, and is also the brother 
of Dr. Edward and Henry Ward Beecher, and of Mrs. 
Beecher Stowe. No member of that family can be with- 
out talent. We believe that Mr. Beecher ranks with the 
Congregationalists; but his publications would indicate 
that he is a very bold and independent thinker. 



BERNARD. 



This name is usually printed with the prefix St., as 
having been given him by the Eomish Church. He 
lived in the tenth century, and was the author of a 
Latin hymn consisting of nearly two hundred lines. 
Parts of it have been translated and form at least 
three hymns in our books. One of these begins, — 

"Jesus, the very thought of thee." 
The late Dr. Byrom, of Manchester, translated another 
portion; and it has been said that John Newton's beauti- 
ful hymn, — 

" How sweet the name of Jesus sounds !" 

was also founded on that of Bernard. Nor can it scarcely 
be doubted that, before Dr. Doddridge wrote, — 

"Jesus, I love thy charming name," 

he had read the composition of Bernard. 



REV. JOHN BERRIDGE. 87 

One of the most beautiflil hymns of Gerhard was 
clearly suggested also by Bernard's " Hymn to Christ on 
the Cross," a translation of which may be found in a 
recent English publication, " The Voice of Christian Life 
in Song" We refer to the hymn translated by Wesley 
and found in the old Methodist hymn-books as well as 
the one published by the Moravian Brethren : — 

" head so full of bruises." 



REV. JOHN BERRIDGE. 

There are few old Christians who are unacquainted 
with the name of the Rev. John Berridge, one of the 
most successful preachers connected with the revival of 
religion commenced by the Rev. Messrs. Whitefield and 
Wesley, and author of several hymns in our books in- 
tended for the service of the sanctuary. He was a man 
of great learning and wit, but still more eminent as an 
earnest and successful minister of Christ. Some of the 
most important events of his history may be learned 
from his epitaph, written, with the exception of the last 
date, by himself: — "Here lie the remains of John Ber- 
ridge, the Yicar of Everton, and an itinerant servant of 
Jesus Christ, who loved his Master and his work; and, 
after running on his errands for many years, was caught 
up to wait on him above. Reader, art thou born again ? 
~No salvation without a new birth. I was born in sin 
February, 1716, remained ignorant of my fallen state 



88 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF hymns. 

till 1730, lived proudly on faith and works for salvation 
till 1754, was admitted to Everton vicarage 1755, fled to 
Jesus for refuge 1755, fell asleep in Jesus January '-2, 
1793." 

When this eminent clergyman had become fully ac- 
quainted with the value of immortal souls and with the 
importance of salvation by the work of the Lord Jesus, 
he felt the vast import of his ordination-charge, " Go 
and seek Christ's sheep wherever thou canst find them f 
and, taking a circuit of five or six counties, he preached 
upon an average ten or twelve sermons and frequently 
rode a hundred miles a week. In this course he per- 
severed for more than twenty years. Many extraor- 
dinary anecdotes are told of his success, which was 
very great. A very large man once went to hear him, 
and placed himself immediately before the pulpit with 
the full design of interrupting him, and for that purpose 
made various strange gesticulations and used many 
contemptuous expressions, Not at all intimidated, the 
preacher addressed him personally in so powerful a 
manner that he fell down in the pew in a most violent 
perspiration. After the service had closed, he said, " I 
came to confuse this good man ; but he has convinced me 
that I am indeed a lost sinner." This man lived an or- 
nament to the gospel and died happy in Jesus. At 
another time, while he was standing upon a table and 
preaching in the open air to a great multitude, two men 
got under the table with the design of overturning it; 
but the word of God so powerfully impressed their 



REV. JOHN BERRIDGE. 89 

hearts that they could not accomplish their purpose, 
and, after his sermon was ended, they confessed, with 
strong feelings of shame, what they had intended to 
do. Very many facts might be told of the same general 
character. 

Other anecdotes, of an essentially different kind, are 
also related concerning him. Soon after he had com- 
menced his annual visits to London, a lady travelled from 
that city to Everton to solicit his hand in marriage, as- 
suring him that the Lord had revealed it to her that she 
was to become his wife. He was not a little surprised at 
her application and for such a purpose. He paused for 
a few moments, and then replied, " Madam, if the Lord 
had revealed it to you that you are to be my wife, surely 
he would also have revealed it to me that I was designed 
to be your husband ; but, as no such revelation has been 
made to me, I cannot comply with your wishes." Of 
course the wealthy lady went away greatly disappointed. 
Berridge never married. 

The following lines were written by this worthy man 
and posted on his clock : — 

" Here my master bids me stand 
And mark the time with faithful hand : 
What is his will is my delight, — 
To tell the hours by day and night. 
Master, be wise, and- learn of me 
To serve thy God as I serve thee.' : 

When age and its infirmities came on, he met them 
with unabated cheerfulness. He wrote, "My ears are 

8* 



90 AUTHORS AND ORIGIH OF HYMN-. 

now so dull they are not fit for conversation, and my 
eyes are so weak I can read but little and write less. 
Old Adam, who is the devil's darling, sometimes whis- 
pers in my ears, l AVhat will you do if you become deaf 
and blind Y I tell him I must think the more and pray 
the more, yea, and thank the Lord for eyes and ears 
enjoyed till I was seventy, and for the prospect of a 
better pair of eyes and ears when these are gone." In 
his seventy-sixth year he was seen to be near his end, 
and his curate said to him, " Jesus will soon call you up 
higher." His reply was, "Ay, ay, ay; higher, higher, 
higher !" His hymn-book " Zion's Songs" was published 
in the year 1785. 



REV. G. W. BETHUNE, D.D. 

A hymn contained in the " Parish Psalms and Hymns" 

and which we think is destined to be much more widely 

known than it is at present, had a pleasant origin. It 

begins, — 

" Oh, for the happy hour," 

and its subject is that of prayer for a revival of religion. 
Its author, the Eev. Dr. Bethune, of Xew York, went 
to his church a few minutes before the time of a devo- 
tional meeting, and while waiting for the arrival of his 
people, with a heart full of his subject, he took his 
pencil and on a loose scrap of paper poured out feel- 
ings which must meet a response in every Christian 
heart, and which will doubtless guide the prayers and 



REV. THOMAS BLACKLOCK, D.D. 91 

praises of very many long after their writer has joined 
the worship of the Jerusalem above. 

To this gentleman the Baptists are indebted for one 
of the very best of their denominational hymns, — 

" We come to the fountain, we stand by the wave," 

which was written at the special request of the Eev. J. 
S. Holme, editor of the " Baptist Hymn and Tune Book." 
We may add here that Dr. Bethune was born in 1805, 
and that his ministry seems to have received its cha- 
racter from the dying words of his father, addressed to 
him and his brother-in-law, also in the ministry, " My 
sons, preach the gospel. Tell dying sinners of a Sa- 
viour. All the rest is but folly." 



REV. THOMAS BLACKLOCK, D.D. 

This remarkable man, author of the well-known and 
truly grand hymn, — 

" Come, my soul, in sacred lays," 

was the child of English parents, but born at Annan, in 
Scotland, in 1721. When only six months old, he lost 
his sight by smallpox, and suffered total blindness 
during his life of seventy years, dying in 1791. Not- 
withstanding this deprivation, he acquired a respectable 
knowledge of Greek, Latin, French, Italian, and theo- 
logy, and became a considerable author. He was li- 
censed to preach in the Church of Scotland, and created 



92 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

D.D. by the University of Aberdeen in 1756. In 1762 
he married a lady admirably adapted to promote his 
happiness. One of his friends says, " I have known him 
to dictate from thirty to forty verses as fast as I could 
write them ; but, the moment he was at a loss for verse 
or a rhyme to his liking, he stopped altogether, and 
could very seldom be induced to finish what he had 
begun with so much ardor." The Rev. Joseph Spence, 
Professor of Poetry at the University of Oxford, says, 
"He never could dictate till he stood up; and, as his 
blindness made walking about without assistance incon- 
venient or dangerous to him, he fell insensibly into a 
vibratory sort of motion with his body, which increased 
as he warmed with his subject and was pleased with the 
conception of his mind." And Burke says, in his " Sub- 
lime and Beautiful" "Few men blessed with the most 
perfect sight can describe visual objects with more spirit 
and justness than this blind man." 



REV. JAMES BODEN. 

This excellent Congregational minister, the author of 
the well-known hymn, — 

"Ye dying sons of men," 

was born in the city of Chester, England, in 1757, in 
the very house in which the eminent commentator Mat- 
thew Henry once resided. In the garden in which James 



REV. HORATIUS BONAR, D.D. 93 

Boden first engaged in childish sports was an alcove or 
summer-house, in which it is said a large part of Henry's 
beautiful Commentary was written j and it was thought 
by his friends that the association had no small influence 
on the mind of young Boden, who at the age of sixteen 
professed faith in Christ. Having pursued the usual 
preparatory studies for the ministry at Homerton Col- 
lege, in 1796, after laboring elsewhere, he settled in the 
populous town of Sheffield, where he preached three 
times on every Sabbath till nearly seventy years of age. 
In 1839 he resigned his charge, and in 1841 was removed 
from earth, in his eighty-fifth year, having been sixty- 
nine years a member of the Church on earth. 

The state of his mind in his last illness was that of 
sweet serenity and peace. A friend remarking that the 
sun shone very beautifully, he replied, with delightful 
emphasis, — 

"He is my Sun, though he forbear to shine : 
I dwell forever on his heart, forever he on mine." 



REV. HORATIUS BONAR, D.D. 

Of this gentleman, several of whose beautiful compo- 
sitions are gradually coming into our books, we do not 
know very much. He is a native of Scotland, and was 
born about the year 1810. He is a prominent clergy- 
man of the Free Church of his native land, and has 
already published several beautiful theological volumes, 



94 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF STUNS. 

which are increasing in their usefulness and popularity. 
AW- hope that many years of success await him. 

AYe believe that the wife of Dr. Bonar is sister to the 
late very excellent Mary Lundie Duncan. 



REV. T. E. BOND, M.D. 

The beautiful hymn of two verses, — 

"Father of spirits, hear our prayer," 

was written by Dr. Thomas E. Bond, an excellent 
Methodist Episcopal clergyman of our own country. 
The hymn is simply an extract from a long poem pre- 
pared by its author some years ago for a periodical 
published in Baltimore. 

This worthy man, having passed the age of three-score 
and ten, died in March, 1856. Many of his latter years 
were devoted to the service of his denomination by the 
agency of the press, being an editor of one of their news- 
papers. An intimate friend says of him, "A warmer 
heart we never knew, nor one more finely tuned to sym- 
pathy, — more abounding in that charity which never 
faileth. "With calm composure, when his work was 
done and the time of his departure was at hand, he 
awaited his call, and has left us the satisfactory as- 
surance that, although we have one less with whom to 
take sweet counsel on earth, we have one more friend in 
heaven." 



FREDER1KA BREMER. 95 

JOHN BOWDLER. 

The hymn, — 

"Children of God, who, faint and slow," 

and one or two others used in our churches, were writ- 
ten by a young English barrister, who published two 
octavo volumes in prose and verse, in 1818, and died in 
early life, leaving behind him a fragrant reputation. In 
many respects he bore a resemblance to the amiable 
Henry Kirke White. 



JOHN BOWRING, LL.D. 

This gentleman, most remarkably distinguished for 
the acquirement of languages, is an Englishman, born in 
1792. He has been eminent as a philologist, as a politi- 
cal writer, for the occupancy of various political offices, 
and as a poet. He is a member of the Unitarian body, 
— though this would not be inferred from some of his 
hymns, especially the one, — 

"In the cross of Christ I glory." 



FREDERIKA BREMER. 

Miss Bremer, as is well known, is a foreigner, and has 
never produced any work in the English language. Her 



96 AUTHORS AND OlllUIN OF HYMNS. 

productions are chiefly novels and tales, — though she has 
written a very readable narrative of her visit to this 
country. Her hymns are few in number, but pleasing 
in their character. 



REV. JEHOIADA BREWER. 

We have, in several of our books, a hymn, — 

"Hail! sovereign love, which first began," 

which is a" favorite in many of our prayer-meetings. It 
was almost the only hymn written by the late Rev. 
Jehoiada Brewer, who was born in Wales in 1752, 
and died as a Congregational minister in Birmingham 
in 1817. He was a profound theologian, a popular 
preacher, and an earnest man. He expressed an ardent 
wish, in his dying hours, that no memoir of him should 
be published: but this wish was not regarded; for in 
the following year the editors of a new London period- 
ical met a general demand by printing a very able ar- 
ticle concerning him. The original of the hymn to 
which we have referred contains nine verses. We re- 
member his person and character with great interest, 
and can never forget the impressive manner in which 
he read hymns from the pulpit, or the tone and manner 
in which he would quote the remark of Dr. John Owen, 
"A man is before God what he is in the closet, and no 
more !" 



rilCEBE H. BROWN. 97 

REV. JOHN NEWTON BROWN, D.D. 

A very few of the hymns written by this gentleman 
are to be found in our books. He is attached to the 
Baptist body, w T as born in New London, Conn., in 1803, 
and graduated at Madison University, at the age of 
twenty years. He has had charge of two or three 
churches j but ill health has long since compelled him to 
give up the pastorate. Dr. Brown has for many years 
past been devoted to Christian literature, editing, among 
other valuable works, " The Encyclopedia of Religious 
Knowledge." 



PHCEBE H. BROWN. 



The writer of the beautiful hymn in most of our re- 
cent collections beginning, — 

" I love to steal a while away," 

was a Christian female obliged to struggle hard to sup- 
port a large family. She was in the habit, after the toils 
of the day were over, of retiring to a quiet and shady 

retreat, — 

" Where none but God was near," 

for prayer. Her regular visits to this spot drew the 
attention of a neighboring lady of wealth and influence, 
who, in the presence of others, censured her, intimating 
that, instead of rambling out in the evening, she had 
better be at home with her children. Grieved that her 



98 AUTHORS AM) ORKilN Of HYMNS. 

hour's communion with God after the exhausting labors 
of the day should be construed into the neglect of her 
family, she sat down that evening with a babe in her 
arms, and wrote her " Apology for her Midnight Rambles." 
"When Dr. Nettleton was preparing his collection of 
hymns, a friend, looking over her manuscripts, found 
this gem, and obtained its insertion. 

We believe that the Rev. S. R. Brown, the first Ameri- 
can missionary to Japan, is a son of the lady of whom 
we have been writing. He is connected with the Dutch 
Eeformed Church, and has already spent some years in 
missionary labors. 



REV. SIMON BROWNE. 

The well-known hymn, — 

"Come, gracious Spirit, heavenly Dove," 

was written by the Rev. Simon Browne, who was born in 
1680, began to preach before he was twenty, was soon 
after settled over a large congregation in Portsmouth, 
and in 1716 removed to the Independent Church in the 
Old Jewry, London. 

When Mr. Brown had been in London about seven 
years, he was attacked by a very singular malady, which 
never left him through life. He imagined that God, 
by a singular instance of his power, had, in a gradual 
manner, annihilated his thinking powers, and utterly 
divested him of consciousness. Nothing grieved him 



REV. SIMON BROWNE. 1)9 

more than that ho could not persuade others to think 
of him as he thought of himself. Several causes have 
been assigned as the origin of his disease, — one of which 
was, that once, when on a journey with a friend, they 
were attacked by a highwayman with loaded pistols. 
Mr. Browne, being a strong man, disarmed him, seized 
him by the collar, and they both fell to the ground. Mr. 
Browne was uppermost, and kept the man down while 
his friend ran for assistance. When that assistance ar- 
rived, the man was dead. From that sad hour Mr. 
Browne became a prey to the awful imagination which 
ever after haunted him. At the beginning of the disease 
he had frequent propensities to destroy himself; but 
later in life he became more calm. Even while in this 
state of mind he wrote an able Defence of Christianity, 
and several other books, yet still maintained that he had 
no power to think. He died, very greatly respected, at 
the close of 1732. 

We may add to this sketch the fact that the Dedica- 
tion to Browne's " Defence of Christianity" is to be found, 
as a most remarkable curiosity, under his name, in " The 
Encyclopedia Britannica." In some respects his mental 
delusion was more extraordinary than that of Cowper ; 
yet, singular as the fact may seem, in none of his pro- 
ductions can there be found any thing exceptionable; 
so that Toplady very properly said of him that, " In- 
stead of having no soul, he wrote, and reasoned, and 
prayed as if he had two" 

Since writing the above, w T e have read Mr. Milner's 



100 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

very able volume of " The Life, Times, and Correspond- 
ence of Dr. Watts/' from which we learn that, in a paper 
yet existing in the handwriting of that eminent man, it 
is stated that, after Browne became thus lamentably 
diseased, he not only wrote the production to which we 
have already referred, in opposition to Collins and AVool- 
ston, but also published a work on the Trinity, compiled 
a Dictionary, and prepared the Exposition on the First 
Epistle to the Corinthians in the continuation of Mat- 
thew Henry's great work. 



ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING. 

This lady, who has several hymns in our books, de- 
servedly occupies a high place in English poetical litera- 
ture. Her first publication was issued in her maiden 
name of Barrett, in 1838, being " The Seraphim, and other 
Poems." Several other English works have since pro- 
ceeded from her pen, as well as one or two classical 
translations. What Dr. G. W. Bethune says of her 
poetry in general appears to us to apply especially to 
her hymns : — " Mrs. Browning is singularly bold and 
adventurous. Her wing carries her, without faltering 
at their obscurity, into the cloud and the mist, where 
not seldom we fail to follow her, but are tempted, while 
we admire the honesty of her enthusiasm, to believe that 
she utters what she herself has but dimly perceived. Much 
of this, however, arises from her disdain of carefulness." 



JOHN H. BRYANT. 101 

In early life Miss Barrett was afflicted with the rup- 
ture of a blood-vessel on the lungs, and the consequences 
for several years were threatening. Partially recover- 
ing her health, in 1847 she was married to Mr. Brown- 
ing, and still pursues the study and translation of Greek 
works and the production of beautiful poetry. 



JOHN H. BRYANT. 

This gentleman, a native of Cummington, Mass., and 
brother of William C. Bryant, was born in 1807. At 
nineteen he wrote a poem, "My Native Village," which 
was published in the " United States Review and Literary 
Gazette" of which his brother was then one of the 
editors. He removed, some years since, to cultivate the 
soil of Illinois. His poetical productions from time to 
time continue to grace our periodicals. We are not 
aware of the existence of many of his hymns; but one 
or two on Liberty as a Birthright of Man are to be 
found in some of our books. The late Dr. Eufus W. 
Griswold says of him, "He is a lover of nature, and 
describes minutely and effectively. To him the wind and 
the streams are ever musical, and the forests and the 
prairies clothed with beauty. His versification is easy 
and correct j and his writings show him to be a man of 
refined taste and kindly feelings, and to have a mind 
stored with the best learning." 



108 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMN- 

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT. 

This gentleman has furnished several hymns to some 
of our books ; nor can this be matter of surprise, as he 
is one of the most eminent of our poets, though in our 
judgment he does not excel in lyrical composition. He 
Avas born at Cummington, Mass., in 1797, graduated at 
Williams College in 1812, and engaged in the profession 
of the law. In 1827 he entered on his duties as editor 
of the New York Evening Post, — an office he has ever 
since filled. 

Several years ago a beautiful sketch of his genius ap- 
peared in one of our periodicals ; and, though we fear 
the coloring of its religions character is too high, we will 
copy a short extract : — " No other living poet has half 
his imagination or half his compressed energy of con- 
ception and execution. And over all and through all 
his poetry, its life and soul, glows and lives a spirit of 
meditation and reflection, the very incarnation of truth 
and goodness. Eeligion, pure and undefiled, is the ele- 
ment of his genius and the life of his poetry." 



WILLIAM BUDDEN. 

The hymn, — 

"Come, let our voices join," 

was written by Mr. William Budden, and was first 
published, with the signature of W. B., in the London 



REV. W. M. BUNTING. 103 

"Evangelical Magazine" for 1795, entitled "A Hymn 
m composed for the Use of the Congregation and Sunday- 
School Children belonging to the Rev. Mr. Ashburner's 
Meeting, Poole, Dorset." 



REV. W. M. BUNTING. 

This gentleman, the author of the hymn, — 

'• My Sabbath suns may all have set," 

and several others, is the eldest son of the late eminent 
Dr. Jabez Bunting, one of the most distinguished of the 
Wesleyan Methodist preachers in England. The son is 
quite as remarkable as his father for independence of 
mind, for a clear exhibition of scriptural truth, and for 
a benevolent expenditure of the ample wealth which 
God has placed in his hands. He is tall and thin, of 
delicate, almost sickly appearance, and far from having 
a robust constitution. He has a fine, benevolent coun- 
tenance, a noble, commanding forehead, bare of hair 
to a considerable elevation, and is apparently quite unable 
to endure the fatigues of his calling. He is, moreover, 
a man of fine catholic spirit, and, as we know from ex- 
perience, warm in his friendships. He has not written 
much beside hymns, — and many of these have been pub- 
lished anonymously; but nearly all of them are perfect 
gems, and are entirely free from the spirit of secta- 
rianism. 



104 



AUTHORS AND ORIOIN OF HYMNS. 



REV. JOHN BUNYAN. 

" Glorious John," it must be confessed, had few talents * 
of an eminent hymn-writer, though we suspect he had 
more than he has usually received credit for. His com- 
positions of this order, we admit, are not to be found 
" in the books." There is, however, a short composition 
in the second part of his immortal " Progress" which has 
very long been used in some of the Baptist churches in 
England at the admission of members, sometimes with 
very happy effect. If the reader has not the volume at 
hand, he will be pleased to see it transcribed : — 

" Let the Most Blessed be my guide, 
If it's his blessed will, 
Up to his gate, into his fold, 
Up to his holy hill. 

" And let him never suffer me 
To swerve or turn aside 
From his free grace and holy ways, 
Whate'er shall me betide. 

"And let him gather those of mine 
That I have left behind : 
Lord, make them pray they may be thine, 
With all their heart and mind." 



REV. GEORGE BURDER. 

The well-known hymn, — 

"Lord, dismiss us with thy blessing," 

was written by the Rev. George Burder, who was born 
in London in 1752, and died pastor of a Congregational 



BISHOP BURGESS. 105 

Church in that city in 1832. He was apprenticed to 
an engraver, but, having a literary taste, he learned 
short-hand, and so reported the last sermons delivered 
in London by the Rev. George Whitefield. He was or- 
dained at twenty-five, and was pastor successively in 
Lancaster, Coventry, and London. He was among the 
founders of the Religious Tract Society and the London 
Missionary Society, to the latter of which he was for 
many years the gratuitous secretary. He was also for 
many years the editor of the " Ecangelical Magazine" as 
well as the pastor of a church. The hymn to which we 
have referred was first issued in a supplement to Dr. 
Watts's Psalms and Hymns, which Mr. Burder published 
about the commencement of this century. 



BISHOP BURGESS. 



This eminent scholar, the author of several of our 
most evangelical hymns, was born at Providence, R.I., 
in 1809, and graduated at Brown University; and, after 
being some time a tutor in that university, he went to 
Europe, and studied at Gottingen, Bonn, and Berlin. 
After holding the rectorship of Christ Church, Hartford, 
Conn., for thirteen years, he was in 1847 consecrated 
Bishop of Maine, and Bector of Gardiner, in that State. 
Among his principal works are " The Book of Psalms in 
English Verse," and " Pages from the Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of New England" 



106 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HVMNv 

REV. RICHARD BURNHAM. 

This gentleman, the author of a hymn used in many 
of our conference and prayer meetings, — 

"Jesus, thou art the sinner's friend," 

was born in 1749, and in 1780 he became pastor of a 
Baptist church in London, and ultimately settled with 
another church, of the same denomination, in Grafton 
Street in that city, where, after about thirty years' labor, 
he died in 1810. His life was a checkered scene of popu- 
larity and trials; but his biographer tells us he "died in 
peace." 

In the preface to his hymn-book, Mr. Burnham says 
to the members of his church, " Your pastor is willing 
to own that he is the unworthiest of the unworthy; 
yet, unworthy as he is, he humbly trusts, through rich 
grace, he has in some measure found that the dear 
bosom of the atoning Lamb is the abiding-place of his 
immortal soul." 



ROBERT BURNS. 

AVe have a very few hymns from the pen of this gifted 
man in some of our books; and but very few did he write 
suitable for the holy purpose of praising God. We have 
no disposition to depreciate his extraordinary talents, 
but he never even laid claim to a single moral qualifica- 
tion for a poet of God's sanctuary. AVe most love the 



THOMAS CAMPBELL. 107 

hymns with the spirits of whose authors we can hold 
fellowship as we sing the overflowings of their souls. 

Chambers, in his "Life of Burns," says, "It is a re- 
markable fact that the mass of the poetry which has 
given this extraordinary man his principal fame burst 
from him in a comparatively small space of time, — cer- 
tainly not exceeding fifteen months. It began to flow 
of a sudden, and it ran in one impetuous, brilliant stream, 
till it seemed to have become, comparatively speaking, 
exhausted." 

Alas that of this man his first biographer and most 
charitable friend was compelled to write, " Only a few 
months from his death he would proceed from a sick- 
room to dine at a tavern, return home about three 
o'clock in a very cold morning, benumbed and intoxi- 
cated, and by that process he hastened or developed the 
disease which laid him in his grave." He knew only the 
poetry of religion. 



THOMAS CAMPBELL, 



The author of two or three hymns, including, — 
"When Jordan hushed his waters still," 

was the son of a merchant in Glasgow, where he was 
born in 1777. In 1798 he published his " Pleasures of 
Hope" for the copyright of which he received twenty 
pounds; but when the work acquired popularity his 
publisher generously paid him fifty pounds on each edi- 



108 



AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 



lion. His " Gertrude of Wyoming" " Specimens of British 
Poets," and several prose works, followed each other 
in due course, and commanded high respect for their 
correctness and beaut}-. Mr. Campbell was often called 
on by visitors from the United States, who admired his 
exact and beautiful description of our own 'Wyoming 
Valley. He died at Boulogne in 1844. Mr. Campbell 
did not, we believe, profess evangelical religion. 



REV. JOHN CAWOOD. 

This evangelical clergyman of the Church of England 
was educated at St. John's Hall, in the University of Ox- 
ford, after which he became Perpetual Curate at Bewdley. 
Besides his hymns, he has published " On the Dissenting 
Controversy" and three volumes of sermons, which Bick- 
ersteth describes as "forcible, impressive, and evan- 
gelical." 



REV. RICHARD CECIL. 

"We have in some of our books a short hymn begin- 
ning,— 

" Cease here longer to detain me," 

which was written b}- the Rev. Richard Cecil, once cu- 
rate to the Rev. John Xewton, of London, and after- 
ward the predecessor of Dr. Wilson, the late Bishop of 



THOMAS VON CELANO. 109 

Calcutta, as minister of St. John's Chapel, Bedford Kow, 
also in London. The whole hymn, extending to seven 
or eight verses, was written on the death of an infant at 
the dawn of the day, the motto being the language of 
the angel wrestling with Jacob, "Let me go, for the day 
breaketh." 

Mr. Cecil was born in London in 1748, and died in 
1810. He was a highly-respectable author, but shone 
most brightly in the pulpit. His style of preaching 
partook largely of originality and pious feeling. His 
ideas, like the rays of the sun, carried their own light 
with them. Images and illustrations were at his com- 
mand, and rendered his discourses not only instructive 
but fascinating. They were living pictures. 



THOMAS VON CELANO. 

The celebrated Latin hymn " Dies Irce" was written 
in the thirteenth century by Thomas Yon Celano, a 
Minorite. It has very often been translated into the 
English language, first by the old poet Crashaw soon 
after his secession from the Protestant Church, and since 
then by not less than seventy others, some of whose 
versions are noticed at great length by Dr. W. E. Wil- 
liams in his valuable volume of "Miscellanies." We are 
not aware, however, of any version of this hymn in 
our commonly-used hymn-books except the greatly-con- 
densed one by Sir Walter Scott, — 

10 



110 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

"That day of wrath, that dreadful day," etc., 

which his son-in-law and biographer, Mr. Lockhart, says 
was often on his lips during his last sickness. 

Tholuck, the distinguished German preacher, had once 
preached in the University church on the repentance 
and pardon of the thief on the cross; and of that oc- 
casion, in a note to his printed sermon, the preacher 
says, " This is the second time that this hymn of the 
University church-service has been sung to the very 
excellent tune composed by the music-director, Mr. Naue. 
The impression, especially that which was made by the 
last words as sung by the University choir alone, will 
be forgotten by no one." Lord Koscommon, it is said, 
died while repeating with great energy and devotion 
two lines of his own translation of this remarkable 

hymn, — 

" My God, my Father and my Friend, 
Do not forsake me in my end." 

And Dr. Park, of Andover, tells us of a clergyman of 
our own country who could not hear it sung in his own 
church without tears. 

Sir Walter Scott, writing to a brother poet, Crabbe, 
says of this majestic hymn, "To my Gothic ear, the 
Stabat Mater, the Dies Irce, and some other of the hymns 
of the Catholic Church, are more solemn and affecting 
than the fine, classical poetry of Buchanan. The one 
has the gloomy dignity of the Gothic Church, and re- 
minds us constantly of the worship to which it is dedi- 
cated ; the other is more like a pagan temple, recalling 



REV. JOHN CENNICK. Ill 

to our memory the classical and fabulous deities." It is 
said that Dr. Samuel Johnson could never, on account of 
his tears, repeat this composition in the original. And 
we scarcely need to add that upon the Dies Irce Mozart 
founded his celebrated Kequiem, — in the composition of 
which his excitement became so great as to hasten his 
death. Many of the most eminent musical celebrities 
have " sought to marry its poetry to immortal melody." 

It is said that the original draft of the Dies Irce was 
found in a box belonging to Celano after his death. He 
died in 1253. 

Since writing the preceding paragraphs, we have ob- 
served in one or two of our hymn-books a very greatly- 
condensed translation of the Dies Irce, in four verses, by 
an anonymous hand. It begins, — 

" On that great, that awful day." 

It is beautifully and effectively executed. 



REV. JOHN CENNICK. 

"Jesus, thy blood and righteousness," 

has long been a favorite hymn among all classes of 
evangelical Christians ; and probably this is one reason 
why its authorship has been disputed. In many of our 
books it is attributed to Charles Wesley. Mr. Creamer 
contends that it is a translation from a German hymn 
of twenty verses, written by Count Zinzendorf, and 



112 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

translated by John Wesley ; but it has been more com- 
monly regarded as the composition of John Cennick, by 
turns a follower of Wesley, then of Whitefield, and finally 
dying in the fellowship and ministry of the Moravians. 
It has been very much abridged. 

This hymn was a great favorite with the late Eev. 
Rowland Hill; and perhaps the history of the Church 
presents few scenes of deeper interest than the fact that, 
when the corpse of that extraordinary clergyman was 
being lowered into its final resting-place, under his own 
pulpit, in the presence of assembled thousands bathed 
in tears, the second verse of this hymn was sung, in slow 
and solemn tones : — 

"When from the dust of death I rise 
To claim my mansion in the skies, 
E'en then shall this be all my plea, — 
Jesus hath lived and died for me." 

Cennick wrote also the hymns, — 

" Jesus, my all, to heaven is gone," 
" Children of the heavenly King," 

and several others. 



REV. E. H. CHAPIN, D.D. 

This well-known writer of several popular hymns is 
a celebrated Universalist clergyman. He was born in 
the State of New York in 1814, and, after having studied 
for the law, entered the ministry, and has officiated 



CHARLEMAGNE. 113 

as pastor of Universalist societies at Richmond, Va., 
Charlestown, Mass., Boston, and New York. In addi- 
tion to a collection of hymns, he has published several 
volumes in prose, and is well known as a distinguished 
and popular lecturer. 



CHARLEMAGNE. 

This great man is usually supposed to be the author 
of the " Veni Creator/' the translation of which, — 

"Creator Spirit, by whose aid," 
can scarcely be unknown to the reader. The fact of 
Charlemagne being its author has, however, been doubted 
by Mohnike, who says the emperor could not have had 
sufficient acquaintance with the Latin tongue to write 
so classical a composition. But he who was the patron 
of Latin letters and the friend of Alcuin, and who par- 
doned Paulus Diaconus for his conspiracy to murder 
him because he would not cut off one who wrote so ele- 
gantly, may fairly be supposed capable of dictating a 
Latin hymn, — though he was probably indebted to some 
better scribe than himself to write it down. 

"While we thus write, it is but justice to say that ALoh- 
nike's opinion is never to be treated with lightness. He 
believes the hymn to have been written by Gregory the 
Great, Bishop of Rome, a.d. 590, who is described by 
Neander as the last of the classical doctors of the 

Church. He was a man of great piety and learning, 

10* 



114 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN 01 BTMH6, 

though of course led away by some of the errors which 
had already flooded the Church. 



REV. INGRAM COBBIN. 

Our hymn-books contain a very few of the composi- 
tions of our old personal friend, to whose memory the 
pen of biography is largely indebted. He was born of 
humble and pious parentage in the city of London in 
1777, and in early life was attracted by the charms both 
of religion and of learniDg. Some verses which he then 
composed gained the attention of the Rev. Matthew 
Wilks, who introduced him to the Congregational Col- 
lege then at Hoxton. In 1802 he was ordained to the 
ministry, and, though in feeble health, he laboriously and 
usefully exerted himself as a pastor. After some years, 
however, he relinquished permanently, as was supposed, 
the ministry, through the failure of his health; but 
after a time hope of usefulness in this department of 
holy labor returned, and he accepted a call from a church 
at Crediton, where he was installed, but could not 
deliver a single sermon after that aj^parently joyous 
eveat. Relinquishing his fond labors, he became the 
founder and for many years the secretary of the [Lon- 
don] Home Missionary Society; but sickness compelled 
him to relinquish this also in 1828. His mental energies 
being yet unimpaired, he devoted himself to the com- 
pilation of a number of invaluable biblical works, in- 



REV. W. B. COLLYER, D.D., LL.D. 115 

eluding his " Domestic Bible/' well known and esteemed 
among us. He died in his seventy-fourth year, in 1851. 



REV. W. B. COLLYER, D.D., LL.D. 

The hymn, 

" Return, wanderer, return," 

and many others in our hymn-books, are the compo- 
sitions of the Rev. W. B. Collyer, D.D., LL.D., who died 
in 1854, and who for more than half a century was by 
far the most popular Nonconformist minister in Eng- 
land. He was almost the only dissenting minister heard 
by royalty, — to whom, as to all others, he preached in 
the most faithful manner the doctrines of the cross, in a 
style combining simple elegance, fervent feeling, and an 
indomitable adherence to " the truth as in Jesus." 

Among the many volumes which in the early and 
middle stages of his life proceeded from Dr. Collyer's 
j>en, was a volume of hymns selected and arranged for 
public worship, containing not a few of great beauty 
written by himself. In addition to these, he wrote very 
many which were never printed. Nearly to the close 
of his ministry, after his Sunday morning sermons, in 
imitation of the excellent Dr. Doddridge, he always 
read a hymn written during the preceding week founded 
on his text, which was sung by his congregation, and by 
many of them copied as he read two lines at a time to 
enable them to sing. Not a few of these he gave at 



116 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

different times, from feelings of warm friendship, to the 
writer of this volume, which in various periodicals were 
given to the public. May peace rest on his happy- 
memory! 



JOSIAH CONDER, 



This excellent writer of hymns and editor of the Eng- 
lish Congregational Hymn-Book was a member of the 
Congregational body, and was distinguished through a 
long life for sound learning, fine taste, earnest piety, and 
untiring industry. He was born in 1790, and died in 
London in 1855. For many years he was the editor of 
the "Eclectic Review" and was thus associated with 
Robert Hall, John Foster, Kalph "Wardlaw, and other 
distinguished men of that day. Over the grave of 
this worthy man we drop a grateful tear, remembering 
him as a good occasional preacher, a sweet poet, and 
a cordial friend. The Christian and literary friends of 
Mr. Conder have recently erected a monument to his 
memory, at an expense of more than five hundred dollars. 



REV. THOMAS COTTERILL, 

The author of the well-known missionary hymn, — 

"O'er the realms of pagan darkness," 
and of one or two others used among us, was an excel- 



117 

lent minister of the Episcopal Church, settled in Shef- 
field, where also resided his intimate personal friend, 
James Montgomery, who says of him, " Good Mr. Cot- 
terill and I bestowed a great deal of care and labor in 
the compilation of * The Sheffield Hymn-Book,' clipping, 
interlining, and remodelling hymns of all sorts as we 
thought we could correct the sentiment or improve the 
expression. We so altered some of Cowper's that the 
poet would hardly know them." Every one knows that 
Montgomery lived to complain sadly of this conduct in 
reference to some of his own hymns, calling it "the 
cross by which every author of a hymn may expect to 
be tested, at the pleasure of any Christian brother, how- 
ever incompetent." 



NATHANIEL COTTON, M.D. 

This gentleman is supposed to be the author of the 
truly experimental hymn,^ — 

" Affliction is a stormy deep." 

He was an English physician, born in 1707, and died 
in 1788. He was remarkably successful in the treatment 
of insanity, keeping a private asylum for such patients 
at St. Alban's, having, among many others, the amia- 
ble poet Cowper, who says of him, " He is truly a phi- 
losopher, according to my judgment of the character, 
every tittle of his knowledge in natural subjects being 
connected in his mind with the firm belief in an omni- 



118 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

potent agent." His works in prose and verse were 
printed in two duodecimo volumes in 1791. 



WILLIAM COWPER. 



The facts of Cowper's history are too well known to 
render it necessary that we should here detail them. 
He was the son of an English clergyman, who was a 
chaplain to George the Second and rector of Berkhamp- 
stead, where William was born in 1731. He grew 
up so timid and nervous that he was never able to en- 
gage in any profession, became deranged, and was con- 
fined in an asylum for many months. He was an ex- 
quisite poet ; and poetry became his almost constant oc- 
cupation till his death in 1800. 

The favorite residences of the poet at Olney and 
Weston, the houses in which his chief labors were per- 
formed, are still objects of interest, not only to English- 
men, but to Americans visiting that land. The one at 
Olney still stands in the same ruinous state in which he 
so humorously described it ; and the parlor is now occu- 
pied by a girls' school. The summer-house in the garden, 
in which he used to sit conning his verses, also remains, 
the walls being covered with the names of visitors. His 
residence in the neighboring village of Weston has been 
much altered, but is still beautiful, with a profusion of 
roses around it. 



WILLIAM COWPER. 119 

Where is the Christian who has not read and sung 
with holy profit and delight Cowper's hymn, — 

" God moves in a mysterious way" ? 

Its original title — " Light Shining out of Darkness" — 
had reference to its remarkable origin. When under 
the influence of the fits of mental derangement to which 
he was subject, he most unhappily but firmly believed 
that the divine will was that he should drown himself 
in a particular part of the river Ouse, some two or three 
miles from his residence at Olney. He one evening 
called for a post-chaise from one of the hotels in the 
town, and ordered the driver to take him to that spot, 
which he readily undertook to do, as he well knew it. 
On this occasion, however, several hours were consumed 
in seeking it, and utterly in vain. The man was at 
length most reluctantly compelled to admit that he 
had entirely lost his road. The snare was thus broken : 
Cowper escaped the temptation : he returned to his 
home, and immediately sat down and wrote a hymn 
which has ministered comfort to thousands, and will 
probably yet afford consolation to thousands of others, 
even for generations to come. 

Mr. Montgomery says of this hymn that it "is a 
lyric of high tone and character, and rendered awfully 
interesting by the circumstances under which it was 
written, — in the twilight of departing reason." 

Every one knows that the admirable hymn, — 
"Oh for a closer walk with God," 



120 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

was also written by the amiable Cowper, when under 
much darkness of soul, in one of the intervals between 
his seasons of deep melancholy. Every Christian who 
has made even but little progress in the olivine life can 
testify to the correctness of its experimental theology ; 
and we would hope that few persons are disposed to 
imitate Dr. Southey, who intimates that the composition 
of the " Olney Hymns" in connection with his friend the 
Rev. John Newton, tended to bring back the renewal of 
his insanity in 1773. Nay, after blaming Newton for 
what he regarded as his injudicious conduct in having en- 
gaged Cowper in such a deeply-interesting employment, 
he quotes two verses of this hymn as a proof of his 
supposed danger of a return to insanity : — 

"Where is the blessedness I knew 
When first I saw the Lord ? 
Where is the soul-refreshing view 
Of Jesus and his word ? 

" What peaceful hours I once enjoyed ! 
How sweet their memory still ! 
But they have left an aching void 
The world can never fill." 

Truly has the apostle said, " The natural man receiveth 
not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolish- 
ness unto him ; neither can he know them, because they 
are [only] spiritually discerned." 

The beautiful hymn of Cowper, — 

" How blest thy creature is, God !" 
is said by his biographers to have been the very first he 



WILLIAM COWPER. 121 

wrote on his recovery at St. Alban's from his second at- 
tack of insanity. He entitled it the "Happy Change;" 
and no one can read it, with its origin in view, without 
being struck with its beauty. 

But the second strain in which he poured forth the 
grateful feelings of his heart, — 

" Far from the world, Lord, I flee," 

is perhaps sweeter still. Indeed, as Dr. Cheever remarks, 
" it is beyond comparison more perfect, — it is exquisitely, 
sacredly, devoutly beautiful." 

Dr. Cheever throws additional beauty on this compo- 
sition by describing to us the location in which it was 
written. He had gone from St. Alban's to Hunting- 
don, passing his whole time on the way in silent com- 
munion with God. He says, "It is impossible to tell 
with how delightful a sense of his protection and fa- 
therly care of me it pleased the Almighty to favor me 
during the whole of my journey." Left alone by his 
brother for the first time among strangers, his heart 
began to sink within him, and he wandered forth into 
the fields, melancholy and desponding, at the close of 
the day, but, like Isaac at eventide, found his heart so 
powerfully drawn to God that, having found a secluded 
spot beneath a bank of shrubbery and verdure, he 
kneeled down and poured forth his whole soul in prayer 
and praise. It pleased the Saviour to hear him, and to 
grant him at once a renew T ed sense of his presence, de- 
liverance from his fears, and a sweet assurance that, 

11 



122 



AUTHORS AND ORIGIN <»*• BYMNS. 



wherever his lot might be cast, the God of all consola- 
tion would still be with him. 

The next day was the Sabbath, and he attended 
church for the first time since his recovery, — that is, for 
nearly two years, — and found the house of God to be the 
very gate to heaven. He could scarcely restrain his 
emotions during the service, so fully did he see the 
beauty of the glory of the Lord. A person with whom 
he afterward became acquainted sat near him, devoutly 
engaged in worship ; and Cowper loved him for the ear- 
nestness of his manner. He says, " While he was sing- 
ing the psalms I looked at him ; and, observing him intent 
upon his holy employment, I could not help saying in 
my heart, with much emotion, ' The Lord bless you for 
praising Him whom my soul loveth !' n 

After church he immediately hastened to the solitary 
place where he had found such sacred enjoyment in 
prayer the day before. " How," he exclaims, " shall I 
express what the Lord did for me, except by saying that 
he made all his goodness to pass before me ? I seemed 
to speak to him face to face, as a man converseth with 
his friend, except that my speech was only in tears of 
joy, and groanings which cannot be uttered. I could 
say indeed, with Jacob, not how dreadful, but how lovely 
is this place ! — this is none other than the house of God." 

There, in this sacred spot and in the deep bliss of such 
experience, is the very locality and atmosphere of that 
perfectly beautiful hymn. There was the " calm retreat," 
there the unwitnessed praise, there the holy commu- 



WILLIAM COWPER. 123 

nion with the Saviour by which ho prepared his servant 
to pour forth the gratitude of a redeemed spirit in strains 
which will be sung by the Church on earth till the whole 
Church sing in heaven. 

We may add here that probably the happiest period 
of Cowper's whole life was from 1765, the time of his 
first recovery from insanity, till 1773, the time of its 
recurrence. During this period he composed his portion 
of the " Olney Hymns." Dr. Cheever well says, " If 
Cowper had never given to the Church on earth but a 
single score of those exquisite breathings of a pious 
heart and creations of his own genius, it had been a 
bequest worth a life of suffering to accomplish. The 
dates, or nearly such, of some of those pieces, were 
preserved, so that we are enabled to trace them to the 
frames and circumstances of the writer's mind and heart, 
and to see in them an exact reflection of his own expe- 
rience." 

We have, in many of our collections, hymns by Cow- 
per beginning, — 

" Oh, most delightful hour by man," 

"He lives who lives to God alone," 

and others which had their origin in a way alike com- 
plimentary to Cowper and useful to many. The power 
and charm of his good sense and simplicity, as well as 
the tenderness of his poetry, were acknowledged when 
John Cox, the clerk of All Saints' parish in Northamp- 
ton, a few miles from Weston, came to him with a 
second application for some mortuary verses to be 



124 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

printed with his annual Christmas " bill of mortality. " 
Cowper told him there must be plenty of poets at North- 
ampton, and referred him particularly to his namesake, 
Mr. Cox, the statuary, as a successful wooer of the muse. 
The clerk made answer that all this was very true, and 
he had already borrowed help from him, adding, " But 
alas, sir, Mr. Cox is a gentleman of much reading, and 
the people of our town do not well understand him. He 
has written for me, but nine in ten of us were stone- 
blind to his meaning." Cowper felt all the force of this 
equivocal compliment : his mortified vanity came near re- 
fusing, if the merit of his own verses was considered by 
the smallness of his reading ; but, finding that the poor 
clerk had walked over to Weston on purpose to implore 
his assistance, and was in considerable distress, he good- 
naturedly consented, and supplied the clerk's mortality- 
bill with his beautiful verses for several years. 
Perhaps the beautiful composition by Cowper, — 
" No longer I follow a sound," 
is to be found in more of the English hymn-books 
than our own. Its origin shows how the amiable poet 
loved, even in his hours of social amusement, to dwell 
on tender devotion and pathetic solemnity. His cousin, 
Lady Austen, was fond of playing on the harpsichord; 
and, to suit several of her favorite airs, he wrote Chris- 
tian hymns. The air " My fond shepherds of late" was 
in our own early days a special favorite in many parties, 
and Cowper's lines were considered remarkably well 
adapted to it. 



WILLIAM OOWPER. 125 

Cowper's own account, in a letter to his friend Joseph 
Hill, Esq., in 1789, of the origin of his beautiful Sunday- 
school hymn, — 

" Hoar, Lord, the song of praise and prayer," 

will be read with pleasure : — " My friend the vicar of the 
next parish [Olney] engaged me, the day before yester- 
day, to furnish him by next Sunday with a hymn to be 
sung on occasion of his preaching to the children of the 
Sunday-school, — of which hymn I have not yet produced 
a syllable. " 

The well-known and much-admired hymn of Cowper, — 

" To Jesus, the crown of my hope," 

is not to be found in the " Olney Hymns" as it was not 
written till after the early editions of that work had 
been published. There can be no doubt of its being the 
production of his pen, or that it was the last hymn he 
ever wrote. 

To very many of our readers it will be pleasant to 
read a line or two relating to Cow^per from the pen of 
the world-renowned theologian, Andrew Fuller: — "At 
Olney he continued for a number of years in the enjo} r - 
ment of religious pleasures to a degree seldom known ; 
uniting in social prayer-meetings with Mr. Newton and 
his friends, to the wonder and admiration of all that 
heard him. I knew a person who heard him pray fre- 
quently at these meetings, and have heard him say, ' Of 
all the men that I ever heard pray, no one equalled Mr. 
Cowper.' " 

11* 



126 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HVMNS. 

The reader who remembers that the " Olney Hymns/' 
the joint compositions of Newton and Cowper, were 
written for these very prayer-meetings, will see the con- 
nection of this extract with the design of our volume. 



REV. A. C. COXE, D.D. 

This gentleman, who has favored us with several 
original hymns, besides others translated from the Ger- 
man, was born in Mendham, New Jersey, 1818, and gra- 
duated at the University of New York. He has acquired 
great reputation for classical and poetical talents, and 
has already published many valuable works, especially 
of a poetical character. Dr. Coxe is connected with the 
Episcopal Church. 



REV. W. CROSSWELL, D.D. 

Several beautiful hymns have been given us from the 
pen of this excellent clergyman of the Episcopal Church. 
He was born in 1804, and was rector of Christ's Church, 
Boston, St. Peter's Church, Auburn, in the State of New 
York, and afterward became rector of the Church of the 
Advent in Boston, where he died in 1851. He was a scholar, 
and possessed a fine taste in literature. Among his poems 
are several of remarkable gracefulness and sweetness. 

The death of Dr. Crosswell was solemn and affecting. 



ROBERT CRUTTENDEN. 127 

While engaged in the public Sabbath-afternoon service, 
at the conclusion of the last collect, instead of rising 
from his knees, he sank upon the floor, whence he was 
removed to his own house, where he soon after ceased 
to breathe. His memoir and remains were published, 
after his decease, in New York. 

Among the compositions of Dr. Crosswell was tho 
beautiful hymn, — 

"Lord, lead the way the Saviour went," 

which was written for an anniversary of the Howard 
Benevolent Society in the city of Boston. 



ROBERT CRUTTENDEN, 

The author of the hymn, — 

"Let others boast their ancient line," 

and several others in our older books, was a correspond- 
ent and friend of the Eev. Dr. Doddridge, the Eev. 
James Hervey, and Lady Huntingdon. He resided in 
London, and his great intelligence and generous hospi- 
tality rendered his house the frequent resort of many 
of the literati of that day. One of his grandsons was, 
a few years since, Archdeacon of London. 

Though Mr. Cruttenden was educated for the minis- 
try, and often in early life preached for his uncle, the 
Eev. Eobert Bragge, of Lime St., London, he renounced 
that profession, conscious of his entire destitution of 



123 A I TU"KS AM> ('UK. IN OF HYMNS. 

genuine piety. Indeed, the happy event of his conver- 
sion did not take place till bis fifty-second year, under 
the powerful ministry of the distinguished John Cen- 
nick, — the account of which he afterward published, 
with a prelaee by AYhitefield. He died in 1763, aged 
seventy-three. "When writing to Mr. Keen, Whiteiield 
lays, - Mr* Cruttenden, I find, is gone. God be praised 
that he went off so comfortably ! May our expiring 
hour be like hif 



REV. J. W. CUNNINGHAM. 

This truly venerable clergyman of the Church of Eng- 
land was the author of the hymn, — 

" Dear is the hallowed morn to me," 

which has elevated the devotion of thousands on the 
Lord's day morning. Like the rest of his hymns, it is 
highly evangelical. >Ve remember, some forty years ago, 
when he did not cherish the scripturally affectionate feel- 
ings toward his dissenting brethren which now glow in 
his soul, but when controversial publications indicated his 
displeasure that they forsook his church and cherished 
" the religion of barns." ^Nearness to Christ has brought 
him nearer to his brethren ; and often since that period 
has he co-operated in the common cause of Christ with 
all who love Him. For many years Mr. Cunningham 
was engaged as Head Master of Harrow School, in pre- 
paring young men for college; and, when he shall be 



REV. THOMAS DALE. 129 

called away from earth, hundreds of these shall unite in 
shedding a tear of grateful love over his dust, with not 
a few who have communed with his spirit as they have 
sung his hymns. 



REV. S. S. CUTTING. 



This gentleman, now a professor in the University of 
Rochester, has long been a marked man as a preacher, 
an author, and a journalist amoDg the Baptists. His 
hymns, which are not numerous, are good, and lead us 
to wish that we had more of them. As Professor Cut- 
ting has not yet advanced beyond the meridian of life, 
we may cherish the hope of our wish being gratified. 



REV. THOMAS DALE. 

Our books contain a very few hymns from the pen 
of this clergyman of the Church of England, the son 
of a respectable bookseller in London, who removed with 
the other members of his family to this country, leaving 
Thomas under the care of his maternal uncles. He 
received a fine education in Christ's Hospital, London, 
and went to the University at Cambridge in 1818, 
taking his bachelor's degree in 1823. Here he devoted 
himself to general literature, and published his first 
poem, " The Widow of Nain" in 1819. His intellect is 



130 AUTHOBfl AM) OllKilN 01 1IVMNS. 

of a high order, his theology entirely evangelical, and 
his p&fltoraj assiduity heyond all praise. 

The poetry of Mr. Dale is elegant. While it has no 
majestic flow, it resembles a beautiful rivulet in a delight- 
ful landscape : it runs smooth, is always clear, and some- 
times sparkles in the sunlight. We never think of Mr. 
Dale or his compositions without pleasure. 



REV. PRESIDENT DAVIES. 

The well-known admirable preacher, Samuel Davies, 
a native of Newcastle, Delaware, who succeeded Presi- 
dent Edwards at Princeton in 1759, wrote several excel- 
lent hymns, one of which, — 

"Great God of wonders, all thy ways," 

was long extensively used both in this country and in 
Europe. It is true that he was more remarkable as a 
preacher than a poet; but we cannot forbear an expres- 
sion of regret that this truly evangelical hymn has given 
place to some very far inferior. He ended a life of great 
usefulness in 1761, at the early age of thirty-six years. 



REV. ELIEL DAVIS. 



About the year 1824 we became acquainted with this 
young man, the son of a gentleman who held in the 






REV. I > A \ I I > M.MIAM. 131 

church we served the office of deacon, and who was also 
tke schoolmaster of John B. Gough, the popular lecturer 
on temperance. Soon after that period we commenced, 
for the young people of our congregation, a monthly 
magazine in manuscript, prepared chiefly by the young 
people themselves. While studying for the ministry, 
Eliel Davis often wrote for the " Mutual Instructor" and 
among other papers was the hymn, — 

"From every earthly pleasure." 

The editor of a popular London magazine paying us a 
visit, we showed it to him, and he was so well pleased 
with it that he copied it for his own periodical; and, 
having thus attracted" the attention of hymn-collectors, 
a part of the composition has appeared in hymn-books 
both in Europe and America. Certainly neither its 
writer nor first editor imagined the honor to which it 
was destined. "VYe are sorry to say that in early life our 
talented friend was suddenly called from his labors to 
his eternal rest, — not, however, without several years' 
successful labor in the ministry of Divine truth. 



REV. DAVID DENHAM. 

The well-known hymn called u Sweet Home" and be- 
ginning— 

" Mid scenes of confusion and creature complaints," 

was written by the Rev. David Denham, an English 



132 A l TIIORS AND ORIGIN OF UY.MN.v 

Baptist minister, who died a very few years ago. He 
wafl originally connected with the congregation of the 
Bev. Dr. Hawker, and, having become a Baptist, entered 
the ministry, and labored in Margate, London, and Chel- 
tenham. He edited a hymn-book bearing his own name, 
but wrote most of his poetry, like " Sweet Home/' for 
some of the religious magazines of England. 



REV. DAVID DICKSON. 

Often has the question been asked, Who wrote the 
well-known quaint but beautiful hymn, — 

"Jerusalem, my happy home," 

which James Montgomery has spoken of as one of the 
finest in our language ? It is a great favorite, and de- 
servedly so, for it is really a very beautiful composition. 
It probably appeared for the first time in a collection 
of hymns published by Montgomery himself; and, in 
spite of all that he says to the contrary, we have heard 
it strenuously though strangely maintained that he 
was its author. It appears, with remarkable varia- 
tions, in a volume published in 1693, by Burkitt, the 
Expositor of the Xew Testament; but the fact that 
David Dickson, of Edinburgh, who died in 1662, had long 
before printed it, as containing 248 lines, makes it im- 
possible that it should be Burkitt's, and much less Mont- 
gomery's. A manuscript of about half of it, with con- 



REV. DAVID DICKSON. 133 

siderablo variations, as, "A Song made by F. B. P., — 
to the Tune Diana," proves that it did not originate 
with Dickson. The fact is that, like several other ad- 
mirable hj-nins, it may be traced to some of the Latin 
compositions of the middle or earlier ages, — thus show- 
ing how even the darkest times may contribute to the 
worship of the Church in all future ages. 

It is worthy of remark, after all this, that our modern 
hymns, though like the old ones in spirit, feeling, and 
manner, have scarcely a line in common with them. 

We are reminded here of the fact that in Scotland 
this hymn, in the version of Dickson, is known in nearly 
every house and sung in almost every family; nor is 
this without good results. A few years ago, a Presby- 
terian minister in New Orleans was sent for to attend 
the death-bed of a young man. On his arrival, he found 
that the dying man was a native of North Britain, as 
well as himself; but he endeavored to introduce religious 
conversation with him without success ; and, the more 
he endeavored to accomplish his object, the more deter- 
mined appeared the dying man not to converse with 
him. After many attempts, the clergyman, almost in 
despair, left the bedside, walked toward the window, 
and half unconsciously began to sing, — 

"Jerusalem, my happy home." 

This effectually attracted the attention of the dying 

youth, who at once called out, " My dear mother used 

to sing that hymn/' and, bursting into tears, acknow- 

12 



134 A1TIIORS AND ORICilN OF HYMNS. 

ledged his sinfulness, and inquired the way of salvation, 
— which it was hoped he indeed found. Some years had 
passed away since he heard that hymn sung; but its 
words recalled all the scenes and feelings of home, and 
produced results which, it is probable, that mother had 
never thought of. 



BISHOP DOANE. 



This gentleman, the Protestant Bishop of New Jer- 
sey, who has contributed, — 

'Thou art the Way, to thee alone," 

and two or three other hymns for the use of Christian 
worshippers, was born in Trenton, New Jersey, in 1799. 
He graduated at Union College, Schenectady, when 
nineteen years old, and immediately afterward com- 
menced the study of theology. He was consecrated 
Bishop of his native State in 1832, founded St. Mary's 
Hall in 1827, and Burlington College in 1846. He 
published a volume of poems entitled "Songs by the 
Way/' and many sermons and tracts. He died in 1859. 



REV. PHILIP DODDRIDGE, D.D. 

"Who has not been charmed with the devotional hymns 
of this excellent Protestant Dissenting minister, so many 



REV. PHILIP DODDRIDGE, D.D. 135 

of which are found in our best books? Dr. Stoughton 
has well described them as "relics choicely transparent 
and truly rich." These valued productions were not 
published by himself, but edited, with notes explaining 
what were then considered "hard words," by the Rev. 
Job Orton, who was also one of his students and his ear- 
liest biographer. To this gentleman the amiable widow 
of Doddridge wrote, on May 4th, 1755, "I have the 
pleasure to find, so far as this book has yet been known, 
it has met with pretty general acceptance. Many of my 
best friends consider it as a valuable supplement to Dr. 
Watts's, and, as such, are solicitous to introduce it into 
their respective congregations along with his. I think 
I can truly say I more wish this may be generally done 
from the hope I have they may do something to revive 
religion in the world than from any personal advantage." 
The preparation of his hymns furnished a fine illustra- 
tion of Doddridge's versatility of powers. When he had 
finished the preparation of a discourse, and while his 
heart was still warm with the subject, it was his custom 
to throw the leading thoughts into a few simple stan- 
zas. These were sung at the close of the sermon, and 
supplied his hearers with a compend of his instructions, 
which might greatly aid their memories and their devo- 
tion. Thus, a sermon on " the rest which remains for 
the people of God" was followed by the hymn, — 

" Lord of the Sabbath, hear our vows." 
In like manner a sermon on 1 Pet. ii. 7 was condensed 
into the poetical epitome, — 



136 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMN- 

"Jesus, I love thy charming name." 

The Rev. Dr. James Hamilton, in the " North British 
Review," speaking of these and his other hymns, beauti- 
fully says, " If amber is the gum of fossil trees, fetched 
up and floated off by the ocean, hymns like these are a 
spiritual amber. Most of the sermons to which they 
originally pertained have disappeared forever; but, at 
once beautiful and buoyant, these sacred strains are 
destined to carry the devout emotions of Doddridge to 
every shore where his Master is loved and where his 
mother-tongue is spoken." 

The well-known hymn, — 

" God of Jacob, by whose hand," 

often attributed to Logan, proceeded from the pen of 
Doddridge years before Logan was born. 

In 1836 a very interesting manuscript volume was in 
the hands of the Eev. W. Eooker, of Tavistock, Devon- 
shire, England, which belonged to Dr. Doddridge. It 
contained one hundred hymns in the handwriting of 
that excellent man, numbered in Eoman figures : to 
each was prefixed a text of Scripture, and at the close 
of many of them were added the dates, and sometimes 
the places, of their composition. A few facts from this 
volume may not be without interest to our readers. 
The greater part of these compositions were afterward 
printed, under the direction of the Eev. Job Orton ; and 
to these only do the facts we now give relate. 

The hymn " On the death of a minister," — 



REV. PHILIP DODDRIDGE, D.D. 137 

'• Now let our mourning hearts revive," etc., 

he tells us was "composed at Kettering, August 22, 
1736." 

" Let Zion's watchmen all awake," 

was written from home, — but the name of the place can- 
not be deciphered, — on the occasion of an ordination, 
October 21, 1736. 
The hymn, — 

" My God, thy service well demands," 

bearing for its title, in Orton's volume, "On recovery 
from sickness, during which much of the divine favor 
had been experienced," has, in the manuscript, this 
note : — " Particularly intended for the use of a friend, 
Miss Xancy Bliss, who had been in the extremest danger 
by the bursting of an artery in her stomach, November 
14, 1737." 

The second verse, as printed by Orton, stands, — 

" Thine arms of everlasting love 
Did this weak frame sustain 
When life was hovering o'er the grave 
And nature sunk with pain." 

The closing couplet of this verse in the original is far 

more poetical, and has a distinct reference to the painful 

accident which led to its composition : — 

"When life in purple torrents flowed 
From every sinking vein." 

"Shepherd of Israel, bend thine ear," 

was composed " at a meeting of ministers at Bedworth, 

during their long vacancy [recess], April 10, 1735." 

12* 



138 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMN- 

"And will the great eternal God," etc., 

" On opening a new place of worship," was headed, "On 
the opening of a new meeting-place at Oakham, from 
Psalm lxxxvii. 4." Ko date is given. 

"Great God of heaven and nature, rise," etc., 

is entitled, in the manuscript, " A hymn for the First- 
day, January 9, 1739-40." 

A few additional lines relating to Dr. Doddridge will 
be pardoned. He possessed a very remarkable talent for 
satire, which he could condense into a short epigram. 
One of his pupils, a weak young man, thought he had 
invented a machine on which he could fly to the moon. 
The doctor wrote, — 

"And will Volatio leave this world so soon, 
To fly to his own native seat, the moon? 
'Twill stand, however, in some little stead 
That he sets out with such an empty head." 

One of his lovely daughters — the same who said she 
was loved by every one, because she loved everybody — 
wounded her foot by running a thorn into it; where- 
upon her father addressed to her the lines, — 

"Oft I have heard the ancient sages say 
The path of virtue was a thorny way: 
If so, dear Celia, we may know 
Which path it is you tread, which way it is you go." 

Well as it is known, we will ask permission to add his 
epigram on his family motto, which Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
who has himself been called " the old king of critics," 



REV. PHILIP DODDRIDGE, D.D. 139 

has warmly eulogized as one of the finest in the English 
language : — 

"Live while you live, the epicure would say, 
And seize the pleasures of the present day : 
Live while you live, the sacred preacher cries, 
And give to God each moment as it flies. 
Lord, in my life let both united be : 
I live in pleasure while I live to thee." 

The beautiful hymn, though less known than it should 

be ; — 

" Awake, my soul, to meet the day," 

was written by Dr. Doddridge, who rose every morn- 
ing throughout the year at five o'clock. It originally 
consisted of seven verses, and was constantly used by 
him as an act of devotion, on which account he en- 
titled it "A Morning Hymn, to be sung at awaking 
and rising." We are told that, as the beginning of the 
sixth verse — " As rising now" — was yet on his lips, he 
sprang out of bed. The reader will remember that to 
this habit of early rising we owe his admirable " Family 
Expositor of the New Testament." 

In every view of the subject, it would be improper not 
to refer, in this connection, to " Doddridge's Principles of 
the Christian Religion, in Plain and Easy Verse." Yery 
few productions, for many years, did more to diffuse 
evangelical religion among the young people of England, 
from the palace to the cottage, than did this unpretend- 
ing little work. Writing to his wife, who was then dis- 
tant from him, he thus speaks : — " I have been amusing 
myself with making some little verses for the children. 



140 AUTHORS AND ORKilN OF 11 Y V. 

It is a work Mr. Clark, of St. Alban's, proposed to ine, — 
that I should draw up a little summary of religion in 
verse for the use of little children, pretty much in sense 
the same with Dr. Watts's Second Catechism, which is 
the best short compendium I ever saw for matter and 
method. I have insensibly crept on for about a third 
part of the whole, and hope to end in a fortnight more." 
In a later letter to the same lady, he says, " I am not 
ashamed of these little services ; for I had rather feed 
the lambs of Christ than rule a kingdom." 

Those of our readers who have read the life of this 
excellent man will remember the details of a remarkable 
dream which he had after spending an evening with Dr. 
Samuel Clark, conversing with him on the happiness of 
Christians when separated from the body. Eetiring to 
sleep, he imagined himself leaving earth and conducted 
by an angelic being to a part of heaven resembling a 
palace, where he was favored with an interview with his 
glorified Lord and Master, who expressed His approval 
of his labors and promised the eternal reward of His 
favor. After this he saw in the room where he had been 
placed, in pictures, a representation of the principal 
scenes of his life. This remarkable dream gave rise to 
the beautiful hymn, — 

" While on the verge of life I stand." 



JOHN DRYDEN. 141 

JOHN DRYDEN. 

Scarcely any hymn in our language is better known 

than, — 

"Creator Spirit, by whose aid," 

which is a paraphrase by the poet Dryden of the Latin 
hymn " Veni Creator Spiritus" of Ambrose, Bishop of 
Milan in the fourth century. The Rev. J. Chandler, 
of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, England, who trans- 
lated and published, in 1837, a collection of "Hymns of 
the Primitive Church" says that, in the primitive times, 
each day, or twenty-four hours, was " parcelled out" into 
eight services, — there being a service at the end of every 
three hours. At nine o'clock every morning a hymn 
was sung to the Holy Spirit, — that being the hour in 
which, on the day of Pentecost, he descended on the 
apostles. This seems to have been observed from very 
early times ; so that Mr. Chandler adds, " Most likely 
the Veni Creator of St. Ambrose was merely a new 
hymn written by him on a subject already familiar to 
the Church from the apostles downward." 

By a reference to the article Charlemagne, in this 
volume, the reader will see that other claims have been 
set up for the authorship of this fine hymn. 

Dryden wrote also a paraphrase of " Te Deum Lau- 

damus-" but it is far inferior to the one by Charles 

Wesley : — 

"Infinite God, to thee we raise," etc. 



142 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

REV. GEORGE DUFFIELD, JR. 

The " Sabbath Hymn-Book" contains two hymns from 
the pen of this gentleman which are not anonymous, 
and other books have some others which are. All of 
them show that he possesses several very important 
qualifications of a good hymn-writer. One of the two 
hymns to which we have referred, — 

"Blessed Saviour, thee I love," 

was written at Bloomfield, Xew Jersey, when the church 
of which its author was then pastor was in the midst of 
a very pleasant revival; and the other, — 

'• Stand up ! stand up for Jesus !" 

was composed to be sung after a sermon delivered by 
its writer the Sabbath following the mournfully sudden 
death of the Eev. Dudley A. Tyng, who was called from 
earth in 1858, and whose dying counsel to his brethren 
in the ministry was, u Stand up for Jesus." 

3Ir. Duffield, a son of the Rev. Dr. Duffield, a Presby- 
terian clergyman of Detroit, was born at Carlisle, in 
Pennsylvania, in 1818, graduated at Yale College in 1837, 
was ordained in 1840, and removed to Philadelphia in 
l s 52. His ministerial career has been marked by much 
Christian activity and success; and he has already given 
several proofs, besides his hymns, of his talents for au- 
thorship. 



REV. TIMOTHY DWIUIIT, D.D. 143 

REV. TIMOTHY DWIGHT, D.D. 

We never read Dr. D wight's beautiful hymn, — 
" I love thy Church, God," 

without an earnest wish that he had written many 
more like it. And yet, when we remember how much 
labor he performed, notwithstanding the defect of his 
sight, we are surprised that he accomplished so much. 
It is well known that the excellent doctor was re- 
quested by the Congregationalist ministers of Connec- 
ticut to revise Dr. Watts's version of the Psalms, and 
" to versify the Psalms omitted by Watts," which had 
been previously done, but very imperfectly, by Joel 
Barlow. He accomplished his task to the satisfaction 
of the parties by whom he was employed, adding up- 
ward of twenty compositions to the volume ; but very 
few of them are now used. 

Few men ever employed an amanuensis to so great an 
extent as this worthy President of Yale College. His 
" Travels" " System of Theology" and probably his " Ser- 
mons," were all written in this way. Thus by the aid 
of his students — for the work was generally done by 
them, and gratuitously — his name and influence will be 
perpetuated through many generations. 

Dr. Dwight was born in Northampton, Mass., in 1752, 
and died in 1817. In 1785, he published his first poem, 
" The Conquest of Canaan," in 12mo, a copy of which 
we saw sold in England for more than five dollars. 



144 AUTHORS AM) ORIGIN OF EYMM8. 

REV. SIDNEY DYER. 

The hymn, — 

"Go, preach the blest salvation," 

was the production of this zealous and useful Baptist 
minister, who is also the author of several volumes of 
religious poetry. He was formerly a missionary laborer 
among the Indians, and has been many years a laborious 
servant of Christ in the Great West. He was born in 
the State of New York, in the year 1814. 



REV. J. W. EASTBURNE. 

'We have, in one or more of our hymn-books, a remark- 
able composition for its evangelical and poetical spirit, 
beginning, — 

"0 holy, holy, holy Lord!"' 

written by this excellent young man, who died in New 
York, the city of his birth, in the year 1819, at the age 
of twenty-two years. He was associated in literary en- 
gagements with Robert C. Sands. 



CHARLOTTE ELLIOTT. 

One of the most popular hymns we have commences, — 
"Just as I am, without one plea." 
It has been thought by many persons not unlikely to 



REV. R. ELLIOTT. 145 

know, that scarcely any other hymn in our language 
has been so useful alike to the unconverted and to the 
Christian. Its author, Miss Elliott, is a somewhat elderly 
lady of fortune residing at Torquay, in Devonshire, Eng- 
land, a neighborhood which has been favored with her 
beneficence for many years. Some years since, she 
spent many months in the vicinityof Geneva, where she 
formed warm friendships with Drs. Malan, Merle d'Au- 
bigne, and other gentlemen of the same evangelical 
school. She is said to have published several small vo- 
lumes of devotional poetry, and seldom, even now, ap- 
pears at the breakfast-table without more or less of 
Christian poetical composition in manuscript. 



REV. R. ELLIOTT. 

The hymn now becoming pretty well known among 

us — 

"Prepare us, gracious God," 

usually ascribed to Toplady, who first published it, and 
that in an altered form, in 1766, was written by Elliott 
in 1761. Its author was born at Kingsbridge, Devon- 
shire, was admitted to Cambridge University in 1746, 
for a while associated with the Methodists, and ulti- 
mately settled as a Dissenting minister in London. He 
wrote several theological works, including "Sin De- 
stroyed and the Sinner Saved; or, Justification by Imputed 
Righteousness a Doctrine Superior to all Others for Pro- 
moting Holiness in Life" He died in 1788. 



146 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 



JAMES EDMESTON. 

This gentleman, who has contributed several accept- 
able hymns to our collections, was a layman, connected 
with a Congregational church in London. He published 
several small volumes of devotional poetry, one called 
u The Cottage Minstrel," hymns for village prayer-meet- 
ings, and a large number of hymns in various magazines. 
He died, at an advanced age, a few years ago. 



REV. WILLIAM ENFIELD, LL.D. 

This gentleman, the author of, — 

"Behold where, in a mortal form," 

was for many years an Arian minister, first at Liverpool 
and afterward in Norwich, both in England, and died in 
the latter city, 1797, at the age of fifty-six. For several 
years he was a professor of belles-lettres at the Unitarian 
Academy at Warrington, and was the author of several 
popular volumes. His life was published, in connection 
with three volumes of his sermons, by Dr. Aikin. 



REV. JONATHAN EVANS. 

The well-known favorite hymn, — 

" Hark ! the voice of love and mercy, 



Hl-.Y. JOHN FAWCETT, D.D. 347 

much longer than it is now generally printed, was the 
composition of the Rev. Jonathan Evans, of Foleshill, 
England. lie wrote a volume of similar compositions, 
the manuscript of which is said yet to be in existence. 
Though originally in a very different profession, and 
unblest by the privileges of a collegiate education, Mr. 
Evans was, for about thirty years, a plain, earnest, and 
successful preacher of the gospel, chiefly in the villages 
of Warwickshire and among a congregation raised by 
his own labors at Foleshill. He was a man of sense, 
piety, activity, and fortitude, — a firm and generous 
friend, and a kind benefactor to the poor, both by ren- 
dering medical assistance and in ministerial labors. lie 
died in August, 1809, aged sixty years. 



REV. JOHN FAWCETT, D.D. 

Tradition in England gives a very pleasing account 
of the origin of the well-known hymn, — 
"Blest be the tie that binds." 

It was written by the late dignified and gentlemanly 
Rev. John Fawcett,D.D., who died in 1817, in the seventy- 
seventh year of his age, nearly sixty years of which 
were devoted to the Christian ministry. As early as 
1782 he published a small volume of hymns for public 
and private worship, — a new edition of which was issued 
in the year of his death. 

After he had been a few years in the ministry, his 



148 AUTHORS AND OBIGIfl 01 HYMN- 

family increasing far more rapidly than his income, lie 
thought it was his duty to accept a call to settle as 
pastor of a Baptist church in London, to succeed the 
celebrated Dr. Gill, which he did. He preached his fare- 
well sermon to his church in Yorkshire, and loaded six 
or seven wagons with his furniture, books, etc., to be 
carried to his new residence. All this time the members 
of his poor church were almost broken-hearted : fer- 
vently did they pray that even now he might not leave 
them j and, as the time for his departure arrived, men, 
women, and children clung around him and his family 
in perfect agony of soul. The last wagon was being 
loaded, when the good man and his wife sat down on 
one of the packing-cases to weep. Looking into his 
tearful face, while tears like rain fell down her own 
cheeks, his devoted wife said, " Oh, John, John, I cannot 
bear this ! I know not how to go f " Xor I, either," 
said the good man; "nor will we go. Unload the 
wagons and put every thing in the place where it was 
before." The people cried for joy. A letter was sent 
to the church in London to tell them that his coming to 
them was impossible; and the good man buckled on his 
armor for renewed labors on a salary of less than two 
hundred dollars a year. 

It is said that the hymn to which we have already 
referred was written to commemorate his continuance 
with his people. It was not only useful then, but has 
been sung by tens of thousands since, and no doubt will 
be for generations yet to come. 



REV. JOHN FAWCETT, D.D. 149 

Dr. Fawcett was the author of several other works be 
sides liis hymn-book. One of these — " An Essay on Anger" 
— was a favorite book with George III., who offered its au- 
thor any benefit he could confer. The good man substan- 
tially replied that he lived among his own people, — that he 
enjoyed their love, — that God blessed his labors among 
them, — and that he needed nothing which even a king 
could bestow. Some time afterward, however, a young 
man, the son of a dear friend, was sentenced to death 
for the crime of forgery. Fawcett interposed in his 
favor, and, after much labor, obtained from his sovereign 
a pardon. The young man afterward became an emi- 
nent Christian, and on the Sabbaths of many years read 
the hymns in a church in Liverpool. 

Fawcett was exceedingly fond of psalmody, and often 
said, " If the Lord has given to man the ability to raise 
such melodious sounds and voices on earth, what de- 
lightful harmony will there be in heaven!" 

Let us take our last look at this excellent minister of 
Jesus Christ. He has ascended the pulpit at an Associa- 
tion in Yorkshire. A thousand eyes are fixed on him 
in love and admiration, and all present express their con- 
viction, by nods and smiles, that a spiritual feast has been 
provided for them. As a good soldier of Christ, he has 
endured hardness for far more than half a century. 
His praise has been in all the churches ; his ministry 
has been greatly prized through the whole of that popu- 
lous district; and his usefulness has been honored at 
home and abroad, in the cottage and in the palace itself. 

13* 



150 AUTHOEfl AVD uKU.IN OF HYMNS. 

He has now come to bear his dying testimony to the 
doctrines of the cross, and to bid farewell to the minis- 
ters and friends with whom he has been so long asso- 
ciated. Many of them have a strong presentiment that 
they shall see his face no more, and are prepared to re- 
ceive his message as from the lips of a man who has 
finished his course and now stands at the entrance of 
heaven. As he rises in the pulpit, a death-like silence 
overspreads the crowded congregation, and all ears are 
opened to catch the words of inspiration. With a tre- 
mulous voice, and with deep emotion, he reads the text, 
"I am this day going the way of all the earth," Josh, 
xxiii. 14 -, and, long before he finishes his discourse, the 
place becomes a Bocliim, — the house of God, — the gate 
of heaven. The sermon, which was committed to the 
press by the agency of its hearers, yet exists as a monu- 
ment to his love of truth, his holy affection, and his zeal 
for the extension of the doctrines of sovereign mercy. 



JOHN FELLOWS. 

Several hymns on baptism, which appear in some 
of our books, were written by John Fellows, a poor 
shoemaker of that denomination, of Birmingham, Eng- 
land, in the latter part of the last century. He wrote 
several works of a poetical character, including " The 
History of the Bible." He was contemporary with Gill 
and Toplady, on whose decease he wrote elegies. The 



REV. BENJAMIN FRANCIS. 151 

fourth edition of his hymns was published in 1777. Al- 
libone, in his very able " Critical Dictionary of English 
Literature" improperly speaks of him as a Methodist. 



ELIZA LEE FOLLEN. 



We have met, in our books, with two or three very 
pleasing hymns from the pen of this lady, who is, we 
believe, connected with the Unitarian body. She has 
published several volumes of prose, which have been 
well received by the public, especially in New England, 
to the manners of which portion of our land she appears 
to be very warmly attached. 

This lady, formerly Miss Cabot, a native of Boston, 
was married in 1828 to Professor Charles Follen, who 
perished in the conflagration of the steamboat Lexing- 
ton, in 1840. She has since published the life of her 
husband. 



REV. BENJAMIN FRANCIS. 

The Rev. Benjamin Francis, whose hymn 

" My gracious Kedeemer I love" 

is an ornament to many of our books, was a native of 
Wales, and was born in 1734. At fifteen he united with 
a Baptist church, and began to preach at nineteen, when 
he was sent to Bristol College, where he remained for 



152 AUTHORS AND ORKilN OF HYMNS. 

three years. When he went to college he did not know 
enough of the English language to ask in it a blessing 
on his food ; but in a short time he became an excellent 
English scholar. At twenty-four he was ordained, at 
Shortwood, in Gloucestershire, where he remained till 
his death in 1799. During his ministry the house of 
worship was three times enlarged, and a new edifice 
was erected three miles from it for evening services. One 
of his hymns, — 

" Great King of glory, come," 

was written for the re-dedication of his church-edifice 
after one of its enlargements. He was strongly invited 
to settle with a church in London ; but, though he had a 
large and afflicted family, and a small income, he posi- 
tively refused. He is said to have enjoyed through life a 
very heavenly state of mind, and, though frequently in 
great trouble, was generally happy. As he approached 
the end of his life, he would often weep over the remem- 
brance of his early friends, nearly all of whom had been 
removed by death. He had used to speak of heaven as 
the residence of the larger number of his companions. 
He died happy in Christ, saying, a few days before his 
death, " If I could mention nothing of former experiences, 
I can, I can, at this moment go to Jesus, as a poor sinner, 
longing for salvation in his own sovereign way." 

The late eminent preacher, the Eev. Thomas Flint, 
was the son-in-law and successor of this excellent man. 



REV. W. II. FIRNESS, D.D. 153 

REV. RICHARD FURMAN, D.D. 

The name of this truly-excellent man is not unknown 
to our hymn-books, though it is readily conceded that 
poetry was by no means the leading characteristic of his 
mind. Few ministers of the Baptist body, in this or any 
other land, have been more distinguished for sound judg- 
ment, correct theology, eminent spirituality, or success- 
ful labor than was Dr. Furman ; and whatever tends to 
perpetuate his memory will be valued by all who knew 
him. He was born in the State of New York in 1755, 
commenced the work of the ministry at about eighteen 
years of age, and settled at Charleston, S.C., in 1787, 
where he labored with great success till his decease in 
in 1825. He filled in his own denomination many of 
its most important offices; and the influence he ex- 
erted is still powerful for good. 



REV. W. H. FURNESS, D.D. 

This gentleman, author of several very fine hymns in 
our collections, has since 1823 been the Unitarian clergy- 
man of Philadelphia. He graduated at Harvard Col- 
lege in 1820, and then pursued his theological studies till 
his ordination. He is the author of several religious 
works, is a poet of fine taste, and has published many 
hymns, translations, and fugitive pieces. He has lately 
devoted himself to the reform-movements of the dav, such 



\bi AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

as anti-slavery, temperance, and, we believe, woman's 
rights. lie is also very warmly attached to the fine arts. 
Dr. Furness was born at Boston in 1802. 



THOMAS H. GALLAUDET, LL.D. 

We know of very few hymns written by this truly 
distinguished man ; but if he had written no other than, — 

"Jesus, in sickness and in pain," 

he would be fully entitled to a place in our volume. He 
was born in Philadelphia in 1807, and died at Hartford, 
Connecticut, in 1851. He graduated at Yale College in 
1805, being then but eighteen years of age, after which 
he suffered for several years from ill health. In 1814 he 
was licensed to preach, but soon after devoted himself to 
the deaf and dumb institution in Hartford, in which 
great work he was the pioneer and most distinguished 
of all teachers. He was also the most eminent and 
popular writer of juvenile literature of his day. The 
continued buoyancy and vigor of his mind, and the 
amount of his achievements, were truly wonderful j and 
his memory will ever remain fragrant in the land which 
he served and adorned. 



REV. JOHN GAMBOLD. 

We have yet, in some of our books, a fine old hymn 
beginning, — 



KKV. JOHN GAMBOLD. 155 

"Oh, tell me no more of this world's vain store." 

It was written by the Rev. John (Jambold, a native of 
Haverfordwest, who took his degree of M.A. at Oxford 
University in 1734. After being, on the presentation of 
Archbishop Seeker, vicar of Stanton Harcourt, in Ox- 
fordshire, till 1748, he joined the United Brethren, among 
whom he was ordained bishop in 1754. He established 
a congregation at Coothill, in Ireland, and died in his 
native town in 1771. He published several works, be- 
sides a poem on the martyrdom of Ignatius, and was 
universally esteemed for his extensive learning and inof- 
fensive manners. 

The hymn to which we have referred was a great fa- 
vorite with the eminent Rowland Hill, who published it 
in his own hymn-book, and during many of the last 
years of his life probably repeated some of its lines 
thousands of times, feeling intense interest in them even 
when he was beyond the power of uttering a single 
word : — 

"And when I'm to die, receive me, I'll cry, 
For Jesus hath loved me, I cannot tell why ; 
But this I do find, — we two are so joined,- 
He'll not live in glory and leave me behind." 

It has been well said that it is impossible to read 
Gambold's works without being convinced that he en- 
joyed much communion with God and was greatly con- 
versant with heavenly things, and that hence he had 
imbibed much of the spirit and caught much of the tone 
of the glorified Church above. The late Judge Story, 



156 A I TIK»K> AND ORIGIN Of BTMH8. 

writing to the Rev. John Brazer, says, u The specimens 

you have presented of his writings give me a high opi- 
nion of his genius, and there are occasional flashes in his 
poetry of great brilliancy and power. The ' Jlystery of 
Life' contains some exquisite touches, and cannot but 
recall to every man, who has indulged in musings beyond 
this sublunary scene, some of those thoughts which have 
passed before him in an unearthly form as he has com- 
muned with his own soul." 



REV. PAUL GERHARD. 

This German divine, sometimes called Gerhardt, waa 
born in 1606 and died in 1676. His hymns, or rather 
translations of them, are becoming increasingly popular, 
and very deservedly so, for we know of none more scrip- 
tural in sentiment or devotional in spirit. He was the 
author of the hymn first translated by the Rev. John 

Wesley, — 

"Give to the "winds thy fears," 

which in some English hymn-books has been erroneously 
ascribed to Martin Luther. Our more modern books 
are giving us others of his truly excellent productions ; 
so that he may become in this country what he has long 
been in Germany, — the favorite poet among orthodox 
Christians. 



NN GILBERT. 157 

REV. THOMAS GIBBONS, D.D. 

Our books contain a hymn, — 

" When Jesus dwelt in mortal clay," 

and one or two others, written by Dr. Gibbons, an Inde- 
pendent or Congregational minister, first in Silver Street 
and afterward in Haberdashers' Hall, both in the city 
of London. He was the intimate friend of Whitefield, 
who tells an amusing anecdote of his once suffering sea- 
sickness for an hour and thus having his sympathy for 
sailors greatly increased. He was also intimate with 
Dr. "Watts, whose life he wrote. He published ''Memoirs 
of Eminent Women," "Rhetoric," etc. In 1785, when 
sixty-five years of age, he was taken suddenly in a fit, 
and remained speechless for five days, at the end of 
which he died. He was held in very high esteem. 

Dr. Cotton Mather, when speaking of Dr. Gibbons's 
volume " The Christian Minister," says, " Here you have 
a thousand hints respecting the reading of the best au- 
thors, the composing of sermons, etc." 



ANN GILBERT. 



Two or three hymns to be found in some of our books 
were written by this lady, who was one of the Taylor 
family of Ongar, and who felt a special interest in hymns 
for the young, and for Sabbath-schools. She was one of 



li 



158 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

the authors of " Hymns for Infant Minds." Her father, 
as is well known, was the Rev. Isaac Taylor, an excellent 
Congregational minister of England, and her husband 
was for some years a professor of classics in a Dissenting 
college, and for many years a Congregational minister 
at Nottingham. 



REV. THOMAS GISBORNE. 

This gentleman, whose hymns, we believe, are not 
numerous, was born in England in 1758, and died in 
1846. In 1826 he was appointed as the Prebendary of 
Durham, an office which he filled till his death. He 
published five volumes of sermons, and many other 
works, which were well received : some of them were 
highly commended by the distinguished Robert Hall. 



LORD GLENELG. 

This British nobleman was the author of the well- 
known hymn, — 

" When gathering clouds around I view." 

His original name and style was Sir Robert Grant, 
by which name and title he was well known as a faith- 
ful servant of his sovereign in a high office in India, 
where also he was a warm friend of evangelical mission- 



HANNAH f. GOULD. 159 

aries of every name. On his return from the East he 
was elevated to the peerage, which he has eminently 
adorned. 

JOHN MASON GOOD, M.D. 

An elegantly-written hymn, — 

" Not -worlds on worlds in phalanx deep!" 

and a very few others, were written by this eminent 
philosopher and physician, a native of Epping, in Eng- 
land, in 1764. In addition to several highly-important 
medical works, and editing, in connection with Dr. Olin- 
thus Gregory and Xewton Eosworth, Esq., a valuable 
Cyclopedia called " The Pantalogia" he published a new 
translation of Solomon's Song and Job, as well as other 
works written in Oriental languages. Dr. Good was the 
son of a Dissenting minister, and, in early life, advocated 
Unitarianism in its lowest form. In his later years he 
became zealously attached to evangelical truth, in the 
triumphs of which he died, January 2d, 1827. Mr. Alli- 
bone truly says, " There are few names that cast greater 
lustre upon the archives of British medical science and 
philological learning than that of John Mason Good." 



HANNAH F. GOULD. 



This lady, the author of two or three hymns in our 
popular collections, is an extensive miscellaneous writer 



160 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

of our own land. She is a native of Lancaster, Vt., 
but removed in early life to Newburyport, in Massachu- 
setts. Mrs. Hale, in her " Woman* s Record," says, " In 
truth, the great power of her poetry is its moral appli- 
cation. This hallows every object she looks upon and 
ennobles every incident she celebrates. She takes lowly 
and humble themes, but she turns them to the light of 
heaven, and they are beautiful, and refined, and ele- 
vated." 

JAMES GRANT. 

The well-known hymn, — 

"0 Zion ! afflicted with wave upon wave," 

was written by James Grant, a magistrate at Edinburgh, 
in Scotland. He was highly esteemed for his piety and 
his love of Christians. Having an ear for music, he was 
much pleased with the old Scottish melodies, but dis- 
liked the words to which many of them were 6ung. He 
therefore wrote some plaintive experimental hymns 
adapted to them, most of which are now forgotten; but 
the one to which we have referred will be popular, in 
Europe at least, for generations to come. It was written 
to the air of the " Yellow-Haired Laddie;" but modern 
"improvements" have prepared other tunes for it. Mr. 
Grant first published his hymns in 1784, with the title, 
" Original Hymns and Poems, Written by a Private Chris- 
tian for his Own Use." 



MADAME GUION. 161 

THOMAS GREENE. 

This gentleman was the author of the hymn,— 

"It is the Lord enthroned in light." 

He resided at Ware, in Hertfordshire, England, and 
published a small volume of hymns in 1780. He was not 
a minister. 



REV. JOSEPH GRIGG. 



About half a century ago, we saw a small pamphlet 
containing nineteen hymns, written by a young man 
named Grigg, when he was a laboring mechanic. Among 
the rest were the well-known 



and 



Jesus, and shall it ever be ?' 



Behold a stranger at the door." 



He afterward entered the ministry, preached in Silver 
Street, London, married a widow lady of considerable 
property, and died at Walthamstow, near London, in 
1768. 



MADAME GUION. 



An extract from a letter written in 1782 by the esti- 
mable Cowper to the Rev. William Unwin, in reference 
to this eminent woman, will be far more acceptable to 
the reader than any thing we could ourselves write : — 



u 



1G2 AITIIORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

•• Mr. Bull, a Dissenting [Congregational] minister of 
Newport [Pagnell,] a learned, ingenious, good-natured, 
pious friend of ours, who sometimes visits us, and whom 
we visited last week, put into my hands three volumes 
of French poetry, composed by Madame Guion. <A 
quietist/ say you, ' and a fanatic : I will have nothing to 
do with her V It is very well : you are welcome to have 
nothing to do with her ; but, in the mean time, her verse is 
the only French verse I ever read that I found agreeable : 
there is a neatness in it equal to that which we applaud, 
with so much reason, in the compositions of Prior. I 
have translated several of them, and shall proceed in my 
translations till I have filled a liliputian paper-book I 
happen to have by me, which, when filled, I shall pre- 
sent to Mr. Bull. He is her passionate admirer, — rode 
twenty miles to see her picture in the house of a stranger, 
which stranger politely insisted on his acceptance of it, 
and it now hangs over his chimney. It is a striking 
portrait, — too characteristic not to be a strong resem- 
blance, and, were it encompassed with a glory instead 
of being dressed in a nun's hood, might pass for the face 
of an angel." 

Many of Madame's religious views were so erroneous 
as to lead one of her most devoted admirers, the dis- 
tinguished John Wesley, to say, " nay, such as are dan- 
gerously false." And yet the same writer says, "I 
believe she was not only a good woman, but good in 
an eminent degree, — deeply devoted to God, and often 
favored with uncommon communications of his Spirit." 



REV. WILLIAM HAMMOND. 163 

After being vehemently opposed by the leading men 
of the Romish Church, .Madame Guion spent ten years 
in prison, during which time she composed many hymns 
and poems on sacred subjects, filling five octavo volumes. 
Speaking of her imprisonment at Vincennes, she says, 
" I passed my time in great peace, content to spend the 
rest of my life there, if such were the will of God. I 
sang songs of joy, which the maid who served me learned 
by heart as fast as I made them ; and we sang together 
thy praises, O my God ! The stones of my prison looked 
in my eyes like rubies. I esteemed them more than all 
the gaudy brilliants of a vain world." 

After her long imprisonment, Madame Guion lived a 
retired life for more than seven years at Blois, where she 
died, June, 1717, in the seventieth year of her age. It 
has been truly said that she sang her sweetest hymns in 
the Bastille. 



REV. WILLIAM HAMMOND. 

The well-known, animating hymns, — 

"Lord, we come before thee now," 

" Would you win a soul to God ?" 
and 

"Awake, and sing the song," 

with a few others, were written by the Rev. William 
Hammond, "late of St. John's College, Cambridge/' by 
whom was published, in 1745, a volume of original 
"Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs," in which these 



1(>4 AUTHORS and ORIGIN 01 hymns. 

OOmpositions first appeared before the world. Long as 
they have served the churches, we can easily believe 
they have comparatively but just entered on their career 
of usefulness. 

Mr. Hammond was one of the early Calvinistic 
Methodist preachers. He afterward, with his friend 
Cennick, joined the Moravian Brethren, and was interred 
in their burying-ground at Chelsea, London, 1783. Be- 
sides his hymns, he wrote a volume entitled " The Mar- 
row of the Gospel," and left in manuscript an autobio- 
graphy written in Greek. 



REV. JOSEPH HART. 



Every reader will remember that many hymns in 
almost every book bear the name of this excellent man. 
He was born about the year 1712, and in early life re- 
ceived an excellent education, which prepared him for a 
classical teacher, a profession he adorned for many years, 
not entering on the ministry till about forty-eight years 
of age. He settled in 1760 as pastor of the Independent 
Church in Jewin Street, London, where his ministry was 
abundantly blessed to a very large church and congrega- 
tion. Here, while suffering great afflictions, he labored 
till his death, May 24th, 1768, aged fifty-six years. His 
brother-in-law, the Rev. Mr. Hughes, addressing the 
church in his funeral sermon, said, "He was like the 
laborious ox that dies with the yoke on his neck: so 



REV. THOMAS HAWEIS, LL.B., M.D. 165 

died he with the yoke of Christ on his neck; neither 
would he suffer it to be taken off; for ye are his wit- 
nesses that he preached Christ to you with the arrows 
of death sticking in him." He was buried in Eunhill 
Fields, London, where his tombstone may yet be seen. 
It was said that his funeral was more largely attended 
than that of any other person, there being more than 
twenty thousand spectators present. It may be remarked 
here that Dr. Samuel Johnson records a characteristic 
fact : — " I went to church, — I gave a shilling ; and, seeing 
a poor girl at the sacrament in a bed-gown, I gave her 
privately half a crown, [sixty cents,] though I saw Hart's 
hymns in her hand." 



REV. THOMAS HAWEIS, LL.B., M.D. 

This gentleman, born about 1732, was educated in the 
University of Oxford, England, but was expelled, because 
he professed to be a Calvinist, and irregularly preached 
to large congregations. The chapel at Broadway, West- 
minster, was presented to him ; but the Dean of West- 
minster refused him a license, because he had been ex- 
pelled from Oxford. Some time afterward, he became 
rector of Aldwinkle, in Northampton shire, which post he 
held for fifty-six years. Lady Huntingdon appointed 
him one of her chaplains, and for many years he itine- 
rated throughout her connection. For several years he 
resided at Bath, where he died in 1820, being then the 
oldest " evangelical" clergyman in the Church of Eng- 



166 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

land. He was the author of the well-known beautiful 
hymn,— 

"0 thou from whom all goodness flows," 

as also of the "Life of JRomaine" a " Church History," 
and " A View of the Present State of Evangelical Religion 
throughout the World." Dr. Haweis was one of the 
founders of the London Missionary Society ; and by his 
influence the missions to the South-Sea islands were 
first entered upon. 

The excellent Kev. John Newton says of this good 
man, " The preaching of Dr. Haweis, which had, like 
the report of a cannon, sounded through the country, 
attracted vast congregations to Aldwinkle." Some of 
the most profligate persons in the neighborhood were 
brought to repentance and " the acknowledgment of the 
truth" under his heart-searching addresses. Among his 
converts was an old tavern-keeper, who, having been a 
good customer to his own beer-barrel, had carbuncled 
his nose into the sign of his calling. He was from na- 
ture and interest averse to evangelical truth, and could 
not see what all the world had to run after at Aldwinkle 
Church. Being fond of music, however, and hearing the 
singing highly praised, he contrived to go six miles, avoid 
a drinking-party, and squeeze himself into a pew some- 
what too narrow for his portly person, where he listened 
with delight to the hymns, but stopped his ears to the 
prayers. Heated and fatigued, he closed his eyes also, 
till, a fly stinging his nose, he took one of his hands 
from the side of his head to drive away the intruder. 



BISHOP IIKRER. 167 

Just at that moment, the preacher, in a voice that 
sounded like thunder, read his text: — "He that hath 
ears to hear, let him hear !" The impression was irre- 
sistible : his hands no longer covered his ears : a new- 
sense was awakened within : it was the beginning of 
days to him. No more swearing, no more drunkenness, 
but prayer and hearing the word of God occupied his 
time; and, after walking with God for eighteen years, 
he died rejoicing in hope and blessing God for the minis- 
ter of his conversion. 



BISHOP HEBER. 



Who among our readers can be ignorant of Bishop 
Heber's missionary hymn, — 

"From Greenland's icy mountains"? 

Its amiable author was born in England in 1783, and 
was educated at the University of Oxford, where he 
took his degree of M.A. in 1808, and was soon after 
presented to the family living at Hoclnet, in Shropshire. 
Here he discharged his parochial duties till he was offered 
the bishopric of Calcutta, as successor to Bishop Middle- 
ton, to which see he went in June, 1823. In 1826 he 
travelled in the discharge of his duties, and, while 
bathing, was seized with apoplexy, and suddenly died. 

The hymn which may be regarded as his best monu- 
ment was written at Hodnet, to be sung in connection 
with a sermon which appealed to the people of his 



168 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

charge, in 1820, on behalf of missions. He had not the 
slightest idea that what was written only for a small vil- 
lage congregation would become popular, as it has done, 
in at least three-quarters of the globe. 

The original manuscript of this admirable hymn is 
yet, with a thousand others of like character, in the pos- 
session of the Eev. Dr. Eaffles, of Liverpool ; and from 
this it is seen that the line 

u The heathen in his blindness" 

was first written, — 

" The pagan in his blindness." 



REV. GEORGE HERBERT. 

Devotional feeling and good taste have transferred a 
very few of the fine hymns of this good old poet to our 
books. From the pen of a grandson of the venerated 
Andrew Fuller, we chiefly transcribe a very few lines of 
this scholar, poet, and saint, who died of consumption in 
the trying times of the seventeenth century. 

In the year 1630, George Herbert went, according to 
a custom in those days, to toll the church-bell at the 
quiet village of Bemerton, about one mile from the city 
of Salisbury, on his introduction to the living. He 
stayed much longer than usual after the bell had ceased 
to toll ; and one of his friends, alarmed at his absence, 
looked in at the window and found him prostrate at the 



REV. GEOEGE HKRHKRT. 169 

altar in prayer. On this same Bight, according to his 
biographer, Izaak Walton, he declared that "the virtuous 
life of a clergyman was the most powerful eloquence to 
persuade all that see it to reverence and love, and at 
hast to live like him; and this will I do, because I know 
we live in an age that hath more need of good examples 
than precepts." 

Well indeed did Herbert work out his holy resolu- 
tions. For two or three years the village of Bemerton 
was blessed with a ministry so self-denying, and with 
an example so pure and gentle in its manifestation of 
the Christian graces, that the memory of it "is as oint- 
ment poured forth." Twice every day, he, with his wife 
and child, led the villagers to prayer, and every Sabbath 
afternoon questioned them on the verities of the Christian 
faith. There was not a cottage in the village or neigh- 
borhood, where want and sorrow had found a home, that 
was not cheered by the visits of this holy man. He was 
passionately fond of music; and even when at college 
this was his chief recreation. Twice every week he was 
accustomed to walk from Bemerton to Salisbury for the 
sole purpose of hearing the organ, and on his return his 
soul seemed thrilled with ecstasy. He once met an old 
man, who, with his horse, had fallen on the road and 
were unable to get on their feet again. Taking off his 
coat, Herbert set manfully to work and soon put them 
all right. He was, however, plastered with mud, and 
arrived in Salisbury with a most uncanonical appearance. 
On his friends noticing his plight and asking for an ex- 

15 



170 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN <»r Il\M.\s. 

planation,he told them the story, adding that the thought 
of what he had done would prove " music to him at mid- 

night." 

Xo one can regret that George Herbert was called 
away in the very midst of his holy life, before the time 
of those terrible strifes in which he would have been so 
ill at ease. His death was truly calm and beautiful. 
The Sabbath preceding it, he took his well-tuned lute 
and proceeded to play and sing, — 

"My God, my God, 
My music shall find thee, 
And every string 
Shall have his attribute and sing." 

On the day of his death he declared, "I am sorry I 
have nothing to present to God but sin and misery; but 
the first is pardoned, and a few hours shall put a period 
to the second." How beautifully does old Izaak Walton 
say, " I wish, if God be so pleased, I may die like him" ! 

Perhaps no poet has ever put more strong stuff into a 
single verse, or sometimes line or half a line, than George 
Herbert. It is not the music of the rhythm, or the even 
flow of the words, that generally charms, but that each 
sentence seems like a sharp thrust, which pierces the 
inmost recesses of the moral and spiritual life; and very 
often the gleam on the weapon is most golden. Our 
readers may rest assured that whenever they turn to 
" Herbert's Temple" they will find, if not hymns for 
the "heart and voice," yet always hymns for the heart. 



REV. .JAMES 1IKRYKY. 171 

REV. JAMES HERVEY. 

Tins eminently pious clergyman, and, for the day in 
which he lived, elegant writer, is not generally known 
as a writer of hymns; but one composition of his being 
inserted in several of our books claims that his name be 
included in our volume. AVe refer to the hymn begin- 
ning,— 

"Since all the varying scenes of time." 

Mr. Hervey was born in 1714, was educated at the 
University of Oxford, ordained in the Church of England, 
and died of consumption at forty-four, in 1758. He was 
a fine scholar and eminently pious and benevolent. His 
heart was so set on the relief of the poor that, in con- 
formity with his wish to die "even with the world," his 
income, and the profits derived from his popular and use- 
ful works, were all devoted to them. He wrote several 
works, which long had an extensive circulation, such as 
u 'Meditations among the Tombs" "JZeflections in a Flower- 
Garden/' and a doctrinal work called "Theron and As- 
pasio." These were all published, in seven octavo volumes, 
in 1796. 

Hervey was an ardent friend of Dr. Doddridge and a 
fervent admirer of George Whitefield. He was a tall and 
spectral-looking man, and for several years before his 
decease was dying daily. He had a very graceful elo- 
cution, and was listened to every Sabbath by crowded 
congregations. 

It is pleasant occasionally to meet with a man who 



172 LI i BORfi AND ORIGIN Of in MNB 

can form a OOrreet estimate of hifl OWB talents; and tin- 
was the case with Hervey. Speaking of himself to his 
biographer, the senior John Kyland, he said, "My friend, 
J have not a strong mind; I have not powers fitted for 
ardent researches; but I think I have a power of writing 
in somewhat of a striking manner, so far as to p! 
mankind and recommend my dear Redeemer." 



REV. ROWLAND HILL. 

This distinguished minister of Christ had but a small 
portion of poetical talent: he was, however, fond of 
writing hymns. Some of our older collections contain 
the truly pious composition, — 

"Dear Friend of friendless sinners, hear," 

which he wrote for the members of his church when on 
a sick-bed, and which, it is said, was profitably used by 
many of them in their dying hours. Multitudes have 
passed away from singing of " the promised rest" on 
earth to its enjoyment in heaven. His best biographer 
says, " No one acquainted with Mr. Hill can read 
this hymn without seeing before him the image of the 
writer in his happiest moments, when his mind was 
sweetly and graciously subdued by the power of the 
Divine Spirit. If I were asked for a description of Mr. 
Hill when 'it was well with him,' I should just read 
this short composition. It possesses the pathos of the 



BISHOP IIORNE. 173 

excellent man when he left the footstool of mercy and 
immediately ascended the sacred desk." 

But Mr. Hill's greatest pleasure of this kind was in 
connection with his large Sunday-schools. lie always 
had an annual assemblage of the children and their 
teachers on Easter Monday and Tuesday, when he com- 
posed a hymn to be sung, which he printed and gratui- 
tously distributed. These little compositions were much 
valued by the young people, who were addressed from 
the text of Scripture printed at the head of the hymn. 
Mr. Weight tells us, in his funeral service for the vene- 
rable man, that, on the Easter Tuesday only two days 
preceding his death, he deeply regretted his inability to 
engage in his usual services. "He stood at his drawing- 
room window and saw the dear little children thronging 
the chapel-yard, and spoke with much delight of by-gone 
days, when he had met them and preached to them the 
Lord Jesus Christ." 

Mr. Hill, in 1798, — two years before the death of 
Cowper, — published a small volume of "Divine Hymns for 
Children" which the poet kindly revised, and concerning 
which a letter distinguished by his characteristic humor 
is still in existence. 



BISHOP HORNE. 

This valued prelate, who died in 1792, aged sixty-two 

years, wrote a very few good hymns, one of which, 

greatly abridged from the original, begins, — 

15* 



174 \l rHOBfl AM> ORIGIN i,F ||W 

• See the leaves around us falling.*" 

It has, however, been properly said that the purity of 
his taste was somewhat warped by the age in which he 
lived. The bishop shines most eminently in his work 
on the Psalms, in writing which he took his highest 
pleasure, and said that, if it pleased God, he would rejoice 
to die in meditating on this portion of his word. 



REV. JOSEPH HUMPHRIES 

was one of the early Calvinistic Methodist preachers of 
the last century. He wrote the hymn, — 

•' Blessed are the sons of God,' ? 

and a few others, which were published at the end of 
Cennick's hymns in 1743. He died in London, and was 
buried in the Moravian cemetery at Chelsea. 



REV. G. B. IDE, D.D. 



This popular Baptist minister, author of several hymns 
bearing his name, most of which are printed in lk The 
Baptist Harp," a selection of hymns edited by himself, is 
a native of Vermont, and has labored in the ministry for 
many years at Albany, Boston, Philadelphia, and Spring- 
field in Massachusetts, in which places he has been 
favored with much success. 



kkv KDMUND 70NX8 IT-") 

REV. WILLIAM JAY. 

"Come, thou soul-transforming Spirit/' 

is one of about twenty similar compositions from the pen 
of this late eminent preacher, who was born of very 
humble parents in 1770, and died at Bath, in England, 
alter a ministry in one edifice of sixty-three years, in 
1854, aged eighty-four years. Few men were more dis- 
tinguished for a catholic spirit and constant pulpit-labor. 
He never forgot, when he ascended his "throne/' — as he 
regarded it, — that he had men, women, and children hang- 
ing upon his lips; and, instead of discoursing before them, 
he addressed himself to them. "Whatever might be his 
theme, he intermixed statements and illustrations which 
at once explained the subject, touched the springs of 
human sympathy, and conveyed important suggestions 
for the conduct of life. 



REV. EDMUND JONES. 

Several of our hymn-books contain a universal 
favorite, beginning, as published by its author, — 

"Come, humble sinner, in whose breast." 

This hymn was written, with one or two others of like 
character, by the Eev. Edmund Jones, a highly-popular 
Welsh Baptist preacher of the last century. He was 
eminent for his piety and a remarkably amiable temper; 



171) AUTHORS AND OUCH i»f HYMNS. 

and his death, though at a very advanced age, wi 

source of very extensive grief. AYe believe that the only 
productions of his pen, in addition to the hymns to which 
we have referred, were contained in a pamphlet of ninety 
pages, a copy of which may be found in the library of 
the American Baptist Publication Society in Philadel- 
phia, the whole title of which we will transcribe: — 
"Samson's Hair, an Eminent I.' turn of the Church 

of God. In two parts. To which is [are] added Two Ser- 
mons : First, showing the Evil Nature and Hurtful Effects 
of Unbelief; Second, On God's Subduing and Keeping 
under the Strong Corruptions of his People, and Healing 
Them. By Edmund Jones, Minister of the Gospel. — Trevecka: 
printed in the year [MDCCLXXYII." 

The two sermons on Samson's hair were preceded by 
warm recommendations from the pens of two veiy re- 
spectable ministers, as well as a preface from the author, 
enforcing the importance of his subject. The sermons 
furnish fair specimens of the spiritualizing tendency of 
that age, and suggest the propriety of combining the 
piety of the past with the intellectual strength of the 
present. 



REV. ADONIRAM JUDSON, D.D. 

Though we have two hymns written by this excellent 
Christian missionary, both of them on baptism, we can 
scarcely claim for him the honors of a poet. His glory 



REV. THOMAS KELLY. 1 ,7 

was of a far higher character. He was the son of an 
excellent Congregational minister in Massachusetts, and 
graduated at Brown University, intending to pursue the 
profession of the law. Converted by the grace of God, 
he changed his design, and went to study theology at 
Andover. While here, the missionary spirit was excited, 
and several of the students offered themselves for labor 
in foreign lands; and the Board of Commissioners fur 
Foreign Missions sent Judson and several others to India. 
On their way, Mr. Judson, Mr. Rice, and their wives be- 
came Baptists. His life was devoted to preaching in 
Burmah, and the translation of the Scriptures, in which 
he spent nearly forty years. He had in his composition 
all the elements of a hero; and he who would look for a 
rare specimen of a life consecrated to noble aims, in- 
spired with an elevated self-devotion, and exercising an 
energy seldom witnessed among men, must contemplate 
the lion-hearted missionary of Burmah. Dr. Judson died 
at sea, when bound to the island of Bourbon for his 
health, in 1850. 



REV. THOMAS KELLY. 

This gentleman, one of the most prolific and popular 
hymn-writers of the last and present generations, was 
the son of Judge Kelly, of Ireland. From a very early 
age he had powerful impressions of eternal realities, and 
was regarded as a very religious young man. His father 



178 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

had intended him for the bur, but his own heart WM 
fixed on the pulpit. Having, in 1793, been orduined in 
the Established Church, he commenced preaching in 
Dublin, and met with great opposition from his family 
for preaching the doctrine of justification by faith; so 
that he often said that to have gone to the stake would 
have been a less trial to him than to have set himself 
against those he dearly loved. 

Crowds of persons from Sabbath to Sabbath listened 
to the fervent appeals which Mr. Kelly made to their 
consciences; but before long he was much opposed by 
his superiors in the Church, and compelled to leave the 
Establishment, though he never dissented from its doc- 
trines. He continued to labor in Dublin for more than 
sixty years, during which time it was testified by many 
that he never seemed to waste an hour. His talents 
were of a high order, and his attainments very consider- 
able. Music was with him not merely a recreation, but, 
like his other talents, was consecrated to the glory of 
God. A volume of airs which he composed to some of 
his hymns were remarkable for much simplicity and 
sweetness. As a Christian he was distinguished for his 
humility, and used to rejoice that the Israelites who 
stood the farthest from the brazen serpent might look 
at it with the same benefit as those who were near. He 
lived almost constantly in prayer. 

While preaching to his own congregation, in October, 
1854, Mr. Kelly was seized with a slight stroke of para- 
lysis, which gradually lessened his strength till he died, 



BISHOP KEN. 179 

May 14, 185"), aged eighty-six years. On his death-bed 
he was Bweetly composed; and, when the words of the 
Psalmist were repeated to him, "The Lord ie my Shep- 
herd ; I shall not want/' he replied, " The Lord is my 
every thing." 

It is said of Mr. Kelly that he allowed no opportunity 
for doing good to pass unimproved, but even when it 
would have been inexpedient to attempt more he would 
drop a gentle hint. He had an admirable tact in adapt- 
ing his mode of address to the parties he incidentally 
spoke to. Lord Plunket, so well known for his puns, 
was a schoolfellow with Mr. Kelly, and their occasional 
recognition of each other continued through life. His 
lordship, once meeting Mr. Kelly, told him he thought 
he would live to a great age. He replied, " I am confi- 
dent I shall, as I expect never to die." The nobleman 
said, " Oh, I see what you mean." 

Mr. Kelly's hymns are well known, and so much es- 
teemed that no reader would wish to lose them. 



BISHOP KEN. 



The poet Montgomery has very properly remarked 
that what is usually called the long metre doxology, — 

"Praise God, from whom all blessings flow," etc., 

lias probably been more used than any other composition 
in the world, the Lord's prayer excepted. It was written 
by Bishop Ken, a very high Churchman — frequently ac- 



L80 AUTHOEfl AM) uun.ix 01 BTMM8. 

cased of Romanism — of the seventeenth century. The 
bishop wrote three hymns of the same metre for niorn- 
iag, evening, and midnight, each of which was closed 
with the doxology. The hymns are seldom read; but 
the doxology, which has appeared to the most rigid 
critics almost perfect in its character, will probably be 
used till the end of time. 

Bishop Ken was born in 1637 and died in 1710. About 
17G0 he was appointed chaplain to the Princess of 
Orange, and went to Holland, where she then resided. 
Here Ken compelled a favorite courtier to fulfil a con- 
tract of marriage with a young lady of her train whom 
he had seduced. His zeal in this matter gave such 
offence to the prince, afterward William III., that he 
threatened to turn him out of the service, — on which 
Ken begged the princess to allow him to resign; nor 
would he consent to return till entreated by the prince 
to do so. 

In 1681 Ken was appointed chaplain to King Charles 
II., and on the removal of the court to Winchester to 
the summer, Ken's house was fixed upon as the 
residence of the celebrated Xell Gwynne, Charles's mis- 
- ; but the inflexible clergyman positively refused her 
admittance; this, instead of offending that profligate 
monarch, led him, soon after, to appoint him Bishop of 
Bath and Wells. 

In 1685 James II. ascended the throne, and Ken be- 
came his chaplain also. One day the king was absent, 
and the enemies of the bishop complained to the king 



BISHOP KEN. 181 

of his sermon. The prelate remarked that " if his ma- 
jesty had not neglected his own duty of being present; 
his enemies would have missed this opportunity of ac- 
cusing him." When the king ordered the well-known 
Declaration of Indulgence to be read, Ken and six other 
bishops refused to comply, and were sent to the Tower; 
but on trial the jury acquitted them. When James abdi- 
cated the throne and the Prince of Orange went to Eng- 
land as William III., Ken vacated his bishopric rather 
than swear allegiance to his new sovereign, as he did 
not believe that he could free himself from the alle- 
giance he had sworn to James w T hile he was yet living. 
He lived in comparative retirement till his death. 

The volume which contained the hymns to which the 
doxology was appended was entitled "A Manual of 
Prayer for the Use of the Scholars of Winchester College" — 
of which Whitefield speaks as having been very useful 
to him in the early period of his college life. 

Some of our readers at least will thank us for giving 
at length Montgomery's remarks on " The Doxology," of 
which he says, it " is a masterpiece at once of amplifica- 
tion and compression. Of amplification, on the burden 
'Praise God/ repeated in each line; compression, exhibit- 
ing God as the object of praise in every view in which 
we can imagine praise due to him, — for all his blessings, 
yea, for all blessings, none coming from any other source: 
praise by every creature, specifically invoked here below 
and in heaven ' above :' praise to him in each of the cha- 
racters wherein he has revealed himself in hie word, — 

16 



182 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

* Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.' Yet this comprehensive 
verse is sufficiently simple that, by it, * out of the mouths 
of babes and sucklings/ God may < perfect praise f and 
it appears so easy that one is tempted to think hun- 
dreds of the sort might be made without trouble. The 
reader has only to try, and he will be quickly unde- 
ceived : the longer he tries, the more^ difficult he will 
find the task to be." 

It has been said that Bishop Ken was accustomed to 
remark that it would enhance his joy in heaven to listen 
to his morning and evening hymns as sung by the faith- 
ful on earth. 



JOHN KENT. 

The author of the hymn, — 

" Where two or three together meet, 

was an humble man, of very humble origin. He was 
born in Bideford, England, 1766, and died in 1843. He 
never aspired to a pulpit, and only occupied a position 
as a shipwright. His life was marked by much afflic- 
tion, and at sixty he became blind. He published a 
hymn-book in 1803, in which he proved that the great 
mystery of redeeming love through the atoning sacrifice 
of the Lord Jesus was the joy of his soul. In his last 
hour he extended his hand, cold with death, and ex- 
claimed, " I rejoice in hope ! — I am accepted, — accepted !" 
gathered up his feet, and fell asleep in Jesus, at the age 
of seventy-seven years. 



FRANCIS B. KEY. 183 

FRANCIS S. KEY. 

In one or two of the Protestant Episcopal collections 
of hymns may be found one beginning, — 

"If life's pleasures charm thee, 
Give them not thy heart, 
Lest the gift ensnare thee 
From thy God to part. 
His favor seek, 
His praises speak, 
Fix here thy hope's foundation ; 
Serve Him, and He 
Will ever be 
The Rock of thy salvation." 

It came from the pen of the author of the well-known 
"Star-Spangled Banner ;" and, if the last-named compo- 
sition shows the graceful patriot, the hymn certainly 
displays the spirit of the Christian. This was still fur- 
ther manifested in a scene about the year 1835, as thus 
described by the clergyman officially engaged. He 
says, " I stood within the railing, at the side of the com- 
munion-table, and had administered the sacred elements 
to all, it seemed, who desired to partake of them. Just 
then, however, as though previously restrained by pro- 
found humility, a stranger approached the altar, knelt 
all alone, and so received the holy memorials of our Sa- 
viour's suffering and death. I trust the service was one 
of true faith, and that the result was one of great peace 
and comfort. That last communicant was the same 
person, — the distinguished poet, the accomplished lawyer 
and orator, the modest Christian, Francis S. Key." 



184 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

REV. WILLIAM KINGSBURY. 

The beautiful character of the hymns, — 

" Let us awake our joys," 
and 

"Great God of all thy churches, hear," 

make us deeply regret that we have no others from the 
pen of their excellent author. We believe we are cor- 
rect in speaking of them as from the Rev. William Kings- 
bury, for forty-five years the pastor of the church at 
Southampton, to which the distinguished Dr. Watts and 
his honored parents had formerly belonged. Mr. Kings- 
bury was born in London in 1744, entered on his studies 
for the ministry at Homerton College before he was truly 
a Christian, was brought to the cross of Christ by most 
remarkably being led to read the works of John Bunyan, 
was ordained at the age of twenty-one years, and died 
in 1818, at the age of seventy-four, having spent the 
whole forty-five years of his pastoral life in one pulpit. 
Mr. Kingsbury had the honor of being one of the found- 
ers of the London Missionary Society in 1795, being chair- 
man of its first meeting. His biographer tells us that " he 
was confined to his bed for one day only before his dis- 
solution. He suffered no acute pain. On the Sunday 
before he died, when one of his sons said, 'How do you 
do, sir V he replied, l Well j for I have peace with God.' 
He expressed an earnest wish to obtain his dismission, 
and frequently was heard to say, ' When will he come V 
One of his attendants, supposing him to inquire after 



REV. ANDREW KIPPIS, D.D. 185 

one of his sons who was hourly expected from London, 
said, ' We look for him every minute/ He shook his 
head, saying, 'No, no : when will my Beloved come?' " 
His senses remained to the last moment of life. He 
kissed the hand of his affectionate and only remaining 
daughter, and made a sign that his son "Walter should 
offer prayer. While this was being done, the happy 
man, his hands and eyes lifted up in the attitude of de- 
votion, drew a long breath, and, without a groan or con- 
vulsion, expired. 



REV. ANDREW KIPPIS, D.D. 

The hymn, — 

"Great God, in vain man's narrow view," 

and one or two others used in our evangelical churches, 
were from the pen of this gentleman. He was born at 
Nottingham, England, in 1725, and studied for the 
ministry under Dr. Doddridge. In 1753 he was ordained 
over an Arian congregation in Westminster, which he 
relinquished for scholastic duties ten years after. He 
wrote many miscellaneous books, and the lives of Dod- 
dridge, Lardner, Pringle, and Cook, and conducted the 
five volumes which were published of the " Biographia 
Br'dannica." Though the writer of a few respectable 
hymns, he was no poet. 

16* 



186 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF IIYMNS. 

REV. MR. KIRKHAM. 

Of this gentleman we know nothing more than that 
he was the author of the hymn, — 

• How firm a foundation, ye saints of the Lord," 

which was first printed in "Rippon's Selection" in 1787. 

Though we have no certain evidence of the fact, we 
believe that Mr. Kirkham was a fellow-student with the 
Messrs. John and Charles Wesley, George Whitefield, and 
Mr. Morgan, and one of the first of " the people called 
Methodists." 



REV. JOHN LANGFORD. 

The authorship of the favorite hymn, — 

"Now begin the heavenly theme," 

has been usually claimed for this writer, though we have 
more than once found it attributed to Madan. Langford 
was connected with the early Methodists, but afterward 
united with the Baptist Church in Eagle (now Kings- 
gate) Street, London, under the pastorate of Dr. Andrew 
Gifford. He was for many years pastor of several 
churches in London, and died about 1790. He preached 
and printed a sermon on the death of Whitefield. He 
was long remembered as a man of great spirituality and 
Christian meekness. 



REV. JOHN LOGAN. 187 

REV. JOHN LELAND. 

Those of our readers who are acquainted with Baptist 
history have read of the Eev. John Leland, an eminent 
minister of that body, who labored successfully for 
many years, and died in the year 1841. On a tour 
among the churches of the South in 1779, he had occa- 
sion to baptize a number of disciples. It was winter, 
and a liquid grave had to be cut in the ice. A brother 
in the ministry preached for him. During the sermon, 
Leland wrote the first three verses of a hymn, that was 
afterward extended to six, still well known among 
some of the Baptist churches. Approaching the water 
at the head of a number of candidates, Leland read his 
hymn, beginning, — 

"Christians, if your hearts are warm, 
Ice and snow can do no harm: 
If by Jesus you are prized, 
Now arise and be baptized," etc. 

He struck up a familiar tune, and, as the good old 
people used to say, "lined out the hymn;" and it was sung 
then, as it has often been since, with no small degree of 
earnestness. 



REV. JOHN LOGAN, 

The author of the hymn, — 

"Where high the heavenly temple stands, 



188 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

and several others, was a native of Mid-Lothian, in Scot- 
land, was educated at Edinburgh, became minister at 
South Leith in 1770, and died in 1788, aged about forty 
years. He was distinguished as a general writer, and 
was a respectable poet. He was also the author of two 
volumes of sermons, still held in reputation. 



HENRY W. LONGFELLOW. 

" The Psalm of Life" of this author, — 

'* Tell me not, in mournful numbers," 

and some other productions of his elegant pen, are 
to be found in several of our books, and on many ac- 
counts greatly please us, — though we think that, like the 
rest of his Unitarian brethren, he is sadly lacking in the 
noble, generous, high spirit of evangelical truth. The 
son of the Hon. Stephen Longfellow, of Portland, Maine, 
Henry was born in that city in 1807. Of very high edu- 
cation himself, his life in various ways has been devoted 
to the advancement of that great cause. His poetical 
works have been numerous and beautiful; and of them 
the editor of the " Men of the Time" truly says, " Long- 
fellow's poems have, together with great picturesque and 
dramatic beauty, a simplicity and truth to nature which 
commend them alike to the rudest and to the most cul- 
tivated. The tenderness and melancholy pleasure with 
which, in many of his works, he dwells upon a poetical 



ANN LUTTON. 189 

aspiration or an historical incident, have, however, 
proved a stumbling-block to many of his countrymen, 
who demand more freshness, and an onward direction 
of the poet's eye." 



ANN LUTTON. 

We confess to feeling something of a personal interest 
in the beautiful and popular hymn, — 

11 When torn is the bosom by sorrow or care." 

For ten years — 1832 to 1841 — we had the pleasure of 
conducting in London a small monthly magazine called 
" The Revivalist" In 1834, at the request of several 
honored friends, we began to give a number of new 
hymns adapted to popular — but, as they were generally 
employed, useless — airs. In this we were aided by several 
of our correspondents, among whom was a new one, 
whom to this day we have never seen, — Miss Ann Lutton, 
of Ireland. She wrote for us the beautiful hymn on 
prayer to which we have referred, adapted to the air 
of " Sweet Home." 

There is something impressive in the thought that, 
when we commit to paper what we may consider a mere 
trifle, we know not the extent of its diffusion or its ef- 
fects. Who shall calculate the usefulness of the hun- 
dreds of thousands of copies of this hymn now before 
the public, to say nothing of millions yet to be pub- 
lished ? 



190 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS 

REV. HENRY FRANCIS LYTE. 

We have just turned to three separate hymn-books in 
reference to the hynin, — 

"Jesus, I my cross have taken," 

and find it attributed respectively to Montgomery, to 
the Hon. Miss Grant, and to her brother, Lord Glenelg. 
In each of these cases the reference is wrong. It was 
published by its author, already named, in 1833, in a vo- 
lume of " Poems, Chiefly Religious" at much greater length 
than it is usually given. Its author was a young man of 
feeble health, but of high promise. He was born at Kelso, 
in Scotland, in 1793, and in 1812 entered Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin. Having been ordained in the Established 
Church, he settled as curate in Devonshire, but was com- 
pelled to spend the larger portion of his future life in 
travelling for his health. He died in 1847, and was 
buried in the English Cemetery at Xice. He published 
a metrical version of the Psalms, and a number of beau- 
tiful hymns. 



MRS. MACKAY. 

The sweet and consolatory hymn, — 

" Asleep in Jesus ! blessed sleep !" 

is from the pen of Mrs. Mackay, a Christian lady of 
Scotland, authoress of several very pleasing volumes of 



REV. MARTIN MADAN. 191 

a religious character. It originated in a visit to a bury- 
ing-ground in the west of England, an account of which 
the reader will be pleased to see from the authoress's 
own pen : — 

"'Sleeping in Jesus/ 

" This simple inscription is carved on a tombstone in 
the retired rural burying-ground of Pennycross Chapel, 
in Devonshire. Distant only a few miles from a bustling 
and crowded seaport town, reached through a succession 
of those lovely green lanes for which Devonshire is so 
remarkable, the quiet aspect of Pennycross comes sooth- 
ingly over the mind. ' Sleeping in Jesus' seems in keep- 
ing with all around. 

" Here was no elaborate ornament, no unsightly decay. 
The trim gravel walk led to the house of prayer, itself 
boasting of no architectural embellishment to distinguish 
it; and a few trees were planted irregularly to mark 
some favored spots." 



REV. MARTIN MADAN. 

This gentleman, who was born in 1726, was eminent 
in his day both as a preacher and a writer of hymns. 
Like many other Christians, his conversion took place 
in a remarkable manner. The preaching of the first 
Methodists, as is well known, excited almost universal 
attention. Madan was then a gay young man ; and, 
being in company one evening, in a coffee-house, with 



192 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

■ome of his companions, he was requested to go and 
hear Mr. John AVesley preach, that he might exhibit his 
sermon and manner for their amusement. He went 
with that intention; but just as he entered the place Mr. 
AYesley read as his text the words, " Prepare to meet 
thy God/' with a solemnity which greatly struck him 
and inspired a seriousness which increased as the ser- 
mon proceeded. He returned to his companions; and 
when they asked him, " Have you taken the old Method- 
ist off?" his reply was, " Xo, gentlemen ; but he has taken 
me off." He immediately withdrew from their society, 
and associated only with the followers of Christ. 

Mr. Madan was a gentleman of independent fortune, 
and soon resolved to enter the ministry in connection with 
the Established Church. His brother was at that time 
the Bishop of Peterborough ; but Madan would accept of 
no honors in the Church. Owing to his decided evan- 
gelical doctrines, he found some difficulty in obtaining 
ordination, but at length succeeded through the influence 
of the Countess of Huntingdon. He was soon after ap- 
pointed chaplain of the Lock Hospital, near Hyde Park 
Corner, in London, an institution for the restoration of 
unhappy females ; and before the erection of a church 
edifice he preached to its inmates from a desk in the 
parlor, where he was frequently assisted by Mr. Pomaine 
and Dr. Haweis. 

Mr. Madan, in the peculiar situation he occupied, saw 
so much of the evils of prostitution that he was unhap- 
pily led to write a volume in favor of polygamy, and 



KEY. JOHN MA80N. 193 

from that time he lost his friends \ so that we afterward 

hear but little of him. He died in 1790. We yet sing 
several of his hymns. 



REV. BASIL MANLY, JR. 

This gentleman, in connection with his excellent fa- 
ther, is editor of " TJie Baptist Psalmody," an admirable 
selection of hymns recently published by the Southern 
Baptist Publication Society in Charleston, S.C., and 
already introduced into many of the Baptist churches in 
that region. Some of the hymns in the volume are 
from the pen of the junior editor, and are distinguished 
for sound doctrine, earnestness, and devotion. In addi- 
tion to the services which 3Ir. Manly has thus rendered 
to the churches, he has most laboriously devoted himself 
to the pulpit and to the cause of Christian education. 



REV. JOHN MASON, 

Of whose good old hymns we are yet favored with a 
few, including, — 

"Come, dearest Lord, and feed thy sheep," 
and 

" Now, from the altar of our hearts," 

was for twenty years rector of Water-Stratford, Eng- 
land, where he died in 1694. Xot a few of the lines of 

17 



194 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN 01 HYMNS. 

Dr. Watts were borrowed from him. lie himself pub- 
lished a hymn-book in 1086, entitled "Spiritual Song*" 
The well-known verse, — 

"Mercy, good Lord, mercy I ask," 

usually sung in England years ago at the execution of 
criminals, and equally appropriate for sinners of every 
class, proceeded from his pen. 



REV. SAMUEL MEDLEY. 

We have in most of our books two hymns beginning 

with, — 

"Mortals, awake! with angels join," 
and 

" Awake, my soul, in joyful lays, 

and one or two others, written by the Eev. Samuel Med- 
ley, twenty-seven years pastor of the First Baptist 
Church at Liverpool, England, and during about the 
same period a regular annual supply at Whiteficld's 
Tabernacle and Tottenham Court Eoad Chapel, in Lon- 
don. In early life Mr. Medley was very gay and pro- 
fane. He was engaged in the British navy, where he was 
severely wounded in one of the several actions in which 
he fought. Returning to his pious grandfather's house 
for the sake of surgical attendance, he was brought 
under the preaching of the excellent Whitefield and Dr. 
Gifford, and was soon led to the Saviour whose name he 
had so often blasphemed. He died, after a very sue* 



HKV. 11KNRY II. MILMAN. 195 

fal ministry, in 1799, aged nxty-one years. Jn the year 
following his death, a volume of original hymns from 
bis pen was issued, very few of which are now valued. 

lie also published two or three sermons, and several 
humorous papers. He was eccentric in his manners, 
but had a pious soul and a noble heart. 

A deceased critic once remarked to us that were the 
hymn we have first referred to deprived of its title, 
" The Incarnation of Christ,'' a stranger might be ready 
to inquire, " To what subject does it relate ?" 



REV. HENRY H. MILMAN. 

That the Dean of St. Paul's, London, is a poet, none of 
his readers will doubt. A clergyman of the English Esta- 
blished Church, a dramatist, historian, Professor of Poetry 
in the University of Oxford, and holding several other 
important preferments, his reputation is high, and in 
some departments will no doubt be enduring. What a 
writer in the " Quarterly Review" says of one of his 
works will probably apply to all : — " Every page ex- 
hibits some beautiful expression, some pathetic turn, 
some original thought, or some striking image." AYe 
confess, however, that his hymns want more simplicity, 
more of penitence and faith, and more of devotion, to 
accord with our taste. We respect the venerable gentle- 
man, born in London in 1791, and should be happy to see, 
before he is called from earth, a few hymns from his pen 



190 



Al I 'HOBS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 



which would go down to posterity with those of Watte 

and Doddridge, Cowper and Montgomery. 



JOHN MILTON. 

Were there more love of real poetry in the churches 

of Christ than we have at present, we should hear more 

of Milton's hymns sung. We are truly glad to meet 

with his 

" They pass refreshed the thirsty vale," 

and hope that those who fashionably praise his "Para- 
dise Lost" will study and sing his hymns, which we are 
gratified to know are remembered in our land, though 
they arc forgotten in his own. But be it remembered 
that the said " Paradise Lost" usually accompanied the 
Bible into the log houses of the early settlements of our 
country, and these commonly had, too, the minor poetry 
of the same author. 

It has been said that, from the seventeenth year of 
Milton's age to the thirty-fourth, Milton's chief exercises 
were in poetry, that during the next twenty years he 
Avrote scarcely any thing in verse except a few sonnets, 
but that in old age he renewed his allegiance to the 
muse, writing his great works "Paradise Lost," " Para- 
dise Regained" and "Samson Agonistes" after he was old 
and blind, and that he intended these productions to 
be more especially his bequests to the literature of 
England. 



JAMES MONTI iOMKRY. 197 

We shall gratify our readers by adding a short para- 
graph as to " his manner of life," which has been thus 
given us: — u lie rises early; has a chapter in the Hebrew 
Bible read to him ; then meditates till seven; till twelve 
lie listens to reading, in which he employs his daughters; 
then takes exercise, and sometimes swings in his little 
garden. After a frugal dinner, he enjoys some musical 
recreation; at six he welcomes friends; takes supper at 
eight; and then, having smoked a pipe and drank a 
glass of water, he retires to repose. That repose is some- 
times broken by poetic musings, and he rouses up his 
daughter that he may dictate to her some lines before 
they are lost." 



JAMES MONTGOMERY. 

Scarcely any man who has but recently left our world 
has done more for the psalmody of the Church than this 
excellent layman. He was born in 1771, and was the 
son of an excellent Moravian minister, in whose commu- 
nion he died, though for some years he held fellowship 
with the Wesleyan Methodists. The facts of his long 
and useful life are too well known to make it necessary 
that we should repeat them here. More than half a 
century of his years were spent in Sheffield, England, 
where he devoted his labors to the Christian press, by 
which he made a mark on the age that can never be 
erased. No man ever secured greater influence on 



198 Al FHO»fl \M> OBIQIM OF uv.MNS. 

society, or employed it more entirely for the honor of 
Christ. He died in 1854. 

By a singular mistake of one of his friends, Mr. Mont- 
gomery's death was reported in this country a year or 
two before it really took place, and several of our 
periodicals paid cordial tributes to his memory. When 
these papers fell under his eye, he smiled at the blunder, 
but wept tears of grateful joy that brethren at so great 
a distance should pay him what he considered tokens 
of regard beyond all he had deserved. 

We think we shall be more than forgiven if we add a 
few lines descriptive of a scene which took place at the 
Wesleyan Methodist Conference at Sheffield about two 
years before Mr. Montgomery's death. The Eev. Dr. 
Hannah, the president of the Conference, introduced the 
venerable poet in full session of the body, and, after 
alluding to the services which he had rendered to the 
cause of religious truth and moral purity, and to the de- 
light which his poetry had ministered to so many, said, 
" We feel under great obligation to yourself and to the 
religious body to which you belong, and beg to assure 
you of the kindest affection of the Conference." 

The aged poet's reply was beautifully characteristic: — 
" My Christian friends, father, and brethren in the Lord, 
I dare not waste one moment of your time, and I have 
very little to say; but that little will be of the greatest 
import. It is this : — ' The Lord bless you and keep 
you ! The Lord make his face to shine upon you, and 
be gracious unto you ! The Lord lift up his countenance 



JAMES MONTGOMERY. 199 

upon you, and give you peace!' in the name of Jesus. 
Amen." 

A series of short but interesting speeches followed in 
the same spirit. What a contrast between the latter 
years of Montgomery and those of Byron and Moore ! 

A brief narrative connected with one class of Mont- 
gomery's hymns may be added to this article with ad- 
vantage. It has long been customary in Sheffield, the 
town of Montgomery's residence, on every Whit-Monday, 
for the different Sunday-schools to meet at eight o'clock 
in the morning at their respective churches, and thence 
proceed, under the escort of their teachers, to some public 
square, there to exchange fraternal greetings, and engage 
in a united service, previously arranged, of which sing- 
ing the hymns previously written and set to music 
for the occasion forms a considerable part. Our poet 
for very many years was a regular contributor to these 
jubilant occasions, and for him was always reserved the 
first hymn on the list. We are not aware that any col- 
lection of them has been made; but such a volume would 
be a truly noble one. 

On the occasion of the Sunday-school jubilee, Sep- 
tember 14, 1831, there must have been collected in 
one place, in the poet's town, not less than twenty thou- 
sand Sabbath-scholars ; and throughout the kingdom, in 
like proportion, the various Sunday-schools met in their 
own towns and villages, to celebrate that joyful day. 
What a chaplet of undying green did those congregated 
hosts of "little children" wreathe for the brow of Mont- 



200 



A l THOES AND oitloiN 01 HYMNS. 



gomcry, as with free and gladsome voice they Ming one 

of his jubilee hymns! — 

" The flowers of fifty summers gone, 
The leaves that then were green, 
Have nothing left to look upon, 
To tell that they have been." 

It has been said that Mr. Montgomery's last composi- 
tion was a hymn for a Sunday-school Union, the Last 
verse of which is both characteristic and truly sublime, — 

" Learn we now that wondrous strain, 

In our schools, our homes, our hearts, 
'Worthy is the Lamb once slain!' 

In all languages, all parts ; 
Then the countless, chorus swell, 

Round his throne, with glad accord, 
Never more to say ' Farewell !' 

But, • Forever with the Lord !' " 

The beautiful hymn, — 

" Spirit, leave thy house of clay," 

was written by Montgomery during his political perse- 
cution in York Castle. It originally contained seven 
eight-line verses, and was occasioned by the death of 
one of his fellow-prisoners, Joseph Browne, a Quaker, 
who, with seven others of the same religious community, 
had suffered the loss of all his worldly goods for con- 
science' sake. 

As one object of our volume is to give facts as to the 
habits of our hymn-writers, it will give no offence to our 
readers to refer to one or two mentioned by Mr. Everett, 
one of the intimate friends of Montgomery. Mr. Everett 



JAMES MONTGOMERY. 201 

one day remarked to his companion that the beautiful 
village of Matlock would be a fine situation for the per- 
manent residence of a poet, as the beauty of the scenery, 
according to the current opinion, would induce sublime 
thoughts. He partly objected to the notion, observing 
that he should have to lament for his own situation if it 
were so. "From the room in which I sit to write," said 
Montgomery, " and where some of my happiest pieces 
have been produced, — those, I mean, which are most 
popular, — all the prospect I have is a confined yard, 
where there are some miserable old walls, and the back 
of houses, which present to the eye neither beauty, 
variety, nor any thing else calculated to inspire a single 
thought except concerning the rough surface of the 
bricks, the corners of which have either been chopped 
off by violence or fretted aw^ay by the weather. No : 
as a general rule, whatever of poetry is to be derived 
from scenery must be secured before we sit down to 
compose : the impressions must be made already, and 
the mind must be abstracted from surrounding objects. 
It will not do to be expatiating abroad in observations 
when we should be at home in concentration of thought." 
AYe may add here that the beautiful hymn, — 

" Servant of God, well done !" 

which in the original extended to forty-eight lines, was 
written by Montgomery on the occasion of the decease 
of the Eev. Thomas Taylor, a venerable and beloved 
Christian minister, an adherent of the Messrs. "Wesley. 



•_'ll_ , AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMN'S. 

He labored under many trials and discouragements, but 
ultimately met with great success at Glasgow. He bad 
to perform all the singing at public worship himself, but 
first spent nearly the whole of what he had in hiring a 
man, at eight cents a service, to be his precentor, after 
the Kirk custom, and to "lead the psalms." Necessity 
compelled him to dismiss both his precentor and the 
Scotch psalms, and to use the Methodist melodies, " the 
people," he says, "liking them right well." For fifty- 
five years he labored with the "Wesleyans, though he was 
offered a very handsome salary to settle with a new 
church in Glasgow. He was nearly eighty years old 
when he died, honored and beloved as a noble veteran 
by all who knew him. In a sermon a short time before 
his decease he raised his venerable form in the pulpit 
and said, with great emphasis, " I should like to die like 
an old soldier, sword in hand." He was soon after 
found dead in his chamber. 

The beautiful hymn by this writer, — 

"Go to the grave in all thy glorious prime," 

was written to commemorate the decease of the Eev. 
John Owen, one of the first secretaries of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, a gentleman distinguished 
for learning and holy eloquence. The hymn originally 
consisted of six verses. 



THOMAS ."WooRE. 203 



THOMAS MOORE. 



We never think of the author of the composition, — 

"Come, ye disconsolate, where'er ye languish," 

or half a dozen other hymns from the pen of Moore 
which are to be found in our books, without thinking 
also of the exclamation, " Is Saul also among the pro- 
phets?" Would to God Thomas Moore had been a 
Christian ! for no man of his day possessed in a higher 
degree the qualities which constitute the lyric poet, — 
qualities which captivate the ear as well as the mind by 
the harmony of sound married with immortal verse. As 
a writer of songs, no man of his day equalled Mr. Moore. 
Alas that thousands are now mourning over the delu- 
sions thrown by his early productions over the ways of 
sin, — delusions which have fascinated multitudes to their 
eternal ruin ! In the review of Moore and his influence 
over the public mind, we have again and again ex- 
claimed, " Oh, the solemn responsibilities of authorship I" 
Moore was of humble origin : he was born in Dublin, 
Ireland, in the year 1790, was educated at Trinity 
College, in that city, and then went to London to study 
law ) but, mingling with the great and fascinating there, 
he gave himself to poetry and singing, married an actress, 
devoted his days and nights to vanity, and lived a man 
of the world. He died in 1852. His memoirs and let- 
ters were edited by Lord John Eussell. 



204 Al THOfifl AM) OKKJ1.N OF HYMNS. 

REV. THOMAS MORELL. 

From the pen of this able and amiable minister of Jesus 
Christ we have several valuable hymns, including, — 
"Go, and the Saviour's grace proclaim !" 

Their writer was an English Congregational minister, 
dying, before old age overtook him, but a few years ago. 
For many years he discharged the duties of a successful 
pastorate, after which he became the President of Cow- 
ard College, once under the control of the excellent Dr. 
Doddridge, but which has since merged in the new col- 
lege of St. John's Wood, London. 



REV. WM. A. MUHLENBERG, D.D. 

The well-known hymn generally beginning in our 

books, — 

"I would not live ahvay, — I ask not to stay,*' 

has a history worth telling. In the year 1824 appeared, 
in the "Episcopal Recorder" of Philadelphia, an ad- 
mirable composition of forty-eight lines, of which the 
hymn now so commonly used forms a part. It was 
written by the Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg, without the n^ost 
remote idea of any portion of it being used in the devo- 
tions of public worship. A committee of the General 
Convention of the Episcopal Church was appointed to 
prepare a new hymn-book; and the Right Rev. Bishop 



REV. JOHN NEEDIIAM. 205 

Ondcrdonk, the rector of St. Ann's Church, Brooklyn, 
offered the verses, selected from the whole article, as a 
part of the book. The said hymn was at first rejected 
by the committee, of which the unknown author was a 
member; and, when a satirical criticism was offered 
upon it, he earnestly voted against its adoption. Dr. 
Onderdonk importunately urged its admission; and after 
a while the secret oozed out that Dr. Muhlenberg, one 
of their own number, was its author. Many years af- 
terward, when he was the editor of the "Evangelical 
Catholic/' Dr. M. explained the whole matter. 



REV. JOHN NEEDHAM. 

Of this gentleman, the author of the hymn, — 

"Holy and reverend is the name," 

and several others, we have been able to obtain but very 
little information. He was for some years pastor of 
the Baptist church at Hitchin, Hertfordshire, England, 
whence he removed to become co-pastor with the Eev. 
John Beddome, of Bristol, about the year 1747. Five 
years afterward he transferred his labors to another 
church in that city, where he died about 1768, in which 
year the volume of his hymns was printed. 



18 



206 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF BTMNS. 

REV. JAMES NEWTON. 

This author of a well-known hymn on baptism was 
for twenty years during the last century classical pro- 
fessor in the Baptist College at Bristol, England, and a 
colleague in the ministry with the Rev. John Tommas 
of the same city. The duties of both these stations he 
filled with high reputation to himself and distinguished 
advantage to others. He died in 1790, in the fifty- 
seventh year of his age. Mr. Newton left in manuscript 
a volume of original hymns, which the writer of this 
work deposited in the library of the institution now 
called the Regent's Park College, in London. 



REV. JOHN NEWTON. 

Of this excellent preacher and experimental hymn- 
writer, whose history is so well known, our readers will 
not expect us to speak in detail. All of them know 
that, though the son of a pious mother, he ran in his 
early life "to great excess of riot;" went to sea, engaged 
in the slave-trade, and, but that God placed restraints 
upon him, he must again and again have died. "Pre- 
served in Christ Jesus," he was "called" by the grace 
of God, "counted faithful, and put into the ministry," 
first at Warwick, whence he removed to Olney, where 
he became associated with the amiable Cowper in 



REV. JOHN NEWTON. 207 

writing and publishing the volume of " Olney Hymns," 
and ultimately to the rectory of St. Mary Woolnoth, and 
St. Mary Wool-Church Haw, in the English metropolis, 
where we will, as somewhat aided by a writer in the 
•■ North British Review" briefly sketch his sayings and 
doings. 

Sixty years ago he might have been seen in the pulpit 
of St. Mary Woolnoth, within a stone's throw of the 
mansion-house of the lord mayor, surrounded by a 
congregation both numerous and wealthy. His sermon 
is to a great degree trite and commonplace, and you 
begin to wonder why he attracts so much attention, 
when he most unexpectedly utters some bright fancy or 
expresses some earnest feeling, while a somewhat stiff 
animation overruns his seamy countenance, and you 
wonder that a man of seventy-three can show you such 
kind and beaming eyes. The ardent affection with 
which he is earnestly looked at by his hearers proves to 
you that the preacher himself is invested with interest 
as well as his sermon. 

If you will go to tea at his house, No. 8 in Coleman 
Street Buildings, some two or three hundred yards from 
his church, on next Friday evening, in a dusky parlor 
with some twenty of his choicest friends, the mystery 
will be, at least in part, explained. He has doffed the 
cassock, and in a sailor's blue jacket, on a three-legged 
stool, the preacher sits at ease at his own little table. 
The frugal meal is finished, the ever-present pipe is 
smoked, and the Bible is placed where the tea-tray 



208 AUTHORS AND 0RI01N OF HYMNS. 

stood some half an hour ago. The guests draw nearer 
to their venerable friend, and the feast of wisdom and 
the flow of soul begin. lie inquires if any one had a 
question to ask; for these re-unions are for business 
well as for friendship. Two or three are come fully 
prepared for this call. A retired old lady aflka " how- 
far a Christian may lawfully conform to the world." 
And the old sailor says many good things to guide her 
scrupulous conscience, — unless, indeed, she made the 
inquiry for the sake of the young gentleman with the 
blue coat and frilled wristbands across the table. " When 
a Christian goes into the world because he sees it is his 
call, yet while he feels it also his cross, it will not hurt 
him." Then, guiding his discourse toward some of his 
city friends, he says, "A Christian in the world is like 
a man transacting business in the rain : he will not 
suddenly leave his client because it rains, but the mo- 
ment the business is done he is gone, — as it is said 
in the Acts, ' Being let go, they went to their own com- 
pany.' " This brings up Hannah More and her book on 
" The Manners of the Great ;" and the minister expresses 
his high opinion of her. Some of the party do not 
know who she is ; and he tells them that she is a gifted 
lady who used to be the intimate friend of Johnson, 
Horace Walpole, and Sir Joshua Reynolds, the idol of 
the "West-End grandees, and a writer of plays for Drnry- 
Lane Theatre. He repeats his admiration and his hope 
for the accomplished authoress. 

Having answered the inquiries which have been made, 



REV. JOHN NEWTOX. 209 

Newton opens his Bible, and, after singing one of the 
" Olney Hymns" he reads the eighteenth chapter of the 
Acts. " You see that Apollos met with two candid peo- 
ple in the Church : they neither ran away because he 
was legal, nor were carried away because he was elo- 
quent." And, after a short but fervent prayer, — catholic, 
comprehensive, and experimental, and turning into devo- 
tion the substance of their colloquy, — it is as late as nine 
o'clock, and the little party begins to separate. In leave- 
taking, the host has a kind word for every one, and has 
a great deal to say to one who is but a visitor. " I was 
a wild beast on the coast of Africa; but the Lord caught 
me and tamed me, and now you come to see me as 
people go to look at the lions in the Tower." And 
never was transformation more complete. Except the 
blue jacket at the fireside, and a few sea-faring habits, — 
except the lion's hide, nothing survived of the African 
lion. The Puritans would have said that the lion was 
slain and that honey was found in its carcass. 

All about Newton's writings is truly delightful and 
perfectly natural. His hymns are sweet ; but his " Let- 
ters" make him eminent. Our theology supplies nothing 
like them. They are all " cardiphonia, — the Utterance 
of the heart." Except his own friend Cowper, who was 
not a professed divine, no letters of that stiff century 
read so free, and none have so well preserved their 
writer's heart. 

Newton was born in 1725, and died in 1807. 

We have already referred to the " Olney Hymns ;" and 

18* 



210 AUTHORS AND OR I (.I.N 01 HYMH& 

it is a fact worthy of remark that these compositions 
were a few years ago translated into the Sherbro lan- 
guage by a colored man named Caulker, and are now 
sung in the very regions whose inhabitants Newton 
once assisted to carry men and women from liberty to 
slavery. 



HON. AND REV. BAPTIST NOEL. 

This gentleman, who has contributed to our hymn- 
books several beautiful compositions, including, — 

"If human kindness meets return," 

is a branch of a noble family in England and a brother 
of the Earl of Gainsborough. Mr. Noel was born at 
Leithmont, near Leith, in the year 1799, and, after at- 
taining a high reputation in various departments of 
learning, was ordained in the Church of England, and 
was appointed by her majesty Queen Yictoria one of 
her chaplains. A few years ago, changing his opinion 
as to the propriety of a union between Church and State, 
and embracing the views of truth generally held by the 
Baptists, Mr. Noel left the Episcopal Church and united 
with that body, among whom he labors with much suc- 
cess, near his old church edifice, in the English metro- 
polis, enjoying the full confidence and love of his church 
and congregation. 



JOHN F. OBERLIN. 211 



ANDREWS NORTON. 

This gentleman, the author of several beautiful hymns, 
including, — 

" My God, I thank thee ! may no thought," 

was an eminent scholar and professor connected with 
the Unitarians. He was born at Hingham, Mass., in 
1786, and graduated at Harvard College when but 
eighteen years of age. He never settled as a pastor, 
but occupied several important professorships, including 
that of Sacred Literature at Harvard. He died in 1853, 
aged sixty-seven years. 



JOHN F. OBERLIN. 

We are sorry for the man who is ignorant of the beau- 
tiful hymn, — 

" Lord, thy heavenly grace impart," 

or of its lovely author, the Eev. John F. Oberlin, the 
eminently distinguished pastor of Waldbach, in the Ban 
de la Eoche. He was born at Strasbourg in 1740, of 
truly remarkable parents, who were soon rewarded 
by the extraordinary indications of piety and talents 
given in his earliest years. Especially was his mother 
distinguished for her Christian excellencies. She was 
in the habit of assembling her children together every 
evening, and of reading aloud from some instructive book, 



'l\'l AUTHORS AND ORKJIN OF HYMNS. 

while they sat around the table copying pictures which 
their father had drawn for them; and scarcely a night 
passed but, when on the point of separating, there was 
a genera] request for "one beautiful hymn from dear 
mamma/' — with which she always comj)lied. The hymn 
was followed by a prayer; and thus their infant steps 
were conducted to Him who has said, "Sutler little 
children to come unto me." 

In very early life John Frederick became a Christian. 
lie says, "During my infancy and youth God often 
vouchsafed to touch my heart and to draw me to him- 
self. He bore with me in my repeated backslidings, 
with a kindness and indulgence hardly to be expressed." 
He entered the ministry, and in due time settled in one 
of the most difficult parishes in the world, where he 
accomplished what may be almost regarded as miracles of 
usefulness. Gladly would we dwell on scenes which can 
scarcely be thought of without rapture. His self-denial, 
his labors, his piety, and his success were alike admirable 
and animating. 

This extraordinary man, who died in 1826, in the 
eighty-sixth year of his age, does not appear to have 
been remarkable for poetical talents. The hymn to 
a translation of which we have referred is the one best 
known, — which it well deserves to be. For it we are in- 
debted to the Diary of the excellent Dr. Steinkopff, who 
heard it sung under the direction of its author on a very 
interesting occasion. 



REV. SAMSON OCCTM. 213 



REV. SAMSON OCCUM. 

Our readers have all heard of Samson Occum, a re- 
markable Indian preacher in this country, who died in 
1 7 '. • ^ . lie was converted about 1740, under the labors of 
Whitefield, Gilbert Tennent, and their companions. In 
1766 he visited England, in company with the Eev. Mr. 
Whitaker, to advocate the cause of Dr. "Wheeler's Indian 
school, which, was afterward merged in Dartmouth 
College. He there preached from three to four hundred 
sermons; and, as no North American Indian had ever 
been seen in an English pulpit before, his ministry was 
popular, and his pecuniary success so great, that he re- 
turned to this country with more than forty-five thou- 
sand dollars. 

Occum was one of the many writers who produced 
one good hymn : it begins, — 

"Awaked by Sinai's awful sound," etc. 

It originally contained seven verses; a portion of the 
whole is to be found in many of our books, and is still 
eminently useful. In 1809 it became generally known 
in England, and in 1814 was translated into "Welsh by 
the late Eev. Thomas Thomas, of Peckham, London. 
In the Welsh revivals of religion it is still very commonly 
sung; and no doubt can be entertained of its having led 
many hundred sinners to the cross of Christ. 



!14 AUTHORS AND OKK.IN 01 RTMN8. 



REV. THOMAS OLIVERS. 

Almost every one knows the beautiful hymn, — 

" The God of Abraham praise," etc., 

which was some years ago pronounced, in "Blackwood?* 
Magazine" "one of the noblest odes in the English 
language." We suspect, however, that the eulogist did 
not know that its author was originally a shoemaker 
and one of the earliest Methodist preachers. This ad- 
mirable hymn, the whole of which has been seldom 
printed, was written to a celebrated air sung by Leoni 
in the Jews' Synagogue. This hymn and tune reached 
the thirtieth edition as early as 1779. He also wrote 
the hymn beginning, — 

" Lo, he comes, ■with clouds descending," etc., 

and prepared the music to which it was long sung, and 
which also reached its twentieth edition in the year just 
named. The Eev. John Wesley printed both hymns and 
tune in his "Sacred Harmony." Olivers was born in 
Wales in 1725, and died suddenly in London in 1799. 

Mr. Olivers was distinguished in early life for great 
immorality of conduct. His attention to religion was 
arrested by the preaching of George Whitefield, and his 
subsequent life was marked by a very energetic and 
successful ministry. The Rev. John Fletcher suid 
of him, "This author was, twenty-five years ago, a 
mechanic, and, like Peter, a fisherman, and Saul, or Paul, 



KRISHNA PAL. 215 

a tent-maker, has bad the honor of being promoted to 
the dignity of a preacher of the gospel; and his talents 
as i writer, a logician, a poet, and a composer of sacred 
music are known to those who have looked into his 
publications." The Conference, also, after his death, 
said, "In his younger days he was a zealous, able, and 
useful travelling preacher. His talents were very con- 
siderable." 

John Wesley, speaking of his compeers, thus refers to 
Olivers : — 

"I've Thomas Olivers the cobbler, 
(No stall in England holds a nobler,) 
A wight of talent universal, 
Whereof I'll give a brief rehearsal : 
He with one brandish of his quill 
Will knock down Toplady and Hill." 

The celebrated Mrs. Carter heard Olivers' s hymn, — 

"Lo, he comes, with clouds descending," 

sung at St. Paul's Cathedral in London, as an advent- 
anthem, in 1753, and gives it at full length in her Letters. 



KRISHNA PAL. 



On one of the closing days of the last century, was 
baptized in the river Ganges, before the gate of the 
missionary premises at Serampore, Krishna Pal, the 
first Hindoo who trampled on the caste for Christ's 



216 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

Bake and joined the standard of the cross. This man — 
then at the prime of life, being thirty-five years of age — 
became an eminent Christian, engaged in the ministry, 
■which he pursued for many years, baptized many hun- 
dreds of converted idolaters, and then died triumphant 
in the Lord Jesus. Joyfully did he bear testimony that 
the service of Christ " was the work of love," and that 
in it a he got nothing but joy and comfort." He wrote 
two or three hymns, one of which continues to be sung 
in India in the Bengalee language, in which it was 
composed; and a part of it, translated into English, is 
printed in most of our books : — 

" thou, my soul, forget no more." 

We think no one can read this hymn, remembering 
its author as a converted idolater and that he died 
carrying out its almost prediction, without having his 
interest in the composition greatly increased : — 

'' Ah, no ! till life itself depart, 
His name shall cheer and -warm my heart ; 
And, lisping this, from earth I'll rise, 
And join the chorus of the skies/' 



MRS. PALMER. 



The hymn, — 

" To thee, thou high and lofty One," 
was written by Mrs. Palmer, and sung at the dedication 
of the Methodist church in Mulberry Street, Xew York. 



REV. A. T. PEABODY, I>1>. 217 

REV. RAY PALMER, D.D. 

Though we believe Dr. Palmer, an eminent Congre- 
gational minister of this country, has written many 
hymns, he has published very few. We have one, how- 
ever, which can never be worn out, beginning, — 

'• My faith looks up to Thee." 

This hymn, we are told, had in connection with its first 
publication an interesting incident. Dr. Lowell Mason, 
a musical composer, who was a personal friend of Dr. P., 
one day asked him to furnish him with a hymn which 
he might set to music. The excellent doctor told him 
he thought he had in his vest-pocket a worn-out, coarse 
piece of paper, on which, some weeks before, he had 
written a few lines which might suit his purpose, and, 
after some little trouble, found the almost illegible manu- 
script, the words and music of which were shortly after 
published, and which now minister to the edification of 
very many devout worshippers. 



REV. A. P. PEABODY, D.D. 

The well-known funeral hymn, — 

" Behold the western evening light," 

and several others, were written by Dr. Peabody, a 
learned Unitarian preacher, and professor in the Cam- 

19 



218 Ai rHOBB AM) ORIGIN OF HV 

bridge University. He has also published a great va- 
riety of sermons and other works, and produces one 
or more articles for almost every number of " The North 
American Review." Dr. P. was born at Beverly, Mass., 
in 1811, graduated at Harvard College in 182G, and was 
ordained at Portsmouth, X.H., in 1833. 



REV. SAMUEL PEARCE. 

Perhaps the later editions of " Ilippon's Selection of 
Hymns" may be the latest volume of hymns which con- 
tains two sweet compositions, — 

"In the floods of tribulation," 
and 

"The fabric of nature is fair." 
The last was written when its author was confined by 
sickness to his chamber, where he died of consumption, a 
few weeks after writing it, in 1799, aged thirty-seven 
years. It contains fifteen verses, every one of them 
breathing the feelings of his " seraphic" soul. We make 
no small sacrifice in omitting the whole hymn. The 
reader will thank us for the closing lines : — 

" There myriads and myriads shall meet, 
In our Saviour's high praises to join ; 
While transported we fall at his feet 
And extol his redemption divine. 

"Enough, then: my heart shall no more 
Of its present bereavements complain ; 
Since ere long I to heaven shall soar 
And ceaseless enjoyments obtain." 



REV. EDWARD PERRONET. 219 

Often have we locked on the beautiful autograph of 
this hymn with the pleasing thought that the band which 
so beautifully wrote it, though now dust, shall, never- 
theless, eternally be employed in its Saviour's service. 



REV. EDWARD PERRONET. 

For many years past most of our hymn-books have 
attributed the hymn, — 

"All hail the power of Jesus' name !*' 

to the pen of Duncan, who, however, has no other claim 
to it than what may arise from some of the alterations 
which have been made in it. It first appeared, without 
a signature, in the " Gospel Magazine" issued, in London 
in 1780, and in 1785 was published by Perronet himself 
in a volume of " Occasional Verses, Moral and Sacred" 
of which, though issued anonymously, a copy yet in ex- 
istence was given by Perronet to a friend as his own, cer- 
tified by his autograph. In 1787 Dr. Rippon published 
the first edition of his selection of hymns, in which it 
also appeared anonymously. It is only comparatively 
of late that it has been claimed for Duncan. 

Edward Perronet was the son of an excellent clergy- 
man of the Established Church of England, and the 
brother of Charles Perronet, who, as well as himself, 
was for a short time associated in the ministry with the 
excellent Messrs. Wesley. Edward, however, becoming 
Calvinistic in his theological views, was employed by 



220 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN 01 BTMN8 

the well-known Counters of Huntingdon, and labored at 

Canterbury, Norwich, and other places, with consider- 
able success. Though the son of one of its clergymen, 
he is said to have been very decidedly opposed to the 
Church of England and to have sometimes employed 
his pen in satirizing it. He was the author of an anony- 
mous poem called " The Mitre" which is generally .sup- 
posed to have been one of the keenest satires on the 
national Establishment ever written. It was printed; 
but the publication of it was suppressed, by the influence 
and request, it is said, of John Wesley. His opposition 
to the Episcopal Church so grieved Lady Huntingdon 
that he left her connection and preached to a small con- 
gregation of Dissenters till his death. 

About the year 1808 the hymn " All hail," etc., was 
printed at Canterbury, on a card, for the use of a Sun- 
day-school, to which is appended the following notice 
of the author: — "The Eev. Edward Perronet died at 
Canterbury, January 2, 1792. His dying words were, 
4 Glory to God in the height of his divinity! Glory 
to God in the depth of his humanity! Glory to God in 
his all-sufficiency ! and into his hands I commend my 
spirit.' " 

The well-known tune which has been for more than 
half a century Identified with the hymn of which we 
are writing was composed by a .Mr. Shrubsole, an inti- 
mate personal friend of Perronet, who was organist at 
Spa-Fields Chapel, London, from 1784 till his death in 
1806. 



KKV. EDWARD l'KRKnNET. 221 

We are tempted, before dismissing this article, so far 
to depart from the plan of our work as to transcribe 
from Perronet's volume of 1785 the original and unal- 
tered favorite hymn, leaving the reader to form his own 
opinion as to the character of the alterations since 

made : — 

"All hail the power of Jesus' name ! 
Let angels prostrate fall ; 
Bring forth the royal diadem, 
To crown him Lord of all ! 

"Let high-born seraphs tune the lyre, 
And, as they tune it, fall 
Before his face who tunes their choir, 
And crown him Lord of all.! 

"Crown him, ye morning stars of light, 
Who fixed this floating ball ; 
Now hail the Strength of Israel's might, 
And crown him Lord of all! 

"Crown him, ye martyrs of your God, 
Who from his altar call ; 
Extol the stem of Jesse's rod, 
And crown him Lord of all! 

"Ye seed of Israel's chosen race, 
Ye ransomed of the fall, 
Hail him who saves you by his grace, 
And crown him Lord of all ! 

"Hail him, ye heirs of David's line, 

Whom David Lord did call, 

The God incarnate, man divine ; 

And crown him Lord of all ! 

"Sinners, whose love can ne'er forget 
The wormwood and the gall, 
Go, spread your trophies at his feet, 
And crown him Lord of all ! 
19* 



222 AUTHORS AND OBXOIM OF HYMN-. 

" Let every tribe and every tongue 
That bouml creation's call 

shout, in universal <"iig. 
The croaynko Lobs of all." 

An anecdote connected with this hymn cannot be 
unacceptable. The late William Dawson, a very plain 
man, but a highly popular local preacher among the 
Wesley an Methodists of England, was boh* since, 

preaching in London on the offices of Christ. Alter 
presenting him as the great Teacher and Priest, who 
made himself an offering for sin, the preacher intro- 
duced him as the King of saints. Having shown that 
he was king in his own right, he proceeded to the coro- 
nation. Borrowing his ideas from scenes familiar to his 
audience, he marshalled the immense procession moving 
toward the grand temple to place the insignia of royalty 
upon the King of the universe. 

So vividly did the preacher describe the scene, that 
his hearers almost thought they were gazing upon that 
long line of patriarchs and kings, prophets and apoe 
martyrs and confessors, of every age and clime, until at 
length the great temple was tilled, and the solemn and 
imposing ceremony of coronation was about to take 
place. The audience by this time were wrought op to 
the highest pitch of excitement ; and, while momentarily 
expecting to hear the anthem peal out from the vast 
assemblage, the preacher commenced singing, — 

Ml hail the power of Jesus' name ! 
I.f' angels prostrate faFl,*' 



i:i:v. BDWABD I'KRRONET. 228 

The effect was electrical. The audience started to their 
feet and Bang the hymn with such spirit and feeling as 
perhaps it was never sung before or since. Eight loyally 
did that great congregation pay homage to the Saviour 
as their Sovereign that Sabbath morning. 

We add here another anecdote ; and, though it does 
not directly bear on Perronet's hymn, it does on his 
character, as on that of the eminent preacher to whom 
it likewise relates. 

Mr. Wesley had long been desirous of hearing Edward 
Perronet preach; and Mr. Perronet, aware of it, was as 
resolutely determined he should not, and therefore stu- 
died to avoid every occasion that would lead to it. Mr. 
Wesley was preaching in London one evening, and, see- 
ing Mr. Perronet in the chapel, published, without asking 
his consent, that he would preach there the next morn- 
ing at five o'clock. Mr. Perronet had too much resj^cct 
for the congregation to disturb their peace by a public 
remonstrance, and too much regard for Mr. Wesley en- 
tirely to resist his bidding. The night passed over. Mr. 
Perronet ascended the pulpit under the impression that 
Mr. Wesley would be secreted in some corner of the 
chapel, if he did not show himself publicly, and, after 
singing and prayer, informed the congregation that he 
appeared before them contrary to his own wish j that 
he had never been once asked, much less his consent 
gained, to preach ; that he had done violence to his 
feelings to show his respect for Mr. Wesley; and, now 
that he had been compelled to occupy the place in which 



224 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

be stood, weak and inadequate as be was for the work 
assigned him, he would pledge himself to furnish them 
with the best sermon that ever had been delivered. 
Opening the Bible, he proceeded to read our LordV 
mon on the Mount, which he concluded without a single 
word of his own by way of note or comment, lie cl< 
the service with singing and prayer. .No imitator has 
been able to produce equal effect. 

Another fact dues bear on the hymn. In 1795 the late 
Eev. Dr. Bogue preached one of the first sermons before 
the London Missionary Society. One of Eowland Hill's 
biographers tells us, " Mr. Bogue, in the course of his 
sermon, said, ' We are called this evening to the funeral 
of Bigotry; and I hope it will be buried so deep as never 
to rise again.' The whole vast body of people mani- 
fested their concurrence, and could scarcely refrain from 
one general shout of joy. Such a scene perhaps was 
never beheld in our world, and afforded a glorious ear- 
nest of that nobler assembly where we shall meet all 
the redeemed, and before the throne of the Lamb shall 
sing, as in the last hymn of the service, — 

' Crown him, crown him, crown him Lord of all !' " 

Mr. Jones adds, " There is reason to fear that there 
has been a resurrection of this enemy of the Church; 
but till the close of life Mr. Hill often repeated the re- 
mark of a favorite author : — ' Mr. Bigotry fell down 
and broke bis leg. "Would that he had broken his neck!' " 



ALEXANDER TOrE. 225 



ALEXANDER POPE. 

This Bingular and erratic genius, who was born in 
London in 1688 and died in 1744, was the author of a 
well-known ode, formerly exceedingly popular with our 
village choirs, and still retained in some of our books: — 

" Vital spark of heavenly flame." 

It was written at the request of Steele, to whom Pope 
says, " You have it, as Cowley calls it, just warm from 
the brain. It came to me the first moment I waked 
this morning : yet you'll see it was not absolutely in- 
spiration, but that I had in my head, not only the verses 
of Hadrian, but the fine fragment of Sappho." Warton 
says he had in his head also the verses of Thomas 
Flatman, an obscure rhymer of Charles the Second's 
day:— 

" When on my sick-bed I languish, 
Full of sorrow, full of anguish, 
Fainting, gasping, trembling, crying, 
Panting, groaning, spiritless, dying, 
Methinks I hear some gentle spirit say, 
'Be not fearful, come away,' " — 

which certainly bear a strong resemblance to some of 
the lines of Pope. 

The excellent John Wesley, in giving an account of 
a visit he made to Bolton, in Lancashire, in the summer 
of 1787, tells us that, in the evening of a Sabbath on 
which he had addressed eight hundred Sabbath-school 



226 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN 01 HYMNS. 

children, be desired forty <>r fifty of them to sing V 

ode, — 

•• Viral sj.ark of heavenly flame;" 

and he adds, u Although some of them were silent, not 
being able to sing for tears, yet the harmony was such 
a- I believe could not be equalled in the King's Chapel/' 



REV. THOMAS RAFFLES, D.D., LL.D. 

Perhaps no man in England who has never been in 
the United States has been so frequently seen by 
Americans in the pulpit as Dr. Raffles. He is a native 
of London, born about 1788, and was first-cousin to the 
late Sir Stamford Raffles, Governor of Ceylon. Con- 
verted in early life, he became a student for the ministry 
at Homerton College, and was ordained pastor of the 
Congregational Church at Hammersmith, near London, 
in 1809. We have already spoken of Dr. Collyer; and a 
short passage contained in the charge given by him to 
Dr. Raffles at his ordination, when Dr. C. was himself 
but twenty-seven years of age, will show the intimacy 
between these two eminent men when yet in their 
youth : — "The circumstances under which I am ad.i: 
ing you, my brother and friend, are not without interest. 
AVe have long known and loved each other; we have 
shared our pleasures and anxieties mutually and for 
some years; we have formed as clear conceptions and 
obtained as perfect a knowledge of each other's character 



KEY. TilnMAS RAFFLES, D.D., LL.D. 227 

as it is possible to possess in the present state. In what- 
ever points this charge may be deficient, I am sure it 
will not be in affection." 

In August, 1811, an event occurred at Liverpool which 
spread consternation through what has been called the 
religions world. The Rev. Thomas Spencer, — who, long 
before he had reached the age of twenty years, had at- 
tained popularity as a preacher to which none at so early 
an age had ever risen, excepting perhaps the late Rev. 
William Jay, of Bath, — while a new large church edifice 
was being built for him in Liverpool, was drowned while 
bathing in the river 3Iersey; and the pulpit he would 
have occupied a mysterious Providence thus reserved 
for Dr. Raffles; and, as the pastor of this church, now 
worshipping in a still larger edifice, he has ever since 
most efficiently labored. 

Dr. Raffles out of the pulpit is one of the most affable, 
unaffected, and delightful of companions : good nature 
sparkles in his clear, large blue eye, plays about his 
mouth, and is imprinted in every line of his countenance. 
But in the pulpit, solemnity banishes every other feel- 
ing, and he is evidently impressed with a consciousness 
of his momentous mission as the servant of God. "When 
he enters the sacred desk, he evidently leaves behind 
him all that is earthly, and stands only as the minister 
of mercy between a holy God and sinful man. 

No man can hear Dr. Raffles even read a hymn with- 
out seeing and feeling him to be a poet ; and the few 
hymns of his which we have in our books will most cer- 



228 AUTHOES AND ORIGIN OF 1IYMN>. 

lainly confirm the impression. As, for instance, the 
one, — 

"Blest hour, when mortal man retires," 

attracts us sweetly from earth and brings us into de- 
lightful communion with Deity. In using his hymns, 
there is nothing to lessen our confidence in the piety and 
eminent usefulness of their author, but every thing to 
increase the Christian love and sympathy we must de- 
sire to cherish. 

For a long series of years Dr. Raffles has prepared 
and circulated among his people, on every 1st of Janu- 
ary, a pastoral hymn adapted to that special season, 
which, regularly as it is published, appears in the 
columns of the "New York Observer." Cordially do we 
unite in saying, with the editors of that paper, in giving 
the hymn "No Night in Heaven" (Eev. xxii. 5,) " For the 
Early Prayer-Meeting, New Year's morning, 1858," " We 
trust the venerable and accomplished pastor may bo 
spared to furnish many another spiritual song for his 
hearers and our readers." 



REV. ANDREW REED, D.D. 

Several popular and excellent hymns are to be found 
in our books from the pen of this now venerable Con- 
gregational clergyman, who for a very long series of 
years has been eminently successful in London. In 
1834-35, Dr. Reed, in company with the late Rev. Dr. 



REV. ROBERT ROBINSON. 2J1) 

Matheson, visited this country as a deputation to its 
churches frouq the Congregational Union of England ami 
Wales: they were received with much cordiality, and 
their ministerial labors were highly acceptable. Dr. 
I Joed has published a number of useful works, including 
" The Hymn-Book," consisting of original and selected 
compositions, used by many of the churches of his order 
in Great Britain. 



REV. ROBERT ROBINSON. 

Robert Robinson, the author of two hymns in our 
collections, — 

"Come, thou Fount of every blessing," 
and 

" Mighty God, while angels bless thee," 

was in his day a very extraordinary man. While a 
very poor lad, and an apprentice to a barber in Norwich, 
England, he was brought under deep religious feeling 
by the preaching of the distinguished George White- 
field, and soon after began to preach at the Tabernacle 
in Whitefield's connection in that city. At twenty-five 
he was called to the pastorate of the Baptist Church at 
Cambridge, where — and indeed wherever he was known — 
he attained great popularity. He was eccentric both in 
his religious views and his social habits. A few words 
in reference to each of the hymns Ave have spoken of 
may not be without their use. 

20 



230 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

The former one, — 

"Come, thou Fount of every blessing," 

was written in early life, and was first published, in a some- 
what different form from what we hare it at pre- 
in the collections of Mr. Whitefield and the Eev. Dr. C 
Evans. From a descendant of one of the parties referred 
to in the narrative, we received, some twenty years since, 
the affecting statement we now make. In the latter part 
of his life, when Mr. Eobinson seemed to have lost much 
of his devotional feeling, and when he indulged in habits 
of levity, he was travelling in a stage-coach with a lady, 
who soon perceived that he was well acquainted with 
religion. She had just before been reading the hymn of 
which we are writing, and asked his opinion of it, — as 
she might properly do, since neither of them knew who 
the other was. He waived the subject, and turned her 
attention to some other topic; but, after a short period, 
she contrived to return to it, and described the benefits 
she had often derived from the hymn, and her strong 
admiration of its sentiments. She observed that the 
gentleman was strongly agitated, but, as he was dressed 
in colored clothes, did not suspect the cause. This garb 
Eobinson was compelled to assume in travelling, Bfl 
wherever he was known he was pressed to stay to 
preach. At length, entirely overcome by the power of 
his feelings, he burst into tears, and said, " Madam, I am 
the poor, unhappy man who composed that hymn many 
years ago ; and I would give a thousand worlds, if I had 
them, to enjoy the feelings I then had." An anecdote 



231 

.similar to this was often told by the late Eev. Thomas 
Morgan, of Birmingham, of almost the same language 
being used by Mr. Robinson to one of the most eminent 
ministers of his own denomination. 

The other hymn to which we have referred, — 

"Mighty God, while angels bless thee," 

the second line of which Avas written by Mr. Robinson 

11 May an infant lisp thy name," 

was composed for the use of the late excellent Benjamin 
Williams, Esq., for many years senior deacon of the 
First Baptist Church at Reading, England, — a man of 
great influence and usefulness. When a little boy, Ben- 
jamin sat on Robinson's knee while he wrote this hymn, 
who, after having read it to him, placed it in his hand. 
Well do we remember the deep feeling with which the 
venerable man described to us the scene as we sat 
with him at his own fireside. 



REV. JOHN RYLAND, D.D. 

Yery few Baptists, probably, can be found who have 
not heard the name of Ryland, borne by two eminent 
ministers of that body in England. The younger one, 
Dr. John Ryland, is the hymn-writer of whom we now 
speak. He was born in 1753, and even in childhood 
began to write hymns, some of which were printed in 



A.UTHOKS AM) ORTcilN OF HYMNS. 

the old magazines of tliat day, with the signature of J. B , 
Junr. Before he had attained the Age of five yean 
was Me to read the Twenty-Third Psalm in Hebrew, and 
at nine years could read the entire New Testament in 
Greek. At fourteen he was baptized by his father, and 
at eighteen preached his rir>t sermon. After assisting 
his father for several years, he became hia r in 

1786. In 1792, Brown University, in Rhode Island, con- 
ferred on him the degree of D.D.; and in the year follow- 
ing he became the President of the Baptist College in 
Bristol, — a position he occupied, in connection with the 
pastorate of a large church, till his decease, in 1825. He 
was one of the founders of the English Baptist Missionary 
Society, and after the death of the Bev. Andrew Fuller, 
in 1815, was elected one of its secretaries, — an office he 
filled for two or three years. He was regarded by the 
excellent Dr. John Pye Smith as the most eminent 
theologian of his day, as he certainly was among the 
most distinguished Hebrew scholars. Robert Hall 
preached his funeral sermon, and became his successor 
as the pastor of Broadmead Church in Bristol. 
Most of our hymn-books contain the hymn, — 

•• In all my Lord's appointed ways :'' 

but probably it is not generally known that it is really 
but the smaller portion of a hymn written in the latter 
part of the last century by Dr. Ryland, then of North- 
ampton, — the whole of which has never, we believe, been 
printed, except in Dr. Rippon's Selection of Hymns for 



■BY. JOHN R VI, AND, D.D. 233 

Baptist churches, formerly extensively used in this 
country. Its origin was rather singular. Several stage- 
coaches daily passed through the town; and, as the good 
pastor lived at no great distance from the inn where 
they exchanged horses, he generally contrived to meet 
every evangelical minister who travelled through the 
town, and not unfrequently almost compelled them to 
stay a day on the road, that they might give his people 
a sermon in the evening. On one occasion he had thus 
treated a brother in the ministry, who most reluctantly 
yielded and appeared in the pulpit with the text, 
" Hinder me not," (Gen. xxiv. 56.) Dr. Eyland, as is still 
customary in England, sat in the desk below the pulpit 
to read the hymns; and, as his brother proceeded, every 
"head of discourse" was "turned into poetry," which at 
the end of the sermon was duly read and a portion of it 
sung. It begins, in the original hymn, — 

'•When Abraham's servant, to procure 
A wife for Isaac, went." 

The whole consisted of nine verses, of which the last 
four only are now used. 

Many of our collections, especially those intended for 
young people, contain a hymn beginning, — 

" Lord, teach a little child to pray ; 
Thy grace betimes impart;" 

which had an interesting origin. The late Eev. and ex- 
cellent Andrew Fuller, of Kettering, England, lost a 

daughter in 17*0, who died very yonng, but not without 

I'M- 



234 AUTHORS AND OBJOIS 01 HYMNS. 

first giving good evidence of possessing experimental 
piety. While she lay sick, — which she did for some 
months, — Dr. Ivy land, of Bristol, at the request of ber 
father, wrote this little hymn for her special use. Speak- 
ing of her and the hymn, Mr. Fuller says, " She had some 
verses composed for her by our dear friend Mr. Ryland. 
These, when we rode out for the air, she often requested 
me to say over to her. She several times requested me 
to pray with her. I asked her again if she tried to pray 
herself: I found by her answer that she did, and was 
accustomed to pray over the hymn composed for her." 

After the death of little Sarah, Mr. Fuller printed a 
large number of copies of the hymn on small slips of 
paper, and distributed them among the shop-keepers of 
the town, requesting them to wrap up the thread used 
by very many children in that neighborhood for making 
the lace then only wrought on pillows; so that when a 
little girl purchased a pennyworth or two of thread she 
obtained also a hymn. By this means thousands were 
circulated over the land, and soon got into several 
books, by which we trust its usefulness will long be per- 
petuated. 



HON. AND REV. WALTER SHIRLEY. 235 

HON. AND REV. WALTER SHIRLEY. 

Some of our collections contain hymns beginning, — 
" From heaven the loud, the angelic song began," 
"Hark! in the wilderness a cry," 
" Flow fast my tears, thy cause is great," 
11 Sweet as the shepherd's tuneful reed," 
" Source of light and power divine," 

and a few others which were written in the last century 
by the Honorable and Eeverend Walter Shirley, the 
friend of Whitefield and Wesley and the personal friend 
but doctrinal opponent of the well-known Eev. John 
Fletcher: he was also a relative and valued friend of the 
excellent Countess of Huntingdon, the pulpits of whose 
chapels he frequently supplied. He was eminently suc- 
cessful as an Episcopal minister at Loughrea, in Ireland, 
to the inhabitants of which place he dedicated a volume 
of excellent sermons. Mr. Shirley composed some very 
animated lines on the departure in 1772, two years after 
the death of Whitefield, of several missionaries from 
Lady Huntingdon's college to this country. He died in 
his sixty-first year, in 1786, of a very painful disease; but 
such was the extent of his holy zeal that, though for 
some time before his death he was unable to lie down in 
bed, he sat in his chair and frequently preached to great 
numbers, who crowded the drawing-rooms, the lobbies, and 
the staircase as far as his voice could be heard; and the 
testimony of God to his ministry was truly remarkable. 



AUTHORS AND ORItilN OF HYMNS. 



LYDIA HUNTLEY SIGOURNEY. 



Where is the modern American hymn-book which 
does not rejoice in some of the compositions of Mrs. 
Sigourney? and whose hymns are more beautiful, more 
evangelical, or more generally acceptable F She was a 
native of JSTorwich, Connecticut, and at three years of 
age might be seen reading her Bible. Her early genius 
was happily fostered, and at the age of eight years she 
knew how to express her thoughts in writing with ease 
and beauty. 

In 1819 Miss Huntley was married to Charles Sigourney, 
Esq., of Hartford, from whom a year or two since she 
was separated by the hand of death; but she is still blest 
with an amiable daughter. Her life has been distinguished 
by almost incessant activity in the duties of female edu- 
cation, and in writing an ample variety of volumes and 
essays both in prose and verse, all of which are beautiful 
and useful; nor will she, as we believe, regret on a dying 
pillow the production of any one of them. Many years 
ago we published in England a selection of her poetry, 
collected by ourselves, under the title of "Lays from the 
West; 1 ' and most of her productions since that time have 
been republished in that land. It has been well said 
that " her position as first in purity and talent among 
the lady writers of America has never been disputed by 
a person worthy the name of critic." 



ANNE STEELE. 237 

REV. S. F. SMITH, D.D. 

This excellent Baptist minister of New England 
is well known as a gentleman of literary taste, and 
the author of many highly acceptable hymns, in- 
eluding, — 

11 Softly fades the twilight ray," 
and 

"Yes, my native land, I love thee." 

He was also one of the editors of the hymn-book used 
by his own denomination, called " The Psalmist." He 
needs no further praise, nor need his character be more 
fully described. 



ANNE STEELE. 



This lady, usually in England called Mrs. Steele, 
having become advanced in years, unmarried, was the 
writer of many of our favorite hymns. She was the 
eldest daughter of the Eev. William Steele, pastor of 
the Baptist church at Broughton, in Hampshire, Eng- 
land, and was born in 1716. Yery little is known of her, 
even though Dr. Caleb Evans, of Bristol, published a 
memoir of one whom he highly esteemed, living, and 
whose three volumes of poetry, under the name of " Theo- 
dosia," he greatly assisted to publish. At fourteen she 
was baptized and united with the church under the pas- 
torate of her father, sustaining that connection till her 



238 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF hymns. 

death in 1778, in the sixty-second year of her age. Eves 
in early life .she was exceedingly fond of poetry, but 
was always unwilling that what she wrote should be 
made public; and, though she at length yielded to the 
importunities of her friends, she always withheld her 
name. In early life, she consented to give her hand to 
a worthy young man named Elscourt, and the day for 
the wedding was fixed ; but a few hours before the in- 
tended event he went into the river to bathe, incau- 
tiously passed beyond his depth, and was drowned. 
Never again did her heart warm with human love. 

The remaining part of Miss Steele's life was spent 
in retirement, manifesting, as Dr. Evans says, "unaf- 
fected humility, warm benevolence, sincere friendship, 
and genuine devotion." Her capacious mind was clothed 
with a weak and languid body; and the death of her 
father, to whom she was most ardently attached, gave 
such a shock to her frame that, though she survived him 
for some years, she never recovered from it. Though 
from the period of her father's decease she was confined 
to her chamber, she looked with sweet resignation to 
the time of her removal from earth ; and, when it hap- 
pily arrived, she was, amidst great pain, full of peace 
and joy. She took the most affectionate leave of her 
friends who stood weeping around her, uttered the tri- 
umphant words, "I know that my Eedeemer liveth," 
closed her eyes, and fell asleep in Jesus. A very appro- 
priate inscription, written by one of her nieces, was 
inscribed on her tombstone : — 



REV. SAiMUEL STENNETT, D.D. 239 

"Silent the lyre, and dumb the tuneful tongue, 

That sung on earth her great Redeemer's praise ; 
But now in heaven she joins the angelic song 
In more exalted, more harmonious lays." 

Mrs. Steele's hymns, as the reader well knows, are 
highly esteemed in all our churches: they are the 
breathings of a living soul, and have alike drawn forth 
the sympathizing tear, the rapturous song, and the pre- 
vailing prayer. Long will she continue to sing on earth 
and to educate saints for heaven. 



REV. SAMUEL STENNETT, D.D. 

The family of the Stennetts furnished successive 
ministers to the Baptist denomination for more than a 
century, when the name became entirely extinct. The 
most eminent of the family was Samuel, the son of Jo- 
seph Stennett, pastor of the Baptist church at Exeter, 
England. Samuel was born in 1727 and died in 1795. 
His father moved to Little Wild Street, London, in 1737, 
and in early life his son became first his assistant and 
afterward his successor. He was an eminent scholar, 
and was honored with a degree of D.D. by the King's 
College at Aberdeen, and was a personal friend of his 
sovereign, George III., for whom it was said he read 
books, criticisms on which the king used to retail as 
his own. His literary style had all the elegant sim- 
plicity of Addison combined with more strength than 



240 AUTHORS AM) UKK.1N 01 HYMNS. 

that eminent writer. So particular was Dr. Stennett in 
his extempore delivery, that ho often made long pa 
in the pulpit to select the beat word lie could find to ex- 
press his ideas. lie was ottered high preferment in the 

Church of England, but his answer was, " I dwell among 
mine own people," and he resolutely declined. His 
hymns are extensively known and are highly valued. 

As Dr. Stennett approached old age, the death of 
his wife greatly afflicted him, but was sanctified so as 
to raise him above "this present evil world/' and he 
gave full evidence that he had no desire to remain longer 
on earth. "When almost confined to his bed, he prayed 
earnestly in his family " that God would give him an 
easy passage out of life;" " and God granted him that 
which he requested." Some vinegar combined with 
other ingredients being given him as a gargle for his 
throat, he said, with great emotion, " ' And in his thirst 
they gave him vinegar to drink.' Oh, when I reflect 
upon the sufferings of Christ, I am ready to ask, What 
have I been thinking of all my life ? What he did and 
suffered are now my only support." Eeferring to the 
tenets of Unitarianism, he said, " What should I do now 
if I had only such opinions to support me?" 



REV. AMOS SUTTON, D.D. 241 

REV. AMOS SUTTON, D.D. 

The well-known hymn, — 

"Hail, sweetest, dearest tie that binds!" 

was written by the truly excellent and learned Dr. Sut- 
ton, who died after many years of successful missionary 
labor at Orissa, India. He was of very humble origin, 
and in early life was distinguished for ignorance and 
profanity. Changed by the grace of God, he attached 
himself to a General Baptist Church in London, and, 
after due preparation, engaged in missionary labors. 
He more than once visited this country, and deeply in- 
terested the Free- Will Baptists in the cause to which he 
had devoted his life. For his second wife he married an 
American lady. However beautiful the hymn to which 
we have alluded, its full excellence could only be realized 
by those who heard it read and sung by its author, who 
not unfrequently closed the public meetings he attended 
by leading in its use. At one of these meetings, at the 
close of an ordination in which we were engaged with 
him, in 1834, in the English metropolis, we heard it 
for the first time; nor do we expect, if by sovereign 
mercy we reach the heavenly world, to lose the still 
cherished feelings which it then excited. 






242 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 



STERNHOLD AND HOPKINS. 

These gentlemen, with H. Wisdome and others, who 
assisted them in what is called " The Version of the 
Psalms," claim a niche in our volume, were it only, as 
old Thomas Fuller says, that they were " men whose 
piety was better than their poetry, and they had drank 
more of Jordan than of Helicon." Of the design of 
their work he says, " It was to make them more portable 
in people's memories, verses being twice as light as the 
selfsame bulk in prose;" and he adds that although 
a many have since refined these translations, yet their 
labors therein were never generally received in the 
Church, principally because un-book-learned people have 
conned by heart many psalms of the one translation, 
which would be wholly disinherited of their patrimony if 
a new edition were set forth." 

Sternhold was indeed a singular man. He was groom 
of the bedchamber to Henry VIII. and to Edward VI., 
and impropriator of the buildings and lands of the priory 
of Bodmin, as well as versifier of the book of Psalms. 
Bishops Beveridge and Horsley strenuously defended 
the faithfulness of the old version as a just, accurate, 
and dignified rendering of the Psalms; while Collier 
calls this " old version" a popular innovation during the 
first years of the Reformation. 

It is said of the celebrated Scaliger that he was so 



STERNHOLD AND HOPKINS. 243 

delighted with the famous stanza of Sternhold and Hop- 
kins in the eighteenth Psalm, — 

"On cherub and on cherubim 
Full royally he rode, 
And on the wings of mighty winds 
Came flying all abroad," 

that he used to profess that he had rather be the author 
of it than to have governed the kingdom of Aragon. 
The well-known psalm, — 

"All people that on earth do dwell," 

was the old favorite version of the one-hundredth Psalm, 
and was the first English composition to which the tune 
of the " Old Hundredth" was applied by our English fore- 
fathers. It has, therefore, great historical value and a 
special adaptation to one of the noblest tunes in the 
" service of song." 

" It is amusing," as the Eev. Henry Fish has remarked, 
" to look back and contemplate the strong feeling which 
existed at one period among a certain class of clergy- 
men, and some of those enlightened ones, against any 
innovations upon Sternhold and Hopkins." Even the 
celebrated Eomaine, on one occasion at least, argued as 
if the words of Sternhold and Hopkins, which were sung 
in the churches, were the words of the Holy Ghost. 



244 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 



REV. JOSEPH SWAINE. 

" Come, ye souls by sin afflicted," 

and several other sweetly melting hymns by this writer 
to be found in our collections, were derived from a 
small volume which he himself published. Mr. Swaine 
was of the humblest origin, and was bora at Birming- 
ham, England, in 1761. In early life he devoted him- 
self to sinful gayety ; but, becoming partially enlightened 
as to the truths of the gospel, and while struggling for 
clearer views of Christianity, he began to write hymns. 
He was one day overheard by a neighbor singing one 
of them, who, hearing it was his own, invited him to 
go to a house of worship with him; and he said to his 
friend, " I am sure what the preacher said is true; for he 
has described my feelings better than I can myself." In 
1791 he began to preach at Walworth, London, and 
organized a Baptist church, where he labored with great 
success for five years, the house within that period being 
three times enlarged. But at the age of thirty-five he 
was removed by death, leaving behind him a reputation 
still fragrant and precious. 

Mr. Swaine always regarded the seraphic Samuel 
Pearce, of Birmingham, as his spiritual father; and to him 
he inscribed a long poem, in which he gave a highly-in- 
terestimr narrative of his conversion. 



WILLIAM B. TAPPAN. 245 



WILLIAM B. TAPPAN. 

Though this gentleman, who suddenly died in New 

England in 1849, was not possessed of the very highest 

order of talent, — nor did he ever do justice to himself, for 

want of care and pains, — he wrote several hymns for 

which he will long be remembered. If his heart had 

not been a well-spring of poetry, he could not have 

written, — 

"'Tis midnight, — and on Olive's brow 
The star is dimmed that lately shone,"' 



or, 



Holy be this as was the place 
To him of Padan-aram known ;" 



nor can Christians cease to love him when, assembled to 
pray for the coming of Christ's kingdom, they raise the 
triumphant anthem, — 

"Wake, isles of the South! your redemption is near," 

or when, in the midst of storms and trials, they seize the 
lay of comfort and hope, — 

"There is an hour of hallowed peace," 
or rise exultingly toward that world 

"Where purity with love appears, 
And bliss without alloy, 
And they who oft have sown in tears 
Shall reap again in joy." 

Mr. Tappan was especially interested in the cause of 

21* 



246 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HVM.N.v 

Sunday-schools, and not unfrequently acceptably occu- 
pied the pulpits of his brethren, — which ho did on almost 
the last day of his life. 



TATE AND BRADY. 



We have classed these authors together because they 
were associated in the publication, in the early part of 
the eighteenth centuiy, of the "New Version of the Psalms" 
for use in the Church of England, — now, however, rapidly 
disappearing from our midst. A few — and but few — of 
them are truly valuable, and will continue to be used for 
years to come. Nahum Tate was born in Dublin in the 
year 1652 and died in 1715; and Nicholas Brady, a 
clergyman of the Church of England, who published 
many sermons, was born at Brandon, in Ireland, in 1659, 
and died in 1726. It has been remarked as a curious 
circumstance that both of the writers of the new version 
of the Psalms intended for the special use of Englishmen 
were natives of the Emerald Isle. 

It is somewhat singular that neither the Old Version 
nor the New ever possessed the direct authority of Con- 
vocation, though the former so laid hold of the popular 
mind that not even the translation of King James I. 
could disturb it. The New Version only rests upon an 
allowance "by the Court at Kensington," in 1696, "for 
such congregations as shall think fit to receive it." 



G. TERSTEEGAN. 247 

G. TERSTEEGAN. 

Translations of several of the hymns of this excellent 
German appear in our books. Perhaps the best-known 
of them is the one, — 

"Thou hidden love of God, whose height," 

and another, — 

" Though all the world my choice deride." 

He lived, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, a 
life of deep, still communion with God, choosing the 
occupation of a ribbon-weaver because of its tranquillity ; 
and from his humble home he shed a blessed influence 
over large numbers who sought his counsel. His light 
seems to have shone and to have been diffused not so 
much by direct effort as because he himself dwelt so 
much in the light. His piety was the fountain of his 
poetry; and the beauty of his heavenly thoughts glows 
through the rudeness of the earthen vessel which holds 
them. He died at Muilheim, on the Eiihr, in the year 
1769, at the age of seventy-six. 



248 



AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 



REV. AUGUSTUS M. TOPLADY. 

This eminent man was the son of a military officer, 
who died soon after his birth. When about the age of 
sixteen, he was brought to the knowledge of Christ by 
the preaching of a layman in a barn in Ireland. Top- 
lady was even then a scholar, and the preacher could 
scarcely spell his own name. In 1762 he was ordained 
in the ministry of the Church of England, and was 
at length settled at Broad Hembury, in Devonshire, 
where, and in London, he remained till his death in 
1778, occasioned by consumption. The well-known beau- 
tiful hymn, — 

"Rock of ages, cleft for me," 



together with several others, proceeded from his pen, 
and will long minister to the edification of the Church 
of Christ. As a preacher, he united many qualifications 
which captivated his hearers. He was remarkably dig- 
nified and serious, yet pleasing, in his appearance, had a 
melodious voice, graceful action, and much fluency of 
speech. Nor did he fail to impress the hearts of many, 
whose tears frequently flowed with his own. His un- 
flinching fidelity may be seen from the fact that, when 
once solicited to preach for a public charity, he saw 
present a noble lord accustomed to the sports of the field, 
and introduced a paragraph from a newspaper in which 
he was described as beating his opponent by "jostling" 



REV. AUGUSTUS M. TOPLADY. 240 

his horse into a ditch, and publicly cautioned his lordship 
lest he should be "jostled" into hell. Seeing some of his 
congregation smile, he solemnly exclaimed, " It is no 
laughing-matter, gentlemen, to be jostled into hell !" 

The death of Toplady was indeed that of the Chris- 
tian. A short time before his decease, at his own re- 
quest, his physician felt his pulse, and was asked what 
he thought of it. His reply was that " the heart and 
arteries beat weaker and weaker;" the reply of the 
dying saint, as the sweetest of smiles sat on his counte- 
nance, was, " Why, that is a good sign that my death is 
fast approaching; and, blessed be God, I can add that my 
heart beats every day stronger and stronger for glory." 
Still nearer to his end he said, " Oh, my dear sir, it is im- 
possible to describe how good God is to me! Since I 
have been sitting in this chair this afternoon — glory be 
to his name! — I have enjoyed such a season, such sweet 
communion with God, and such delightful manifestations 
of his presence and love to my soul, that it is impossible 
for any language to express them. I have had peace 
and joy unutterable; and I fear not that God's consola- 
tions and support will continue." But, immediately 
recollecting himself, he continued, " What have I said ? 
God may, to-be-sure, as a Sovereign, hide his face and 
his smiles from me. However, I believe he will not; 
and if he should, yet still will I trust in him. I know I 
am safe; for his love and his covenant are everlasting." 
Within an hour of his death he said, "It will not be 
long before God takes me; for no mortal man can 



250 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

live" — bursting, while he said it, into tears of joy — " after 
the gloriefl which God has manifested to my soul." 

Before we lay down our pen, we are disposed to refer 
to a fact related by Dr. Pomeroy, in connection with a 
visit he made a few years ago to an Armenian church 
at Constantinople, lie says that he was greatly pleased 
with their singing, though he could not understand the 
words. They all sung the same part, and while singing 
the hymn their eyes were closed, and, as they sung, the 
tears trickled down many cheeks. On inquiry what the 
hymn was, one of the missionaries told him it was, — 

" Rock of ages, cleft for me." 

The good doctor observes, with somewhat of deserved 
severity, that "most members of our American churches 
take precious good care that the singing shall have no 
such effect on them." 



MISS TUCK. 



A beautiful hymn on heaven, beginning, — 

" There is a region lovelier far," 

and one or two others of a similarly sweet spirit, adorn 
some of our books. They were written by a Baptist 
lady at Frome, Somersetshire, England, whose pen has 
long furnished articles for some of the English maga- 
zines. 



RKV. HAMKL 1TKNF.R. 25] 

REV. DANIEL TURNER. 

Most of our hymn-books contain a hymn beginning,— 

" Beyond the glittering, starry sky ;" 

and we have seen some three or four names attached to 
it as its author. The hymn, which may be seen at full 
length in the " Baptist Memorial" for 1849, and which 
contains twenty-eight verses, was the joint production 
of two English Baptist ministers of the last century. 
This question is forever set at rest in a note addressed 
by the Rev. Daniel Turner, of Abingdon, to the Rev. 
Dr. Rippon, of London, who published it in the " Bap- 
tist Register" of which he was the editor. The note, 
dated February 22, 1791, ran thus: — "As to your in- 
quiry concerning the hymn, ' Jesus seen of Angels,' it is 
true, as you were told by our good brother Medley, 
that one part of it was made by my dear friend the 
Rev. James Fanch, of Rumsey, and the other part by 
me." 

Mr. Turner wrote also the hymn, — 

"Jesus, full of all compassion," 

and one or two others in common use. 

He was born in 1710 and died in 1798. He was ori- 
ginally a schoolmaster, but in 1748 became pastor of the 
Baptist Church at Abingdon, Berkshire, England, — an 
office he rilled for fifty years. He published a work on 



-■)! AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF IIYMNS. 

the subject of full Christian communion among the 
churches of his own denomination, and an excellent 
volume entitled " A Compendium of Social Religion." 



REV. BENJAMIN WALLIN. 

This gentleman, the author of the hymn,— 

" Hail, mighty Jesus ! how divine 
Is thy victorious sword!" 

was the son of the Eev. Edward "Wallin, pastor of the 
Baptist Church, Maze Pond, London, where he was born 
in 1711. Though educated by his father, Benjamin says, 
" Under his judicious and affectionate instructions, both 
as a parent and a minister, I continued a long time a 
melancholy instance of the insufficiency of the best of 
means without a special blessing; but, I trust, before 
his removal it pleased God, who is rich in mercy, to 
open the eyes of my understanding and to change what 
was before only the form to the power of godliness." 
He was educated under the Eev. John Needham and 
the Rev. Dr. Stennett; but, having no thoughts of the 
ministry, he entered into business ; and several attempts 
were made to induce him to preach before he consented. 
Three times did the church at Maze Pond invite his ser- 
vices in this way, and he replied, " When I consider the 
design of such a call to be employed more or less in 
preaching the gospel, the very thought strikes me with 



REV. W. WARD. 253 

terror, ll is a work of tin awful nature." In July, 
1740, he consented bo preach for the first lime; and in 
October, 1741, lie was ordained as successor to his father, 
lie occupied this position more than forty years, dying 
in February, 1782. 



REV. W. WARD. 

The well-known missionary hymn, — 

"Great God, the nations of the earth," 

was written by the Rev. William Ward on his voyage to 
Bengal, in company with the late Rev. Dr. Marshman, 
to join the immortal Carey in the great work of evan- 
gelizing the heathen, in which labor they all spent their 
lives, with results that will extend throughout eternity. 
The manner in which Dr. Ward — for such he really 
became, though his modesty led him to disown the title 
— became connected with the mission should not be for- 
gotten. A short time before Carey went to India, he was 
walking in one of the streets of Hull, and was introduced 
to a youth who had just made a profession of religion 
and was then working with a printer in that town. 
"We shall, by-and-by," said Carey, "want some one to 
print our translations of the Scriptures : hold yourself 
in readiness by the time you are needed." The circum- 
stance deeply affected Ward's mind; and a few years 
afterward he went out to do that very work, as well as 
to be a pastor and an itinerant. 

22 



254 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMHB. 

Mr. Ward was born at Derby, in England, in 1769, 
and died in India in 1821. He paid two short visits to 
this country, where, as in his voyage to England, he did 
much to extend the spirit of missions, and collected con- 
siderable sums to advance the college at Serampore, 
which had been originated by himself and his brethren. 



REV. RALPH WARDLAW, D.D., 

The author of several beautiful hymns, including the 
sacramental one, — 

"Remember thee ! Remember Christ !" 

was one of the earliest Congregational ministers in Scot- 
land, where he very successfully labored in the ministry 
for fifty years. He was born in 1779, sent to the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow before he was twelve years of age, 
and ordained in that city in 1803. He published, besides 
his hymn-book, a very large number of admirable works, 
and left others in manuscript. He died in 1853, aged 
seventy -four years. Few men of his day rendered more 
service to Christ and his Church. 



REV. HENRY WARE, D.D. 

This gentleman, whose talents and learning were very 
eminent, was a member of a family devoted to the minis- 
try among the Unitarians, while both his father and 



REV. ISAAC WATTS, D.D. 255 

himself were professors in Harvard University. He 
was born in Massachusetts in 1794, graduated at Har- 
vard in 1812, and ordained in Boston in 1817. He was 
eminently devoted to his duties, and, as the result of 
excessive labors, suffered greatly for several years in 
health. He died in 1843. His hymns, few in number, 
are lovely in their spirit, but seem to us defective as to 
the great doctrines of evangelical religion. 



H. S. WASHBURN. 



This gentleman, the author of several hymns, in- 
cluding a patriotic one in several of our books, — 

" Let every heart rejoice and sing," 
is a Christian merchant, connected with a Baptist church 
in New England. He has rendered important literary 
and other services to the cause of our common Chris- 
tianity, the happy results of which we hope he may 
long live to witness. 



REV. ISAAC WATTS, D.D. 

It has been well remarked, by the anonymous author 
of " The Voice of Christian Life in Song" that with the 
eighteenth century the history of English hymn-books be- 
gins. The two earliest names on the long list of that cen- 
tury link the story of the faith in England, in an interest- 



256 authors and orkjin of iiymn>. 

ing way, with that of the persecuted Protectants on the 
Continent. Dr. Watts, born in 1074, was ided, 

through his mother, from a Huguenot family driven 
from France by the persecutions in the early part of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign. And Dr. Doddridge doubtk >88, 
in his childhood, when his mother had finished the Bible- 
lesson from the pictured Dutch tiles, would often ask for 
the story of her father Dr. John Baumann's flight from 
Bohemia, with his little store of money bound up in his 
girdle, and Luther's German Bible, for all his heritage. 
Traditions of other ancestral wrongs and faithful 
deepened the early piety of the two great Xon conformist 
hymn-writers, — the pathetic stories of those patient suf- 
ferings for conscience' sake which, next to the martyr- 
doms of Mary's time, form the most thrilling chapter in 
the history of English Protestantism, — stories not then 
condensed into national history, but which the sufferers 
yet lived to tell; for Dr. TTatts's mother also had her 
tales of her son's own infancy, when his father lay in 
prison for his convictions and she had sat on the stones 
of his prison-door with her first-born in her arms. 

It has been well said that Isaac "Watts was born a poet. 
His father was a deacon of the Independent or Congre- 
gational Church at Southampton, where Isaac was born 
in 1674. His ancestors had been musical : his father 
was not only a man of taste and intelligence, but was 
uiven to " versing;" and his mother used to offer in 
their boarding-school prizes of farthings for the best poet- 
ical effusions. When Isaac was some seven years old, 



REV. ISAAC WATTS, D.D. 257 

his mother's copper medal was gained by a somewhat 
saucy couplet produced by her son : — 

11 1 write not for your farthing, but to try 
How I your farthing-writers can outvie." 

Three years did Watts pursue his studies for the Dis- 
senting ministry, under the superintendence of the Eev. 
Mr. Eowe, at ISTewington, now absorbed in London, and 
at little more than eighteen returned to his father's house 
to devote himself to more private reading and study in 
preparation for the sacred office. With the church in 
w T hich his father held office he worshipped. At that 
period there were congregations which eschewed all 
psalmody, and in whose worship there was to be heard 
as little of the voice of melody as in a meeting-house of 
" Friends." But this was not the case in the congrega- 
tion of the Eev. Nathaniel Eobinson. They sang j and 
some have said it was from Sternhold and Hopkins, or 
from Barton's books; but, unless our memory greatly 
deceives us, we saw some half-century ago a volume of 
hymns published by one Brown, then sung at South- 
ampton. Some of these were mere doggerel; but, if we 
remember rightly, some of Watts's own book only pre- 
sented a revised form of what were written "by his prede- 
cessor. At all events, Isaac, at about eighteen, greatly 
complained of the entire want of taste in the hymns 
generally used, and in return was challenged to produce 
something better. Conscious of his powers, he under- 
took to do so, and very shortly afterward the service of 

22* 



258 A l TIIuRs AND ORKilN Of HYMNS. 

the day was closed by the beautiful composition which 
begins his first book : — 

" Behold the glories of the Lamb." 

This attempt was an innovation, and the poet was a 
prophet of their own country; but to the devotional in- 
stincts of the worshippers so welcome was this "new 
song" that they entreated the author to repeat the ser- 
vice, till, the series extending Sunday after Sunday, a 
sufficient number had been contributed to form the 
of a book. Such was the commencement of a work 
which has aided millions in their devotions, and which 
will, probably, be useful to the Church of Christ till the 
end of time. 

This volume, however, was not published till the year 
1707, when he issued the "Hymns and Spiritual Songs" 
For the copyright, Mr. Lawrence, the publisher, gave 
him ten pounds ; and in less than ten years six editions 
had been sold. Twelve years afterward he published' 
what he regarded his greatest work, " The Psalmt 
David imitated in the Language of the New Testam 
In reference to this latter work, the American reader 
will assuredly examine with interest a letter written by 
its author to the Eev. Dr. Cotton Mather. Its date was 
London, March 17, 1717-1 8. 

" To my honored and dear friend, 

Dr. Cotton JIather of New England. 
"Eev. and Dear Sir: — I may persuade myself of a 
hearty acceptance of this little present I make you. 



REV. ISAAC WATTS, D.D. 259 

They are the fruits of some easy hours this last year, 
wherein I have not sought poetical flourish, but simpli- 
city of style and verse for the use of vulgar [common] 
Christians. 

" 'Tis not a translation of David that I pretend, but 
an imitation of him so nearly in Christian hymns that 
the Jewish psalmist may plainly appear yet leave Juda- 
ism behind. My little essay that attends this manu- 
script will render some of my reasons for this way of 
introducing the ancient Psalms in the worship of the 
New Testament. 

" The notes I have frequently inserted at the end are 
chiefly to render the world a reason for the particular 
liberties I assumed in each Psalm. 

" If I may be so happy as to have your free censure 
and judgment of 'em, it will help me in correcting others 
by them. I entreat you, sir, that none of them may 
steal out into public. If God allow me one year more, 
even under my present weakness, I hope he will enable 
me to finish my design. To him be all the glory. 
Amen. Your most affectionate lover and obliged friend, 

" I. Watts." 

Mr. Montgomery — and few men were more capable 
of forming a correct judgment — says that "Dr. Watts 
may almost be called the inventor of hymns in our lan- 
guage j for he so far departed from all precedent that 
few of his compositions resemble those of his forerun- 
ners ; while he so far established a precedent to all his 
successors, that none have departed from it, otherwise 



200 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN 01 HVMNS. 

than as according to the peculiar turn of mind in the 

writer and the style of expressing Christian truths em- 
ployed by the denomination to which he belonged." 

Equally true and beautiful are the same author's re- 
marks on Watts'! "Divine Songs for Children" He says, 
" These form so small a portion of his multiform labors, 
that were they expunged the eye could scarcely perceive 
the bulk of one of the volumes diminished. Yet who 
can calculate the innocent pleasure and the abiding profit 
which those- few leaves have afforded to myriads of 
minds through the lapse of a century? And, much 
more, who can estimate the treasure of instruction and 
delight which would thereby be lost to millions hereafter 
through ages untold V* 

It has been well said, by another writer, " It may ap- 
pear at the last day that this little work was the most 
useful of all his publications. He has done very much 
by it to Christianize more than one-quarter of the world." 

AYe think it is Cecil who says that nothing about Dr. 
Watts surprised him so much as that he should have de- 
scended from writing his " Logic" to compose his beauti- 
ful " Divine Songs for Children." To this we are disposed 
to reply that his severer exercises of mind most ad- 
mirably prepared him for the clear and simple compo- 
sitions in which he afterward engaged. These beau- 
tiful " Songs" carry about them evident indications of 
■fine mental training and sweet condescension of spirit 
and manners, which will be admired in many of these 
compositions till the end of time. 



REV. ISAAC WATTS, D.D. 2G1 

We may mention here a tradition still prevalent in 
the county of Essex. Castle Hedingham, in that county, 
was situated not very far from London, where the doctor 
then resided. At the castle, from which the village 
took its name, lived an excellent family, named Ashhurst, 
who were frequently visited by Dr. Watts and other 
London ministers. In the beautiful and secluded grounds 
of that lovely spot, tradition tells us, the pious poet com- 
posed many of his " Divine Songs" We can easily be- 
lieve the statement, as also that the delightful scenery 
suggested some of the finest thoughts. 

The remark often made that the interest we take in a 
hymn is greatly augmented when we know its history, 
has seldom been more strikingly illustrated than in the 
composition of Watts beginning, — 

" How vain are all things here below V' 

It is well known that the worthy doctor lived and 
died a bachelor. The cause of this seems to have been 
that in early life he met with a severe disappointment. 
Attracted alike by the personal, the intellectual, and the 
spiritual loveliness of Miss Elizabeth Singer, afterward 
the well-known Mrs. Bowe, Isaac Watts tendered to her 
his heart and his hand, and was unhappily repulsed, — 
the lady telling him that, though she loved the jewel, 
she could not admire the casket which contained it. 
Thus was poor Watts treated, as were others, by this 
excellent but surely somewhat capricious lady, whom 



2G2 \i rnOBB and origin of hymns. 

Mrs. Barbauld in some degree taunted when sbe said to 

ber, in the language of high compliment, — 

" Thynne, Cartaret, Blackmore, Orrery approved, 
And Prior praised, and noble Hertford loved : 
Seraphic Ken and tuneful Watts were thine, 
And Virtue's noblest champions filled the line." 

Though disappointed and grieved, the pious poet sub- 
mitted to what he considered an arrangement of Divine 
Providence, and then wrote the hymn to which we have 
referred, the beauty of which both the Christian and 
the poet will admire. Happy the man who could at 
such a time pray, 

"Dear Saviour, let thy beauties be 
My soul's eternal food, 
And grace command my heart away 
From all created good!'* 

It was some time since observed, by a writer in the 
"Presbyterian Quarterly Review," that in the hymn of 
Watts beginning, "There is a land of pure delight," 
"every image is scriptural, every suggestion appro- 
priate, every association holy f and he adds, " we doubt 
whether any uninspired production has oftener softened 
the heart or moistened the eyelids." 

"We learn from an American writer, who obtained his 
information on the spot, that its author wrote this hymn 
at Southampton, his native town, while sitting at the 
window of a parlor which overlooked the river Itchen, 
and in full view of the Isle of Wight, " the swelling 
flood" celebrated in it, " beyond" which is seen "the land 
of pure delight," 



HEW ISAAC WATTS, D,D. li * >-> 

•■ Where everlaetipg spring abides 

And ncvrr-wiiliering flowers." 

So, at Kast, it might seem. It is Indeed a fair and beau- 
tiful type of that paradise of which the poet sung. It 
rises from the margin of the flood and swells into bound- 
less prospect, all mantled in the richest verdure of sum- 
mer, checkered with forest-growth, and fruitful fields 
under the highest cultivation, and gardens, and villas, 
and every adornment which the hand of man, in a series 
of ages, could create on such susceptible grounds. As 
the poet looked upon the waters then before him, he 
thought of the final passage of the Christian : — 

" Death, like a narrow sea, divides 
This heavenly land from ours." 

The hymn written by Dr. Watts, — 

"Am I a soldier of the cross ?" 

was first published by its author at the end of his thirty- 
first sermon, entitled " Holy Fortitude, or Remedies against 
Fear ;" the text, 1 Cor. xvi. 13 :— " Stand fast in the 
faith ; quit you like men ; be strong." The hymn itself is 
a fine apostrophe for the use of the Christian soldier, 
who is represented in a review of his character and du- 
ties, and with an earnest desire to engage in the conflict 
in which he is sure of victory by faith in Him who 
has already conquered all his foes. It breathes the true 
spirit of a soldier of the cross of Christ. He would 
wear no laurel that he does not gain under the banner 
of the Great Captain of his salvation. He disdains to be 



i-'64 AUTHORS AND ORIGIfl OF HYMNS. 

M carried to the skies 
On flowery beds of ease, 
While others fought to win the prize 
And sailed through bloody seas," 

and boldly asks for the foes he has to face. After ex- 
pressing his resolve to fight his way to heaven, and an- 
ticipating the bliss he shall enjoy, he ascribes all the 
glory to Him who hath purchased it with his blood. 
Let every Christian soldier enter the warfare and con- 
tinue in it with the spirit of this hymn. 

We have elsewhere spoken of the cordial friendship 
which existed between Dr. Doddridge and Dr. Watts; 
and certainly the reader will be gratified by a short ex- 
tract from a letter of the former excellent man to the 
latter, relative to that exquisitely beautiful hymn, — 

"Give me the wings of faith, to rise." 

Dr. Doddridge thus affectionately speaks to his friend : — 
" On "Wednesday last I was preaching in a barn to a 
pretty large assembly of plain country -people in a village 
a few miles off. After a sermon from Heb. vi. 12, we 
sung one of your hymns, (which, if I remember right, 
was the one hundred and fortieth of the second book ;) 
and in that part of the worship I had the satisfaction to 
observe tears in the eyes of several of the auditory ; and, 
after the service was over, some of them told me that 
they were not able to sing, so deeply were their minds 
affected with it; and the clerk, in particular, told me he 
could hardly utter the words of it. These were most of 
them poor people, who work for their living." 



REV. ISAAC WATTS, D.D. 265 

While writing this article, we learn from the English 
newspapers that in the new park just formed in South- 
ampton, the town in which Dr. Watts was born, arrange- 
ments are in progress for the erection of a statue to his 
memory, to be paid for by penny subscriptions of Sunday- 
school children. 

We know not that we can better close this article 
than by a short extract from Mrs. S. C. Hall's " Residence 
of Dr. Isaac Watts," now, alas! "among the things that 
were." She says, "We followed our conductor to the 
top of the house, where, in a turret upon the roof, many 
of Dr.Watts's literary and religious works were composed. 
We sat upon the seamed bench, rough and worn, the 
very bench upon which he sat by daylight and moon- 
light, — poet, logician, and Christian teacher. We were 
in some degree elevated above the dense and heavy fog, 
for the heavens were clear and blue; but all beneath us 
was shrouded in a sea of mist, that would sometimes 
clear away and then press its yellow folds more closely 
round every object of interest. This was very provoking, 
as we desired to see what he had seen ; but we remem- 
bered how out of this good man's naturally irritable 
temperament he had become gentle, modest, and patient. 
We could almost fancy the measured tones of his sweet, 
eloquent voice reproving our unthankfulness for what 
we had already enjoyed. . . . The chamber upon whose 
walls hung the parting breath of this benevolent man 
might well be an object of the deepest interest to all 
who follow, however humbly, the faith of Jesus. We 

23 



266 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN 01 IIV.MNS. 

were told of a little child who, knowing every hymn he 
had written, was taken into his room, having some \ ; 
but happy idea that she should meet him there. Learn- 
ing, as she eagerly looked round, that the author of 

' Watts's Hymns' was dead, she burst into bitter tears, 
which did not cease while she remained in the house." 

Perhaps, how r ever, the most striking commendation of 
these compositions was from the pen of the energetic and 
accomplished William Wilberforce. "With special refer- 
ence to the beautiful "Summer Evening" of its author, — 

" How fine has the day been! how bright was the sun!" 

he says, "It is not for children in years alone, but for 
the children of God and the heirs of glory. And when 
we compare it, either in point of good sense or imagina- 
tion, or its sterling value in sustaining hope, with the 
considerations and objects which feed the fancy or exer- 
cise the understanding or affections of the most celebrated 
men who have engaged the attention or called forth the 
eulogiums of the literati of the last century, we are 
irresistibly forced to exclaim, ' Oh, happy hymnist ! Oh, 
unhappy bards !' " 

Before we close this article, we may refer to two or 
three compliments paid to the poetical writings of 
Watts, very different in character, but equally illus- 
trative of their influence. A copy of his Psalms and 
Hymns was taken into Central Africa by Mr. Anderson, 
the brother-in-law and fellow traveller of the celebrated 
but unfortunate Mungo Park, which the Landors, many 



REV. ISAAC WATTS, D.D. -<>7 

years afterward, found hang ap in the residence of a 
chieftain ae tkfetishe, bo be worshipped as sacred. 

Another is presented in a letter from the ftev. Dr. 
Colman, of Boston, under date of August 20, 1739: — 
"This last year, at my motion, two of our booksellers 
reprinted your ' Songs for Children,' — an edition of two 
or three thousand, I think; and your Hymns are just 
now out of the press, and your Treatise of Prayer in it. 
I know not whether you reckon our editions here any 
thing; but we do." 

We may add yet another fact of interest, — that the 
Hymns of Dr. Watts were first published in this country, 
by Dr. Franklin, in 1741, and his Psalms the same year 
in Boston; but neither the Psalms nor the Hymns were 
generally used in worship by our fathers till after the 
Eevolution. 

Our readers will be gratified if we give the opinion writ- 
ten by our countryman William Wirt, Attorney-General of 
the United States. " I bought the other day," he says, in a 
letter to his wife, "a copy of Watts's Psalms and Hymns. 
Do you know that I never think of this man without 
such emotions as no other human being ever inspires 
me with ? There is a loftiness in his devotion, and an 
indifference, approaching to contempt, for the praise or 
censure of the beings of this nether world, which is 
heroic and sublime. It is so awfully great that even old, 
surly, growling Johnson, with all his High-Church pride 
and arrogance, felt its influence, and scarcely dared to 
whisper a criticism in his life of Dr. Watts, — which is a 



\i i sou ami oaioia 01 mm 

cariosity in this particular. \\ hut u -<>ul ol 

and, a! the same time, of dissolving tend thai! 

Il«.w truly <li'l h< all the laciiltio of that BOaJ t<» 

the contemplation of the glorj 

He a as, ind< r journ< j ing h and 

seems to tuv irth and 

heaven t-» oompoee th 

aoulj rod I never feel thy own wTthlessness s<- 

a- when I read bis oompoeitions and comp 

a itli hie." 

It I raved to aa that the colth 

the art ofpoetry 1 1 happy Influence on tb 

So i; to have been with Dr. W 

tol<l that In- was of to extremely mild a disposition thai, 
when a friend once blamed him for not h;r. 
reprimanded a man who had done him a Berions injury, 
In- replied, " I wish, my dear bit, yon wonld «!«» i: 



THE WESLEYS. 



I.\ the early yean of the eighteenth century, while 
Dr. Doddridge, daring hie solitary child ant- 

ing from hie mother*! lips, in their noose in London, h<»w 
tlu- <;..,! who led Israel through the wild< • 

• riled grandfather from Bohemia, — while tin- oral 
edition of Dr. Wait-'- hymn-book was h 
bought up in a single year, — John and Charles W' 
spending their childhood in 1 1 



TiiK wisu 269 

at Bpworth, in Lincolnshire, John having been born in 
1703, and Charles in 1709. The old Puritan blood ran 
in their veins : their father*! grandfather and father had 
both been ejected from the Established Church in l 
and the younger of these had often been in prison for his 
Nonconformity. Their mother's father, the Rev. Dr. 
Annealey, was also one of the early Nonconformists, — a 
man of whom his daughter said that for forty years his 
deep sense of peace with (iod through Christ had never 
been broken, and who died whispering, "When I awake 
up in thy likeness, I shall be satisfied, — satisfied." ( 

None of our readers need to be told that amidst perse- 
cution and contumely John and Charles Wesley preached 
the gospel of Christ throughout their long lives: the 
hearts of thousands were awakened) and the morning 
hymn of rejoicing multitudes went up to that Sun of 
Righteousness which had arisen with healing in his 
wings. In one place, where an enraged crowd had 
rushed into the house where John Wesley was resting, 
he addressed them with such affectionate faithfulness, 
appealing to the " thirst" which lay deep in their hearts 
below their opposition, that the disorderly mob became 
a peaceable congregation and tears of penitence streamed 
down the faces of the ringleaders. At another time the 
magistrate who came to prevent Charles Wesley from 
preaching was himself arrested by the preacher's words, 
listened to the end, and went away with a softened and 
bumbled heart. In almost every place where they were 
thus assailed, societies of true converts sprang up out of 



270 AUTHORS AND oRltil.N of STUBS. 

the very rank- of the persecutors. It was out of lives 
such as these that the Wesleyan hymns were distilled. 
As the reader has already seen, one hymn was composed 
after a wonderful escape from an infuriated mob, another 
alter deliverance from a storm at sea, and all in the in- 
tervals of a life of almost incessant toil. The pressure 
of trial and the power of faith drew many a vigorous 
hymn from John Wesley; but it was Charles Wesley 
who — in his prime, on his preaching-tours, by the road- 
side, amidst hostile mobs or devout congregations, and 
in his old age, in his quiet journey ings from friend to 
friend — poured forth the great mass of the Wesleyan 
hymns'*. Those hymns are now sung in collieries and 
copper-mines, in our dense forests and on the battle-fields 
of other lands, in the cradle and on the death-bed. How 
many has their heavenly music strengthened in the hour 
of sorrow, and given courage to strong men and patience 
to suffering women ! They have been a liturgy engraved 
on the hearts of thousands of the poor, and have aided 
in bearing the name of Jesus far and wide, writing it 
deep on countless hearts. Truly has it been said that 
the service he rendered to Methodism — and, we will add, 
to evangelical religion — by his hymns did as much as 
John Wesley's rules to bind together the rough material 
of early Methodism. They cxpre>s even now every 
Sabbath the religious emotions of tens of thousands of 
worshippers; and during their whole history they have 
comforted the souls and fluttered on the dying lips of 
myriads now before the throne. 



THE WESLEYS. L'71 

There is something so remarkably interesting in Mr. 
Moore's description of Charles Wesley when nearly 
eighty years old, that we are sure our readers will thank 
us for transcribing it: — "He rode every day — clothed 
for winter even in summer — a little horse, gray with 
age. When he mounted, if a subject struck him, ho 
proceeded to expand and put it in order. He would 
write a hymn, thus given him, on a card kept for that 
purpose, with his pencil, in short-hand. Not un fre- 
quently he has come to the house in the City Road, 
and, having left the pony in the garden in front, he 
would enter, crying out, ( Pen and ink ! pen and ink V 
These being supplied, he wrote the hymn he had been 
composing. When this was done, he w r ould look round 
on those present and salute them with much kindness, 
and thus put all in mind of eternity. He was fond on 
these occasions of the lines, — 

' There all the ship's company meet 

Who sailed with the Saviour beneath ; 
With shouting each other they greet, 

And triumph o'er sorrow and death 
The voyage of life's at an end, 

The mortal affliction is past ; 
The age that in heaven they spend 

For ever and ever shall last.' " 

The hymn, — 

" Come, Desire of nations, come," 

was written by the Eev. Charles Wesley, and formed 
part of a tract consisting of nineteen "Hymns Occa- 
sioned by the Earthquake, March 8, 1750." This tract 



Z1Z AUTHORS AM) ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

wa.fi intended to give a right direction to the extraordi- 
nary consternation and excitement which prevailed in 
London and its neighborhood, occasioned by shocks 
which moved the earth, about London and Westminster, 
westward, then to the east, and then westward again, 
attended with a rumbling noise like that of thunder. 
Many houses were shaken and several chimneys thrown 
down ; but it was believed that no lives were lost. 
Thousands left their houses and encamped for some 
days in the fields. A soldier added to the alarm by pre- 
tending that he had a " revelation" that on a certain 
midnight a great part of London would be swallowed 
up. Not a few really supposed that the day of judg- 
ment was about to commence ; many churches were 
thrown open, and Eomaine and others preached to the 
crowds there, while Whiten* eld and Wesley preached in 
Hyde Park and elsewhere, at midnight, to many thou- 
sands. Forms of prayer were appointed " by authority" 
to be read in the churches, prayers were composed for 
the use of families, sermons and letters were printed 
on the subject, and the results of the whole matter were 
very great. Nor was the tract to which we have re- 
ferred without its use. Its publication was a happy 
thought. In addition to the hymn we have mentioned 
as thus called forth, was also another which yet lives 
arnong us, — 

"How weak the thoughts and vain," etc. 

In 1780, the TJev. Charles Wesley published, in pamph- 



THE WESLEYS. 273 

let form, "Hymns Written in the Times of the Tumults, 
June, 1780." These awful mob riots, so celebrated in 
the annals of England, took place in London as the 
result of the imprudent anti-popish, violence of an infatu- 
ated peer, Lord George Gordon, a man clearly insane, 
who collected many thousands of persons to destroy the 
chapels and the persons of the Eoman Catholics. The 
cowardly fears of the London magistrates and the malice 
of the mob were severely lashed in a satirical poem from 
the pen of Charles Wesley, in which he speaks thus of the 
charge that the Methodists had aided the Eoman Ca- 
tholics : — 

"Old Wesley, too, to papists kind, 

Who -wrote against them for a blind, 

Himself a papist still in heart, 

He and his followers shall smart : 

Not one of his fraternity 

We here beneath our standard see." 

In 1782, Charles Wesley also issued a tract of forty- 
seven pages, entitled "Hymns for the Nation" having a spe- 
cial reference to the fact that England was at war with 
her " rebellious" transatlantic colonies. One verse from 
these hymns, which still remains in most of theMethodist 
hymn-books, will be read by our friends with a smile : — 

"Saviour, whom our hearts adore, 
To bless our earth again, 
Now assume thy royal power 
And o'er the nations reign." 

The exquisitely-beautiful hymn, — 

"Come, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
To whom we for our children cry," 



274 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

was written by Charles Wesle} r , and sung " at the open- 
ing of a school at Kingswood" for preachers' sons. lfr. 
Creamer says, " It has been brought as a charge, in effect, 
against Mr. John Wesley, that he preferred genuine 
piety, even when associated with ignorance, to irre- 
ligion, though adorned with learning and the adventi- 
tious importance which wealth alone too often confers. 
To assert this, however, is only saying that he had, in 
spirit, sat at the Saviour's feet, heard his word, and 
learned of him. But he saw no necessity for either; 
and therefore he prayed himself, and, by putting the 
words into his hymn-book, instructed his societies and 
followers to pray, — 

4 Unite the pair so long disjoined, — 

Knowledge and vital piety : 
Learning and holiness combined, 

And truth and love, let all men see 
In those whom up to thee we give, — 
Thine, wholly thine, to die and live.' " 

We are glad of an opportunity of saying somewhat 
of the truly-grand hymn written by Charles Wesley, — 

"Thou God of glorious majesty." 

It contains, as our readers all know, a truly-sublime 

verse : — 

" Lo ! on a narrow neck of land, 
'Twixt two unbounded seas I stand, 

Secure, insensible ! 
A point of time — a moment's space — 
Removes me to that heavenly place 
Or shuts me up in hell !" 

This fine composition was written on the promontory 



THE WT.M.KYS. 273 

known in England as "Land's Kml," on the coast of 
Cornwall. It is really a a narrow neck of land" jutting 
out into tin- Atlantic. To pass over this neck for the 
purpose of reaching the outmost point of English land 
is somewhat dangerous. With scarcely foot-room be- 
neath you, you have on either side a precipice, with the 
sea washing its base; and, whether you turn to the 
right hand or the left, your eye meets a vast expanse of 
ocean. 

Mr. Montgomery, in his " Christian Psalmist," says of 
this hymn, " It is a sublime contemplation, — solemn, col- 
lected, unimpassioned thought, but thought occupied with 
that which is of everlasting import to a dying man 
standing on the lapse of a moment between two eter- 
nities." 

We shall add to these remarks an extract from 
Dr. Adam Clarke, under date of October 11, 1819 : — 
"I write this on the last projecting point of rock of 
the Land's End, upward of two hundred feet perpen- 
dicular above the sea, which is raging and roaring tre- 
mendously, threatening destruction to myself and the 
narrow point of rock on which I am sitting. On my 
right hand is the Bristol Channel, and before me the 
vast Atlantic Ocean. There is not one inch of land 
from the place on which my feet rest to the American 
continent. This is the place where Charles Wesley 
composed those fine lines, — 

4 Lo ! on a narrow neck of land, 
'Twixt two unbounded seas I stand.' 



A.UTHOBS AND OftlOIM Of HY.MNs. 

Charles Wesley's hymn, — 

Stand, the omnipotent decree," 

was written and published in 1756, with special refer, 
to the earthquake which destroyed the city of Lisbon in 
that year. Montgomery Bays, u The hymn on the day 
of judgment, — ' Stand, the omnipotent decree/ — begins 
with a note, abrupt and awakening, like the sound of 
the last trumpet. This is altogether one of the most 
daring and victorious flights of our author." 

•• Give me the enlarged desire'' 

was written by Charles Wesley, and was a favorite hymn 
with the seraphic John Fletcher of Madely, of whom 
Southey speaks as *• a man of rare talents and rarer vir- 
tue. Xo age or country has ever produced a man of more 
fervent piety or more perfect charity; no church has 
ever j ssessed a more apostolic minister." Mr. Fletcher 
OS is well known, at one time the President, and 
Mr. Benson, his intimate friend, the Head-Master, of 
Lady Huntingdon's college at Trevecca for the education 
of young ministers. Speaking of Mr. Fletcher's devo- 
tional habits, Mr. Benson says, u My heart kindles 
while I write. Here it was that I saw, — shall I 
an angel in human flesh ? I should not far exceed the 
truth if I said so. . . . After speaking a while in the 
school-room, he used frequently to -ay, ' A- many of you 
as are athirst for this fulness of the Spirit, follow me 
into my room.' On this, many of us have instantly fol- 
lowed him, and there continued for two or three hours, 



THE WESLEYS. 277 

wrestling like Jacob for the blessing, praying one after 
another till we could bear to kneel no longer. This was 
not done once or twice, but many times. And I have 
sometimes seen him on these occasions, once in par- 
ticular, so filled with the love of God that he could con- 
tain no more, but cried out, 'O my God, withhold thy 
hand, or the vessel will burst/ But he afterward told 
me he was afraid he had grieved the Spirit of God, and 
that he ought rather to have prayed that the Lord would 
have enlarged the vessel, or have suffered it to break, 
that the soul might have had no further bar or interrup- 
tion to the enjoyment of the Supreme God. For, as 
Mr. Wesley has observed, the proper prayer on such an 
occasion would have been, — 

Give me the enlarged desire, 

And open, Lord, my soul, 
Thy own fulness to require 

And comprehend the whole : 
Stretch my faith's capacity 

Wider and yet wider still ; 
Then with all that is in thee 

My ravished spirit fill.' " 

The well-known hymns, — 

"Woe to the men on earth who dwell," 
and 

"By faith we find the place above," 

were written by Charles Wesley, and were first printed 
by him in a tract about 1756. They were parts of a long 
hymn he wrote on the then recent destruction of Lisbon; 
and, read with this fact in view, their interest is greatly 

24 



Ziti AUTHORS AND ORKJIN OF II YM 

increased. lie wrote about that period many hymns 
much adapted, alike by their sentiments and beauty, to 
impress the public mind from the passing events of that 
important period. 

The very excellent and graphic hymn, — 

* Glory to God, whose sovereign grace," 

was written by Charles Wesley "for the Kingswood 
colliers f but we are sorry to see that Wesley's last two 
verses have been omitted from our modern books : — 

"Suffice that for the season past 

Hell's horrid language filled our tongues, 
We all thy words behind us cast, 

And lewdly sang the drunkard's songs. 

But — oh, the power of grace divine ! — 
In hymns we now our voices raise, 

Loudly in strange hosannas join, 

And blasphemies are turned to praise." 

These verses, as well as such words as "senseless 
stories," "reprobates," and "outcasts," will be better 
understood when it is remembered that the tract of 
country called Kingswood, consisting of from three to 
four thousand acres, formerly a royal chase, and lying 
near Bristol, England, supplies to that city the greater 
part of its fuel. It was in the days of the Wesleys and 
Whitefield inhabited by a far more brutal and lawless 
race than any of their fathers, in the persons of the 
colliers, differing as much from the people of the sur- 
rounding country in dialect as in appearance. Of these 
people many of the Christians of Bristol said to George 



THE WESLEYS.. 279 

Whitefield, when be was preparing to embark for 
Georgia to preach to the Indians, " What need of going 
abroad for this? Have we not Indians enough at home ? 
If you have a mind to convert Indians, there are colliers 
enough in Ki?igswood." Here, under an old sycamore- 
tree on Hanham Mount, that great man preached his 
first sermon in the open air to about a hundred colliers. 
This number rapidly increased, till they sometimes 
amounted to nearly twenty thousand persons. He says, 
" The first discovery of their being affected was in the 
white gutters made by their tears, which plentifully fell 
down their black cheeks, as they came up out of their 
coal-pits. Hundreds and hundreds of them were soon 
brought under deep convictions, which happily ended in 
sound and thorough conversion." 

Compelled to embark for America, Whitefield pre- 
vailed on John "Wesley to succeed him in this interesting 
charge; and we scarcely need to remark that Kingswood 
has ever since been regarded as a sacred spot in eccle- 
siastical history. Here houses of prayer for Wesleyan 
Methodists and Independents were soon erected, and in 
them thousands have been converted to God. Here was 
placed the first school for the sons of Methodist preachers; 
and on Hanham Mount, besides the voice of Whitefield, 
have been heard those of the Wesleys, Coke, and Mather; 
and here Pawson and Benson and Bradburn accom- 
plished some of the mightiest effects which followed 
their powerful preaching. 



280 Authors and <»rk;in oi hymns. 

It has been supposed that the two hymns of Charles 
Wesley, — 

"Oft have we passed the guilty night," 
and 

" Hearken to the solemn voice," 

were the first two hymns composed by this author for 
watch-night services. Dr. Southey terms these watch- 
nights "another of Wesley's objectionable institutions ;" 
and yet they had a very lovely origin. They began 
among the converted colliers of Kingswood, who, having 
in the days of their folly given their Saturday nights to 
drinking in the ale-house, after their hearts had been 
changed gave these same hours to worship God in the 
school-house, continuing their hymns and prayers late 
into the Sabbath morning. These services contributed 
greatly to their spiritual advantage ; and John Wesley 
determined to introduce them into all his societies. In 
1742 — the date of the first publication of these two 
hymns — he appointed a monthly watch-night during the 
full moon : this service is still continued at the close of 
every year, and has in later years been imitated by many 
congregations of other denominations 

;i Worship, and thanks, and blessing," 

was a " blast," as Mr. Creamer says, written by Charles 
Wesley " after deliverance in a tumult/' and was often 
sounded on similar occasions. We have no certain in- 
formation as to its precise date. One account of " a mob 
at Devizes," written by the author, as occurring in 1747, 
and copied from Jackson's Life of Charles Wesley, closes 



THE WESLEYS. 281 

in so interesting a manner that the reader will be glad 
to refresh his memory with it : — 

"After riding two or three hundred yards, I looked 
back and saw Mr. Merton on the ground, in the midst 
of the mob, and two bull-dogs upon him. One was first 
let loose, which leaped at the horse's nose; but the 
horse with his foot beat him down. The other fastened 
on his nose and hung there, till Mr. Merton, with the 
butt-end of his whip, felled him to the ground. Then 
the first dog, recovering, flew at the horse's breast and 
fastened there. The beast reared up, and Mr. Merton 
slid gently off. The dog kept his hold till the flesh tore 
off. Then some of the men took off the dogs; others 
cried, 'Let them alone.' But neither beast nor man had 
any further commission to hurt. I stopped the horse 
and delivered him to my friend. JIc remounted with 
great composure, and we rode on leisurely, as before, 
till out of sight. Then we mended our pace, and in an 
hour came to Seend, liaving rode three miles about, and 
by seven to Wraxall. The news of our danger was got 
there before us ; but we brought the welcome tidings of 
our deliverance. Now we saw the hand of Providence 
in suffering them to turn out our horses; that is, to 
send them to us against [by the time] we wanted them. 
Again, how plainly were we overruled to send our horses 
down the town, — which blinded the rioters without our 
designing it, and drew off their engines and them, leaving 
us a free passage at the other end of the town ! We joined 
in hearty praises to our Deliverer, singing the hymn, — 

24* 



282 AUTHORS ANT) <»RT(iIN OF HYMN- 

'Worship, and thanks, and blessing.'" 

Men who could thus suffer and sing would, under 
similar circumstances, be as ready as Daniel to be cast 
into the lions' den, or to enter, like the three Hebrew 
children, the fiery furnace, even though it were heated 
seven times hotter than usual. 

The hymn,— 

"Oh for a thousand tongues, to sing," 

is said to have been written by Charles "Wesley on the 
first anniversary of the conversion of himself and his 
brother John. It originally contained eighteen verses, 
and was entitled "For the Anniversary of One's Conver- 
sion." It was first published in the year 1739. 
The hymn, — 

" Come, thou all-victorious Lord," 

was also written by Charles Wesley u before preaching 
at Portland," a peninsular parish of England, opposite 
"Weymouth, in the county of Dorset. It is remarkable 
for its stone-quarries, from which an abundant supply is 
sent to different parts of England and elsewhere and 
where very many of its inhabitants are engaged in this 
kind of labor. These facts probably suggested two 
lines in the first verse : — 

" Strike -with the hammer of thy word, 
And break these hearts of sto7ie." 

The well-known animated and emphatic hymn, — 
" See how great a flame aspires," 



THE WESLEYS. 



283 



was composed by Charles Wesley "after preaching to 
the Newcastle colliers" on the joyful occasion of its 
author's ministerial success, and that of his fellow- 
laborers, among that rough and hardy people. Mr. 
Jackson, Mr. Wesley's biographer, says, " Perhaps the 
imagery was suggested by the large fires, which illumi- 
nate the whole part of that country in the darkest 
nights." 

The hymn, — 

"Jesus, from thy heavenly place," 

was written by Charles, and in the English Methodist 
hymn-book has the line, — 

" Our king's peculiar treasure prove." 

Dr. Floy, in the " Methodist Episcopal Quarterly Review" 
for 1844, says, "Father Hitt, to suit it to republican 
America, altered the word ; and we now pray that ' piety 
sincere' may prove the peculiar treasure of our land, and 
that it may be inspired with humble love/ M 
The hymn written by Charles Wesley, — 

"Long have I seemed to serve thee, Lord," 

was written under peculiar circumstances. In the year 
1740, considerable disputes originated in some of the 
Methodist societies and rent some of them in pieces. 
They were occasioned by a man named Molther, who 
had been a Moravian, and who introduced what was 
called the doctrine of stillness, denying that divine grace 
or the influence of the Holy Spirit is transmitted in the 
use of means, especially through the ordinance of the 



284 AUTHORS AM) ORKIIN OF IIYM\>. 

Lord's Supper. Mr. Jackson, the biographer of Wesley, 

well says, " This fine hymn guards against extn 
both on the right hand and on the left, and embodies 
those just views on the subject which the brothers 
steadily maintained to the end of their lives. Charles 
Wesley used to call on the right-minded people in his 
congregation at the Foundery, London, to unite with 
him in singing it; and it is difficult to conceive how any 
enlightened Christian could refuse to join in the holy 
exercise. Its effect at the time must have been very 
powerful." The whole hymn contained twenty-three 
verses. 

Every one knows that the beautiful hymn, — 

" Come, let us join our friends above," 

was written by Charles "Wesley. Some years after his 
death, and not long before his own decease, the Eev. 
John Wesley, being in London, officiated in his own 
chapel in City Eoad. After the morning prayers had 
been read, he ascended the pulpit; but, instead of im- 
mediately announcing the hymn to be sung, to the great 
surprise of the congregation, he stood silent, with his 
eyes closed for, it has been said, at least ten minutes, 
wrapt in intense thought. Having done this, with a 
feeling which at once told where his spirit had been 
communing, he solemnly read this hymn. We can easily 
imagine the effect this produced on the minds of those 
persons who well knew both the men. 

We may add here that the Eev. Thomas Spencer, a 



THE WESLEYS. 285 

Yciv popular Congregationalist minister, who died, while 
bathingj in his twenty-first year, at Liverpool, England, 
in 1811, had this hymn almost constantly on his mind 
for several weeks before his lamentable decease. He 
was often heard privately to sing it, and more than once 
conversed on its subject with his friends, — little thinking, 
however, how soon he should join his friends who had 
" crossed the flood." 

In speaking of the hymn, — 

11 God is in this and every place," 

Mr. Creamer, in his " Methodist Hymnology" says on the 
lines, — 

"And have I measured half my days, 
And half my journey run ?" 

" It is a coincidence worthy of notice in this connection, 
that when Mr. Charles Wesley composed this hymn he 
w T as about forty years old : he died aged eighty; hence he 
had just, in his own beautiful language, — 

\ measured half his days, 
And half his journey run.' " 

Charles Wesley's hymn, — 

" The great archangel's trump shall sound," 

was written " after a deliverance from death by the fall 
of a horse." It originally consisted of twelve verses : 
two of those now omitted referred thus to the accident : — 

" How blessed whom Jesus calls his own ! 
How quiet and secure from harms ! 



28G AUTHORS AND ork;i\ Of HYMNS. 

The adversary cast us down, — 

The Saviour caught us in his arms. 

" 'Twas Jesus checked his straitened chain 

And curbed the malice of our foe : 
Allowed to touch our flesh with pain, 
No further could the murderer go." 

The beautiful funeral hymn, — 

"Shrinking from the cold hand of death," 

was from the pen of Charles Wesley, of whose personal 
habits in old age we have already spoken ; and connected 
with the third verse of this hymn Mr. Moore records a 
pleasing anecdote of John Wesley : — "When his increasing 
infirmities were perhaps more apparent to others than 
himself, he would omit none of his religious duties or 
labors. Herein he would listen to no advice. His almost 
continual prayer was, l Lord, let me not live to be use- 
less P At every place, after giving to the society what 
he desired them to consider as his last advice, — ' To love 
as brethren, fear God, and honor the king,' — he invariably 
concluded with the verse, — 

1 Oh that without a lingering groan 

I may the welcome word receive, 
My body with my charge lay down, 
And cease at once to work and live !' " 

Another of Charles Wesley's funeral hymns begins, — 

"Again we lift our voice." 

It was composed " On the death of Samuel Kitchens," 
one of Mr. Wesley's first preachers, who died in the 



THE WBSLBTS, 287 

year 1747, after itinerating two years. From the fifth 
verse we learn that he was wry young: — 

"Thou, in thy youthful prime, 
Hast leaped the bounds of time; 
Suddenly froin earth released, 

Lo ! we now rejoice for thee, 
Taken to an early rest, 

Caught into eternity." 

The beautiful hymn by Charles Wesley, — 
"Infinite God! to thee we raise," 

is an elegant paraphrase of the " Te Deum Laudamus." 
Mr. Benjamin Love, in his "Records of Wesley an Life," 
says, " It is questionable whether there is any produc- 
tion merely human worthy of being considered a rival 
to the Te Deum ; and that person must be dead indeed 
to every spiritual feeling and emotion who can utter 
with his lips its touching sentences and remain in heart 
unaffected and unimpressed. Who can repeat the solemn 
truth, ' We believe that thou shalt come to be our Judge/ 
and not be unmoved V* Or who can sing, in the strain 
of the Methodist poet, — 

"And thou, with judgment clad, shalt come, 
To seal our everlasting doom," 

without a fervent prayer to find mercy in that day ? 

"Thou hidden love of God, whose height," 

is a translation by the pen of John Wesle}^ from the 
German of Gerhard Tersteeo-an. In his " Plain Account 



288 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN 01 HYMNS. 

of Perfection," Mr. Wesley tells us ho wrote this hymn 
at Savannah, Georgia, in 1730, and quotes the following 
lines to show what his religious feelings then were : — 

" Is there a thing beneath the sun 

That strives with thee my heart to share ! 
Ali, tear it thence, and reign alone, 
The Lord of every motion there!" 

Dr. Southey, in his Life of Wesley, connects these lines 
with the love-affair with which Mr. Wesley was con- 
nected in this country, and which ended in disappoint- 
ment, and thinks they were written on that occasion ; 
nor are we aware of any objection to this theory of the 
matter. 

The hymn, — 

"How happy is the pilgrim's lot!" 

was the production of Mr. John Wesley, and, as Mr. 
Creamer has very justly said, has attracted as much 
attention as any other in the Methodist hymn-book. 
We cannot speak of this hymn better than in the words 
of the gentleman to whom we have referred : — " This 
hymn has been admired by thousands not known by the 
name of Methodists, with whom it has always been a 
great favorite, as well on account of the remarkable 
character of its sentiments as the elegant simplicity of 
its diction. Throughout the composition the author has 
made personal reference to himself. His opinions upon 
the subject of matrimony at one time of life are well 
known to all acquainted with his history ; and this hymn 



Tin: wkslkvs. 289 

wais published about five years before his unhappy union 
with his wife, at a period when he had probably no in- 
tention of ever entering the marriage-state, and breathes 
only the language of one who had devoted to God, as 
he had done, his ease, his time, his life, his reputation. 
There are traits about it which cannot be mistaken; 
see, for instance, verses four, five, and six : but there is 
another verse, which has been omitted from our [the 
Methodist] hymn-book, that is still more characteristic 
of the author's sentiments at the time of life when it 
was written. It runs thus: — 

' I have no sharer of my heart, 

To rob my Saviour of a part 

And desecrate the whole : 

Only betrothed to Christ am I, 

And wait his coming from the sky, 

To wed my happy soul.' " 

" Some of the expressions in this stanza," Mr. Creamer 
adds, "are very similar to many found in Moravian 
hymns, and may have resulted from his intimate 
intercourse with those people in the early part of his 
ministry." 

" Behold the Saviour of mankind" 

was written by the Eev. Samuel Wesley, the father of 

the Eev. Messrs. John and Charles Wesley, and is said 

to have been preserved in a very singular manner when 

its author's parsonage was consumed by fire, the second 

time, August 24, 1709, when John, his son, was saved 

from death almost by miracle. "Among other mementos 

25 



290 AUTHORS AND ORKJIN OF BTMHI 

of* this calamity,"' Bays the editor of '• Dr. Adam Clarke s 
II ' dey Family" "four leaves of music may be noticed, 
the edges of which bear the marks of the tire and may 
be handed down to posterity as a curiosity. Charles 
Wesley, Jr., has written on one of the leaves, 'The 
words by my grandfather, the Rev. Samuel Wei 
Probably the music was adapted by Henry Pureell, or 
Dr. Blow.' M These remarks are followed by "A Hymn 
on the Passion : the words by the Pev. Mr. Samuel 
Wesley, Rector of Epworth, in the diocese of Lincoln. " 

That hymn, however, contains two verses which are now 
generally omitted. They were the second and sixth: — 

11 Though far unequal our low praise 

To thy vast sufferings prove, 

Lamb of God, thus all our days. 

Thus will we grieve and love ! 

" Thy loss our ruin did repair ; 
Death by thy death is slain : 
Thou wilt at length exalt us where 
Thou dost in glory reign." 

Samuel Wesley, Jr., was the elder brother of John 

and Charles Wesley: he manifested a poetical taste 

even in childhood, and produced a few of the finest 

hymns in Methodist psalmody, including,— 

"The Lord of Sabaoth let us prai-e." 

"Hail, Father, whose creating call," 

" Hail, God the Son. in glory crowned," 
and 

'• The morning flowers display their sweets.** 

The last-named hvmn was written on the death of a 



HENRY K1KKB WHITE. 291 

young lady, and is founded on Isaiah xl. 6, 8. : — "All flesh 
is grass, and all the goodliness thereof as the flower of 
the field. . . . The grass withereth, the flower fadeth ; 
but the word of our God endureth forever." Mr. 
( 'reamer very truly says, " The author has completed his 
task in a most interesting and pleasing manner. The 
imagery is touching; and, although the subject is of a 
melancholy character, he has thrown light among the 
shadows and intermingled beauty with the gloom. The 
hymn cannot be read without emotion." 



HENRY KIRKE WHITE. 

This lovel} T youth, who died of excessive study at the 
age of twenty-one, has furnished several compositions to 
our hymnology, including the beautiful hymn, — 

"When marshalled on the nightly plain." 

He was the son of a butcher, and was born at Notting- 
ham, England, in 1785. On account of the delicacy of 
his constitution, he was taught the trade of a stocking- 
weaver; but his attachment to learning became so well 
known that he was soon taken into the office of an 
attorney, where his marvellous love of Latin and Greek, 
in connection with his piety and his ambition for the 
clerical office, induced Messrs. "Wilberforce and Simeon 
to send him to the University at Cambridge. At eighteen 
he published a poem; and after his death his " Poems, ,"' 



292 AUTHORS a.M» ORIGIN 01 HYMNS. 

"Letters and Fragments" were edited by Dr. Southey in 
two octavo volumes. He lived greatly beloved and 
died much lamented. He w&B buried in the chancel 
of All-Saints' Church, Cambridge, where a few years 
afterward an American gentleman named Boott erected 
a handsome tablet to his memory, executed in bas- 
relief by Chantrey, on which are engraved the follow- 
ing beautiful lines from the pen of Professor Smyth : — 

"Warm with fond hope and learning's sacred flame, 
To Granta's bowers the youthful poet came : 
Unconquered powers the immortal mind displayed, 
But, worn with anxious thought, the frame decayed. 
Pale o'er his lamp, and in his cell retired, 
The martyr-student faded and expired. 
Oh, genius, taste, and piety sincere, 
Too early lost 'midst studies too severe ! 
Foremost to mourn was generous Southey seen : 
He told the tale, and showed what White had been, 
Nor told in vain ; for o'er the Atlantic wave 
A wanderer came, and sought the poet's grave ; 
On yon low stone he saw his lonely name, 
And raised this fond memorial to his fame." 



JOHN G. WHITTIER. 

How this Quaker poet — nay, even this hymn- writer — 
would have fared among his own people some two 
centuries ago, it is now difficult to say; for assuredly 
they would have utterly opposed such doings, and would 
probably have " put him out of meeting." We, however, 
cordially thank him for the pleasure which his hymns 



REV. WILLIAM WILLIAMS. 293 

have afforded us. Mr. Whittier wa> born in 1808, and 
has devoted the greater portion of his life to literature. 

And yet, after all, while we think Mr. Whittier a 
poet, — the poet of humanity, — the Ebenezer Elliott of the 
United States, — we have no expectation that any of the 
hymns he has written will be sung in the worshipping 
assemblies of coming generations. They want the glow- 
ing ardor and the evangelical unction which only can 
make hymns popular with Christian masses. TV T e should 
delight to see the honest Quaker possessing the piety of 
our old Friend Joseph John Gurney : he might then 
write hymns on "Christ and his Cross'' which might 
live till the death of time. 



REV. WILLIAM WILLIAMS. 

This distinguished Welsh poet was born in 1717, in 
Caermarthenshire, and was originally educated for the 
medical profession. His biographer tells us that "his 
religious feelings were at first painful. His convictions 
of sin were deep and alarming, but his subsequent joy 
proportionably high." He was ordained a curate in the 
English Church, but, after thus laboring for three years, 
was encouraged by Whitefield and the Countess of 
Huntingdon to become an itinerant minister among the 
Calvinistic ^Methodists. His labors were incessant and 
greatly blessed. He is said to have travelled on an 



294 AUTHORS AM) ORIGIN <>r RJMNS 

average two thousand two hundred and thirty miles a 
year for forty-three years, when there were no railroads 
and but few stage-coaches. His last illness was occa- 
sioned by intense study in writing a book called "A 
View of the Kingdom of Christ/' and in his last hours his 
speech failed him; but he was evidently very happy, 
lie died in 1791. He published several hymn-books in 
his own language, which are still much used, such as 
"The Sea of Glass/' " Hosanna to the Son of David," etc. 
His hymns, — 

"O'er the gloomy hills of darkness," 
" Guide me, thou Great Jehovah," 

and several others, are equally known and esteemed. 
His Memoir was published by a brother Welshman a 
few years ago. 



NATHANIEL P. WILLIS. 

The beautiful hymn so often sung at the dedication 
of churches, and which has already appeared in several 
of our hymn-books, was written by its author for the 
dedication of a Unitarian house of worship in the city 
of New York in 1845. 

Mr. Willis was born at Portland, in Maine, in 1807, 
and at fifteen entered Yale College. His first work, we 
believe, was "Scripture Sketches," which drew him into 
the literary circle, since which he has written little of a 



WILLIAM WORDSWORTH. '295 

religious character. He has been the poet of society, 
but not of the sanctuary. His writings are distinguished 
for finish and melody. Would that they were fine gold 
which would pass current with heaven ! 

Perhaps the sweetest thought which Mr. Willis ever 
penned grew out of a reverence of his pious mother's 
prayers for him. Tossed by the waves in a vessel which 
was bearing him homeward, he wrote, — 

"Sleep safe, wave-worn mariner, 

Nor fear to-night nor storm nor sea : 
The ear of Heaven bends low to her : 
He comes to shore who sails with me." 



WILLIAM WORDSWORTH. 

The late poet-laureate of England has contributed one 
or two hymns to the service of the Christian sanctuary, 
and therefore we contribute a few lines to him. He 
was born in 1770, and educated for the Church of England 
at the University of Cambridge. Throughout life he 
employed his leisure hours in writing poetry, — though he 
never rose very high in the estimation of the public till 
he attained gray hairs, when, on the death of South ey, 
he was appointed poet-laureate. He died in 1850, in 
his eighty-first year. None of his hymns will be valued 
by posterity. 

The following extract of a letter written by Words- 
worth to one of his correspondents in this country will 



296 AUTHORS AND ORIGIN OF HYMNS. 

be read with interest by at least some of our friends: — 
" I took the journey to London solely to pay my respects 
to the queen on my appointment to the laureateship 
on the decease of my friend Mr. Southey. The weather 
was very cold, and I caught an inflammation in one of my 
eyes, which rendered my stay in the South very uncom- 
fortable. I nevertheless did, in respect to the object of 
my journey, all that was required. The reception given 
me by the queen at her ball was most gracious. Mrs. 
Everett, the wife of your minister, among many others, 
was a witness to it, without knowing who I was. It 
moved her to the shedding of tears. This effect was in 
part produced, I suppose, by American habits of feeling, 
as pertaining to a republican government. To see a 
gray-haired man of seventy-five years of age kneeling 
down in a large assembly to kiss the hand of a young 
woman, is a sight for which institutions essentially 
democratic do not prepare a spectator of either sex, and 
must naturally place the opinions upon which a republic 
is founded, and the sentiments which support it, in strong 
contrast with a government based and upheld as ours is. 
I am not, therefore, surprised that Mrs. Everett was 
moved, as she herself described to persons of my ac- 
quaintance, — among others, to Mr. Eogers the poet." 






FRANCIS XAV1ER. 297 



FRANCIS XAVIER. 

One, at least, of our popular hymn-books contains 
the hymn of this extraordinary Eoman Catholic mis- 
sionary, — 

" Thou, my Jesus, thou didst me 
Upon the Cross embrace." 

This " apostle of the Indies" was born at Navarre in 
1506, and died, when about to land in China, in 1552. 
Of this distinguished missionary it has been well said 
that, weak and frail as he was, from the days of Paul of 
Tarsus to our own, the annals of mankind exhibit no 
other example of a soul borne upward so triumphantly 
through distress and danger in all their most appalling 
aspects. He battled with hunger, and thirst, and naked- 
ness, and assassination, and pursued his message of love 
with ever-increasing ardor amidst the wildest war of the 
contending elements. When, on one occasion, reminded 
of the perils to which he was about to expose himself by 
a mission to the barbarous islands of the Eastern Archi- 
pelago, he replied, " If these lands had scented woods 
and mines of gold, Christians would find courage to go 
there; nor would all the perils of the world prevent them. 
They are dastardly and alarmed because there is nothing 
to be gained but the souls of men ; and shall love be 
less hardy and less generous than avarice? They will 
destroy me, you say, by poison. It is an honor to which 
such a sinner as I am may not aspire; but this I dare 



2'J8 AUTHORS AM) ORK.l.N OF HYMNS. 

to say that, whatever form of torture or of death awaits 
me, I am ready to suffer it ten thousand times for the 
salvation of a single soul." Well has John Angell James 
said, "This is a sublime heroism. Wondrous Xavier! 
whatever were thy errors, it would be the dregs of 
bigotry not to admire thy martyr-zeal." 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



INFLUENCE OF HYMNS 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 



INFLUENCE OF HYMNS 



ON 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 



A University Student. — A highly-intelligent young 
man standing at his father's door was offered by a gen- 
tleman a slip of paper on which was printed the hymn 
written by John Newton, — 

"Stop, poor sinner, stop and think." 

This hymn he read, was much affected by it, and care- 
fully committed it to memory. Five years afterward, 
while studying at Brown University, a spirit of unusual 
attention to religion was awakened in that institution, and 
this same young man entered a meeting for devotional 
exercises just as they were commencing the hymn, — 
"Stop, popr sinner, stop and think." 

His early impressions were instantly revived: he saw 

himself ruined by sin, that eternal woe was before him, 

and that peace of conscience and with God could only 

be obtained by' the blood of the cross of Christ. The 

Holy Spirit enabled him to rest his soul on the atoning 

26 301 



302 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

sacrifice of Christ; and this young man became an emi- 
nently pious and active physician. 

An English Actress. — The fact we are about to 
relate has been told in several ways; but we are inclined 
to think that the version given in the "Sunday-School 
Journal" is the correct one. The hymn referred to was 
from the pen of Charles Wesley. 

An actress in one of the English provincial or country 
theatres was one day passing through the streets of the 
town in which she resided, when her attention was 
attracted by the sound of voices in a poor cottage 
before her. Curiosity prompted her to look in at 
the open door, — when she saw a few poor people sit- 
ting together, one of whom, at the moment of her ob- 
servation; was giving out the hymn, which the others 
joined in singing : — 

" Depth of mercy ! can there be 
Mercy still reserved for me ?" 

The tune was sweet and simple; but she heeded it not. 
The w T ords had riveted her attention, and she stood 
motionless, until she was invited to enter by the woman 
of the house, who had observed her standing at the door. 
She remained during a prayer which was offered up by 
one of the little company; and, uncouth as the expres- 
sions sounded, perhaps, to her ears, they carried with 
them a conviction of sincerity on the part of the person 
engaged. She quitted the cottage ; but the words 



PERSONAL ANN SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 303 

of the hymn followed her, and at last she resolved to 
procure the book which contained it. She did so; and 
the more she read it, the more decided her serious im- 
pressions became. She attended the ministry of the 
gospel, read her hitherto neglected and despised Bible, 
and bowed herself in humility and contrition of heart 
before Him whose mercy she now felt she needed, whose 
sacrifices are those of a broken heart and a contrite 
spirit, and who has declared that with such sacrifices 
he is well pleased. 

Her profession she determined at once to renounce, 
and for some time excused herself from appearing on 
the stage, without, however, making known her resolu- 
tion finally to leave it. 

The manager of the theatre called upon he? one 
morning and requested her to sustain the principal 
character in a new play which was to be performed the 
next week. She had frequently performed this character 
to general admiration j but she now, how T ever, told him 
her resolution never to appear as an actress again, at the 
same time giving her reasons. At first he attempted to 
overcome her scruples by ridicule; but this was unavail- 
ing : he then represented the loss he would incur by her 
refusal, and concluded by promising that if, to oblige 
him, she would act on this occasion, it would be the last 
request of the kind he would ever make. Unable to 
resist his solicitations, she promised to appear, and on 
the appointed evening went to the theatre. The character 
w r hich she assumed required her, on her first entrance, 



304 I Ml. I KNOT of HYMNS ON 

to sing a song; and, when the curtain drew up, the 
Orchestra immediately began the accompaniment. But 
she stood as if lost in thought, and as one forgetting all 
around her and her own situation. The music ceased, 
but she did not sing; and, supposing her to be over- 
come by embarrassment, the band again commenced. 
A second time they paused for her to begin; and still 
she did not open her lips. A third time the air was 
played; and then, with clasped hands and eyes suffused 
with tears, she sang, — not the words of the song, but, — 

"Depth of mercy ! can there be 
Mercy still reserved for me ?" 

It is almost needless to add that the performance 
was suddenly ended. Many ridiculed, though some were 
induced from that memorable night to "consider their 
ways," and to reflect on the wonderful power of the 
religion which could influence the heart and change the 
life of one hitherto so vain and so evidently pursuing 
the road which leadeth to destruction. 

It will be satisfactory to the reader to know that the 

change in Miss was as permanent as it was singular : 

she walked consistently with her profession of religion 
for many years, and at length became the wife of a 
minister of the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

An Irish Persecutor. — The singing of the "Wesleyan 
Methodists has often been shown to possess great influ- 
ence especially in the early history of that body. Charles 



ERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 305 

Wesley's hymns, with simple but effective tunes, spread 
everywhere among the societies; and hundreds of hearers 
who cared not for the preaching were attracted to 
their assemblies by the singing. Especially among the 
Irish did it secure them much success. At Wexford the 
society was persecuted by the Catholics, and met there- 
fore in a closed barn. One violent opposer agreed to 
conceal himself in the barn before the worship began, 
that at a suitable time he might open the door to his 
comrades; and for that purpose he crept into a sack near 
the door. When the singing commenced, the Hibernian 
was so impressed with the music that he thought he would 
hear it through before he began the disturbance. The 
singing so much gratified him that he thought he would 
also hear the prayer; and such was the effect of the 
prayer that he was seized with remorse and trembling, 
so that he roared with fright, — which led the people to 
remove the sack, whereupon the Irishman was disclosed, 
praying with all his might as a penitent. Southey says, 
" This is the most comical case of instantaneous conver- 
sion that ever was recorded ; and yet the man is said to 
have been thoroughly converted. n 

A Young Man. — The narrative we now give is from 
the pen of the Eev. J. Parker. 

In the village of was a boarding-house kept by 

Mrs. F , at whose house I was a lodger. Of the fifteen 

or twenty guests about the table was a young gentleman 

of about twenty-four years of age. He was full of ani 

26* 



306 INF1.I IV i; 01 IIV.MN.S ON 

mation, and his vivacity created the impression that, 
whoever else might be affected by the solemnities of the 
time, he was not. 

On a Sunday morning the late Rev. Dr. Perrine 
preached a peculiarly effective sermon on the conse- 
quences of a life of sin. There was a singular unction 
and tenderness in the discourse, and its vivid pictures 
of hell's torments produced a most solemn and subduing 
effect. 

As we were sitting at the dinner-table, and remarks 
were passing freely in regard to the morning service, the 
young man above mentioned expressed in strong terms 
his disapprobation of the sermon, and added, " Such 
preaching only hardens me and makes me worse." I 
replied, " It is possible that you think it makes you 
worse, when it only makes you conscious of sin that was 
before slumbering in your heart." "Ko," said he: "it 
hardens me. I am at this moment less susceptible to any 
thing like conviction for hearing that discourse. I feel 
more inclined to resist every thing like good impressions 
than usual." "Yet," I rejoined, "good impressions are 
those which are best adapted to secure the desired end ; 
and I am greatly mistaken if an increase of the effect 
which you feel would not be greatly useful to you. If, 
for instance, you should read now AYatts's version of the 
Fifty-First Psalm, beginning, — 

'Show pity, Lord; Lord, forgive,' 

it would take a deep hold on your heart." 



PERSONAL AM' SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 307 

"Not the Least," said he: "I could read it without 
moving a muscle. I wish I had the book: I would read 
it to you." 

" We have one/' said Mrs. F , who was fully aware 

of the excitement under which he was laboring; and the 
book was handed him, opened at the place. He com- 
menced to read ; with compressed lips and a firm voice : — 

" Show pity, Lord; Lord, forgive; 
Let a repenting sinner live: 
Are not thy mercies large and free ? 
May not a sinner trust in thee ?" 

Toward the last part of the stanza a little tremulous- 

ness of voice was plainly discernible. He rallied again, 

however, and commenced the second verse with more 

firmness : — 

"Oh, wash my soul from every sin, 
And make my guilty conscience clean : 
Here on my heart the burden lies, 
And past offences pain mine eyes." 

At the last part of this stanza his voice faltered more 
manifestly. He commenced upon the third with great 
energy, and read in a loud, sonorous voice, — the whole 
company looking on in breathless silence :— 

11 My lips with shame my sins confess." 

As he read the second line, — 

"Against thy law, against thy grace," 

his lips quivered, and his utterance became difficult. He 



INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

paused a little, and entered upon the third line with an 
apparently new determination : — 

"Lord, should thy judgment grow severe." 

Yet before he came to the end his voice was almost 
totally choked; and when he began upon the fourth 
line, — 

M I am condemned, but thou art clear," 

an aspect of utter discouragement marked his counte- 
nance, and he could only bring out, in broken sobs, " I 
am condemned," — when his utterance changed to such a 
heart-broken cry of grief, rising at the same time and 
rushing from the room, as I had never witnessed in a 
convicted sinner. 

The dinner was interrupted; but that was the begin- 
ning of a change, leading on to a new life, in 3Ir. H.; and 
probably every person in that room retained the im- 
pression that a view of the awful justice of God, in con- 
nection with the grace that saves from it, is often effective 
in subduing those who say, " Prophesy unto us smooth 
things," and that sinners are not always good judges 
in respect to what produces the best effect upon them- 
selves. 

An Unhappy Mother. — We have known very many 
instances of good resulting from the knowledge of 
hymns in early youth. They fasten themselves on the 
memory and remain there through life. A poor, 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 309 

wretched female, religiously educated, but afterward 
abandoned to sin and misery, was struck with horror at 
hearing her own child repeat, as soon as she could well 
speak, some of tho profane language which she had 
learned from herself. She trembled at the thought that 
she was not only herself travelling to eternal perdition, 
but was also leading her child there. She instantly re- 
solved that with the first sixpence she could procure 
she would obtain a copy of Dr. Watts's " Divine Songs 
for Children/' of which she had some recollection from 
the days when she visited the Sunday-school, and would 
teach them to her infant daughter. She soon bought 
them; and on opening the book her eye caught the 
striking verse, — 

"Just as the tree cut down, that fell 
To north or southward, there it lies, 
So man departs to heaven or hell, 
Fixed in the state wherein he lies." 

She read on: the Spirit of God impressed the words 
on her heart ; the event led to her entire conversion, 
and she lived and died a consistent professor of the re- 
ligion of Christ. 

An English Nobleman. — One of the most interesting 
anecdotes illustrating the power of hymns in the family- 
circle we have ever met w T ith was related in a social 
circle in England a few years ago by a clergyman well 
acquainted with the facts. 

Lord , a nobleman of great wealth, was a man 



310 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

of the world : his pleasures were drawn from his riches, 
his honors, and his friends. His daughter was the idol 
of his heart. Much had been expended in her educa- 
tion; and well did she repay, in her intellectual endow- 
ments, the solicitude of her parents. She was highly 
accomplished, amiable in her disposition, and winning 
in her manners ; but, alas ! the whole family w r ere 
strangers to God. By a series of remarkable circum- 
stances, the Hon. Miss. was led within the walls 

of a Methodist church in London and converted to the 
Lord Jesus. Henceforth she delighted in the service 
of the sanctuary and in social religious meetings. To 
her the charms of Christianity were overpowering, and 
the society of those who loved Jesus Christ a heaven 
upon earth. 

The change was seen by her devoted father with deep 
solicitude. To see his lovely daughter thus infatuated 
was to him the occasion of intense grief; and he resolved 
to correct her erroneous views on the real pleasures and 
pursuits of life. He placed at her disposal large sums 
of money, hoping she would be induced to pursue the 
fashions and extravagance of others in her own rank of 
life, and to forsake the Methodist meetings; but she 
maintained her integrity. He took her on frequent and 
long journeys, hoping thus to divert her mind from re- 
ligion ; but she still delighted in the Saviour. After failing 
in all his other projects, he determined to introduce her 
into company under circumstances that would compel her 
to join in the amusements of the party or give high of- 



PERSONAL A.\[> .sociAL IIAI'l'INKSN. 311 

fence. It was arranged that on a festive occasion several 
young ladies should each accompany a performance on 
the piano-forte with a song. The hour arrived; the 
party assembled ; several had delighted all with their 
performances; and all were in high spirits. The Hon. 

Miss was called on for her song; and many hearts 

beat high in hope of victory. The crisis was come. 
Should she decline, she would be disgraced as insulting 
her friends ; and should she comply, their triumph would 
be complete. With entire self-possession, she took her 
seat at the instrument, ran her fingers over its keys, and 
commenced playing, singing in a sweet air the words of 
Charles Wesley, — 

" No room for mirth or trifling here, 
For worldly hope or worldly fear, 

If life so soon is gone, — 
If now the Judge is at the door. 
And all mankind must stand before 

The inexorable throne. 

"No matter which my thoughts employ, 
A moment's misery or joy ; 

But, oh ! when both shall end, 
Where shall I find my destined place? 
Shall I my everlasting days 

With fiends or angels spend ?" 

She rose from her seat. The whole party w r ere sub- 
dued. Not a word was spoken. Her father wept aloud. 

One by one the visitors left the house. Lord never 

rested till he became a Christian. He lived and died 
consistently with his profession as a servant of Christ, 



313 INH.l E.MK UK HYMNS ON 

having, during his union with the people of God, con- 
tributed to the cause of benevolence half a million of 
dollars. 

Since writing the above, we have met with a very- 
similar narrative of facts in connection with a young 
lady of this country, converted in the early day 
Methodism, under the labors of the excellent Bishop 
Asbury. 

An Irish Sunday-Scholar. — We have not unfre- 
quently heard singers eminent for "science," "taste," 
and words of similar import, ridicule a certain class 
of hymns and tunes, altogether forgetting that these 
very compositions may exert on other minds a holy 
and happy influence. Let us illustrate what we mean 
by a condensed narrative from the pen of a living 
clergyman. He says, " One day, as I was busily en- 
gaged in my study, a man about half drunk very un- 
ceremoniously entered and handed me a note from 
the teacher of the infant class of our Sabbath-school, 
informing me that the bearer was the father of one of 
her scholars, that the child had met with an accident, 
and that they lived in such a place : she could not visit 
them, and she wished me to see to it. 

" I looked at the man : he was Irish, very repulsive 
in his appearance, and he answered my questions with 
a rough brogue. 

" < What is your name, sir, and where do you live V 
" ' My name is Pater M : I live on an ould canal- 



PERSONAL A.Mi SOCIAL BAPPINES8. 318 

boat at the Ait of Harrison Street. I wint tliere whin 
J was burnt out; and nobody at all at all has driv me 

out of it.' 

"'And what Lfl the matter with your child?' 

•' 'Och ! and is it Kitty, my own little darling Kitty, the 
only child I've lift of the six that has been born til me? 
Och ! Kitty! she was playing about on a ship where I 
was til wark, and she fell down the hatchway and broke 
her leg, (saving your prisence,) and poor Kitty's leg is 
not set right, your riverence, for I have no money til 
pay a docther. Och ! poor Kitty ! and I've nothing to 
give her to ate, your riverence.' 

" i "Well, Peter, I will come down and see your Kitty, 
and see what can be done for you.' 

" I did so, and found a wretched state of things. The 
poor little suffering child was overjoyed to see me. I re- 
membered her countenance, — a sweet, mild little girl, not 
yet five years of age. She lay upon the ' locker' or side- 
seat of an old canal-boat which had been laid up for the 
winter. There was no fire, though it was a bitter-cold 
day, — no chair, no bed, no food, scarcely an article of fur- 
niture or any comfort whatever. I did what I could to 
relieve the wants of the little sufferer. Nothing could 
be done for the parents : they were both confirmed in- 
ebriates; and I found they had both been drunk the night 
previous, and in a quarrel had unintentionally knocked 
the child off the seat and broken the limb again after it 
had been set. I obtained the services of a surgeon and 
had the limb set again, and then sat down on the locker 

27 



314 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS OS 

to talk to little Kitty, and fed he* with some nourishing 
food which I had brought. I asked her if she could 
read. Xo, she could not read a word ; ' but I can sing/ 
said she. ' What can you sing?' 'Something I learned 
at Sabbath-school/ 'Well, what 18 it you can - 
Kitty V In a moment her sweet little voice broke out, — 

' There is a happy land, 

Far, far away, 
Where saints in glory stand, 
Bright, bright as day.' 

" ' "Well, Kitty, that is sweet. Where do you think the 
land of Canaan is, Kitty V < Oh, I suppose it is up in 
the sky, where God lives and where the angels live/ 
' Do you think you will ever go there, Kitty V ' If I'm 
good and love God, I think I shall.' 

" i Xow', Kitty, is there any thing els© yott can sing for 
me before I go V ' Oh, yes, sir : I can sing a little piece 
of another/ * Well, what is that Y 

• All who love the Lord below 
When they die, to heaven will go, 
And sing with saints above. 
Oh! that will be joyful! 
Joyful, joyful ! 
Oh! that will be joyful, 
When we meet to part no more!' 

u Poor Kitty could not read, nor could either of her 
parents read. She knew nothing about heaven and 
divine things except what she had been taught at the 
Sabbath-school; and most of what she remembered was 
associated with such despised words and sentiments as 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 315 

Ave have quoted. Eternity alone will unfold the power 
of such simple truth, and simple yet sweet tunes, upon 
Infant minds." 

Governor Hill. — "We confess to a love of hymn-sing- 
ing under almost all circumstances. The family, the 
social circle, nay, in many instances the sick-bed itself, 
may profit by it. But we have a beautiful illustration 
now before us of the advantages of singing in apparent 
solitude. In Governor Hill's account of his stage-ride 
over the Alleghany" Mountains, in a dark night, shut up 
with strangers, he tells us that, to get rid of the fear 
of robbers, he began to sing one of Dr. Watts's hymns, 
certainly supposing that as a Christian he was alone. 
To his great delight, however, another pious New Eng- 
lander responded in another hymn ; and he w T as followed 
by another, who broke out in a popular camp-meeting 
air. The Governor was delighted to ascertain that three 
of the travellers out of the six proved to be Kew T Eng- 
land Puritans. He threw his fears to the winds, and the 
morning found them safe beyond the dreaded haunts of 
the highway-robbers. 

Campbell the Poet. — The influence which devotional 
singing sometimes produces on others may be inferred 
from a reminiscence of James Grahame, author of " The 
Sabbatli," written by the poet Thomas Campbell, with 
whom he was intimate when both as young men resided in 
Edinburgh : — " One of the most endearing circumstances 



316 ISFIA ENCE OF HYMNS ON 

which I remember of Grahame was his singing. I shall 

in ver forget one summer evening that we agreed to sit 
lip all night and go together to Arthur's Seat to see the 
sun rise. AVe sat accordingly all night in his delightful 
parlor, — the seat of so many hap])}- remembrances. We 
then went and saw a beautiful sunrise. I returned 
home with him, for I was living in his house at the time. 
He was unreserved in all his devoutest feelings before me; 
and, from the beauty of the morning scenery and the re- 
cent death of his sister, our conversation took a serious 
turn on the proofs of infinite benevolence in the creation 
and the goodness of God. As I retired to my own bed, 
I overheard his devotions, — not his prayer, but a hymn 
which he sung, and with a power and inspiration beyond 
himself and beyond any thing else. At that time he 
was a strong-voiced and commanding-looking man. The 
remembrance of his large, expressive features when he 
climbed the hill, and of his organ-like voice in praising 
God, is yet fresh and ever pleasing in my mind." 

A Taunting Lover. — A young gentleman, tenderly 
attached to a young lady, was obliged to take a journey. 
During his absence she became a follower of Jesus. He 
heard of the change, and wrote her a letter full of 
invectives against religion and its gloomy professors. 
Having a good voice, and playing well on the piano- 
forte, she had been, accustomed to entertain him with 
her music, especially in performing one song, of which he 
was very fond, the burden of which was, " Ah, never ! ah, 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 317 

no !" At their first interview after his return, he taunt- 
ingly said, " I suppose you cannot sing me a song now Y* 
"Oh, yes," was her reply, "but I will;" and, proceeding 
to her piano, she sung a hymn she had composed to his 
favorite tune : — 

"As I glad bid adieu to the world's fancied pleasure, 
You pity my weakness : alas ! did you know 
The joys of religion, that best hidden treasure, 

Would you bid me resign them ? Ah, never ! ah, no ! 

"You will surely rejoice when I say I've received 
The only true pleasure attained below. 
I know by experience in whom I've believed : 

Shall I give up this treasure ? Ah, never ! ah, no ! 

11 In the gay scenes of life I was happiness wooing; 
But ah ! in her stead I encountered a woe, 
And found I was only a phantom pursuing : 

Never once did I find her. Ah, never ! ah, no ! 

" But in these bright paths which you call melancholy 

I've found those delights which the world does not know. 
Oh, did you partake them, you'd then see your folly, 
Nor again bid me fly them ! Ah, never ! ah, no !" 

It pleased God that by hearing these lines sung his 
prejudices were shaken, and within a short time he em- 
braced the Christian principles he had hitherto so 
strongly opposed, and they became, as the reader has 
perhaps anticipated, a truly-happy pair. 

A Dying Jewess. — A colporteur employed not long 
since by a Bible Society in London was offering Bibles 
for sale in that metropolis, when he was told that if any 
of the Jews should purchase his books, and become 

27 * 



:;1^ iMi.i km I. Of BYMNS on 

Christians, they would certainly return to their former 
belief, "for," said the woman, u they must die in the 
faith of Abraham." 

To this he replied, u It certainly is not always so j for I 
myself have seen a Jewess die who did not forsake her 
faith in the Eedeemer. I was at that time a city mis- 
sionary, and was desired to call upon her by those who 
well knew her previous history. This visit happened to 
take place on the day of her death. 

" She had been brought from affluence to abject poverty 
for the faith of Christ. She had at one time kept her 
own carriage. One day she cast her eye on the leaf of 
a hymn-book which had come into the house covering 
some butter, and she read upon it these words : — 

1 Not all the blood of beasts 
On Jewish altars slain 
Could give the guilty conscience peace 
Or wash away the stain.' 

a The verse haunted her. She could not dismiss it 
nor forget it ; and after a time she went to a box where 
she remembered she had a Bible, and, induced by that 
verse, began to read, and read on till she found Christ 
Jesus, ' the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.' 

" She became openly a convert to Christianity. This 
caused her husband to divorce her. He went to India, 
where he married again and died. She lived in much 
poverty with two of her nation, Jewish Bisters, who 
had also become Christians. All this I knew; and it is 
now four years since T stood by the side of thai death- 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 319 

bed. She did not renounce her faith in the crucified 
Lord, but died triumphing in him as her Rock, her 
Shield, and her exceeding great Reward, quoting and 
applying to him the Psalms of David, and passing with 
him, without a fear, through the dark valley, numbered 
among the Jews who, as we are told by the Apostle 
John, ' went away, and believed on Jesus.' " 

A Chimney-Sweep. — The late Rev. Joseph Slatterie, 
of Chatham, in England, whom we knew many years 
ago, was once walking in that town, when his attention 
was arrested by a youthful voice singing, — 

" The sorrows of the mind 

Be banished from this place : 
Religion never was designed 
To make our pleasures less." 

Pleased alike with the sweetness of the voice and 
the cheerful tones in which the verse was sung, our 
friend looked around to see whence the singing pro- 
ceeded; but for some time he looked in vain. At 
length he saw a little sweep with his head popping out 
of a chimney and waving with a sort of triumph his 
brush over his head. " Oh/' said the venerable minister 
to us, " it made me weep in gratitude to think how sing- 
ing the praises of God contributes to make even a poor 
chimney-sweep happy." 

A Suffering jMother. — Hymns have often adminis- 
tered comfort in the severest trials. A lad}' who was 
called to endure much anxious suffering became greatly 



320 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS OR 

perplexed as to the duty which devolved upon her, and 

retired to her room to consider the matters which caused 

her agitation. Being sorely grieved in spirit, she laid 
her head on the table and wept bitterly. So intense 
was her grief that she scarcely perceived her little 
daughter, who quietly sat in a corner of the room. Un- 
able longer to bear the sight of her mother's distress, this 
sweet girl stole softly to her side, and, taking her hand 
in both of her own, she said, " Mamma, you once taught 
me a pretty hymn : — 

1 If e'er you meet with trials 

Or troubles on the way, 
Then cast your care on Jesus, 
And don't forget to pray.' " 

The counsel of the little monitor was taken, and relief 
came. The mother was repaid for rightly training her 
child by receiving from her in happy season the lesson 
she had herself given. 

Robert Hall. — The distinguished Eobert Hall, who 
was remarkable for his attachment to congregational 
singing, gives us an anecdote which the reader will be 
glad to see in his own words : — " I once heard a blunder- 
ing, roaring preacher at Margate, who had all the rough- 
ness of the wind without any of its power; and, after 
being tortured for a whole hour, I was fully compen- 
sated by the delight I enjoyed at the close of the 
moii. An old man, whose gray locks were hanging 
profusely on his shoulders, and whose countenance ex- 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. -'5-1 

pressed much simplicity and piety, gave out with great 
feeling, in the recitative style, — 

•Lei the old heathen tune their song 
Of great Diana and of Jove; 
I > 1 1 1 the sweet theme that moves my song 
Is my Redeemer and his love.' 

" This so charmed me that I could at any time endure 
to hear such a preacher if I were sure it would be fol- 
lowed with such a delightful after-piece." 

A Vermont Clergyman. — Mr. Gould mentions the 

influence of singing on the mind of a minister in Ver- 
ts o 

mont. He was a stranger called to officiate for a Sabbath 
in a cold and dreary church. When he entered it, the 
wind howled, and loose clapboards and windows clat- 
tered. The pulpit stood high above the first floor: there 
was no stove, but a few persons in the church, and 
those few beating their hands and feet to keep them 
from freezing. He asked himself, " Can I preach ? Of 
what use can it be ? "What shall I do ? Can these two or 
three singers in the gallery sing the words if I read a 
hymn? I concluded to make a trial, and read, — 

'Jesus, lover of my soul.' 

"They commenced; and the sound of a single female 
voice has followed me with an indescribable pleasing 
sensation ever since, and probably will while I live. The 
voice, intonation, articulation, and expression seemed to 
me perfect. I was warmed inside and out, and for the time 



322 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

was lust in rapture. I had heard of the individual and 
voice before; but hearing it in this dreary situation 
made it doubly grateful. Never did I preach with more 
satisfaction to myself. And from this incident I learned 
a lesson, — never to be discouraged from unfavorable ap- 
pearances, but, where duty calls, go to work cheerfully, 
without wavering." 

A Sick Child. — Why cannot the whole of our families 
imitate the members of the Moravian Church, who all 
sing? We are sure that when religion flourishes as it 
should do this will be the case. Nor have we any special 
objection that singing, especially in the social circle, 
should be accompanied with an instrument. We have 
long thought that a sufficient knowledge of music for 
family devotion should form a part of every child's edu- 
cation, — whether boy or girl. Half the time and labor 
often spent in teaching a girl to play a number of tunes 
with only tolerable skill on the piano would teach her 
to perform a smaller number exceedingly well on the 
melodeon, and add much refinement and delight to her 
family and friends. All this will at once appear evident 
to a mind disposed to reflect on the subject. 

We have before us an interesting account of a little 
girl, seven years old, who was recovering from siek- 
ness; and as her strength increased she inquired, 
"Father, won't you attend family worship up here'.''* 
The request could not be denied. " Won't you sing, — 
■ fee, my native land, I love thee '? " 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 323 

It was indeed beautiful bo Bee the feeble child, as slio 
Bat in her bed supported by pillows, with her little 
hymn-book before her, exerting her almost exhausted 
powers in singing all the verses of a hymn which im- 
plies entire consecration to the missionary work. 

An Aged Lady. — An old lady of nearly fourscore 
years writes in reference to "Dr. Watts's Divine and 
Moral Songs for Children' as follows; and we can endorse 
almost every word of her testimony from our own ex- 
perience : — 

" Now, when arrived to the age of seventy-nine years, 
I may with truth say that I would not relinquish for 
any pecuniary consideration the usefulness and comfort 
of my recollection of ' Watts's Divine Songs.' When I 
cannot sleep in the night, I often repeat all I can recol- 
lect at the time, — not orally, but in my thoughts. If 
every mother in our land would teach her children these 
beautiful hymns, we should see a train of blessings on 
the Church and our country. My excellent mother 
taught them to me when a child; and I taught them to 
my children. And I have the comfort of seeing my 
children teaching them to their children. " 

A Young Man in Virginia. — A fine, intelligent Vir- 
ginian young man, while residing in the West, became 
an infidel and a blasphemer of the name of God. From 
this state he was delivered by reading the work of 
Soame Jenyns; but, while he acquiesced in the truth of 



.*;_'! INFLUENCE OF HYMNfi ON 

revelation, he yet did not feel its power, lie was 
attacked by a Lingering and fatal disease, which led 

him to reflection and prayer but often made it difficult 
for him to converse. Three Christian friends sometimes 
visited him, to beguile the tedious hours by singing. 
They one day entered his room, and, almost without any 
previous remarks, began the hymn, — 

" There is a fountain, filled with blood," 
and then, — 

" The voice of free grace cries, Escape to the mountain." 

He then said to them, " There is nothing I so much de- 
light to hear as the first hymn you ever sung to me : — 

1 Jesus, lover of my soul.' " 

We began to sing it to the tune Martyn, and found the 
solemnity which had reigned in the little circle while 
singing the two former hymns began to be changed to 
weeping. We struck the touching strains of the second 
stanza, and the weeping became loud : the heart of him 
who had reviled Christ broke; and we feared that to 
sing the remaining stanza would be more than he could 
bear. When singing in his room a few days after this, 
he said, " I don't think I shall ever hear ' Jesus, lover 
of my soul' sung again: it so excites me that my poor 
body cannot bear it." 

A Dying Pastor. — How delightfully useful very often 
are hymns on a dying bed ! Once, visiting a dying pastor, 



PERSONAL .WD BOOIAL II.\ l'PJNESS. 325 

be said to as, " 1 have often wondered why when I 

visited many of my people in their last hours I found 
them so constantly using hymns as expressing their 
feelings, and sometimes half smiled that so many of 
them used the very same hymns; but I understand it 
all now. The people of Jesus think and feel alike as 
they get near to his throne; and the smoothness of a 
hymn conveys the idea they need without the effort of 
thinking. How sweet to me now is the ten-thousandth- 
time-repeated verse, — 

'Jesus can make a dying bed 
Feel soft as downy pillows are, 
While on his breast I lean my head 

And breathe my life out sweetly there' !" 

Mr. Pearson has very truly said that as the mental 
powers grow feeble there would seem to be a soothing 
and consoling influence in devotional poetry which 
speaks peace to the soul of the departing Christian. 
How often do we find the learned scholar, the profound 
theologian, or the keen controversialist, seeking spiritual 
comforts in his last hours from simple hymns ! Such 
was Prudentius, the advocate, soldier, and courtier 
of the fourth century, who, as Izaak AYalton relates, 
"not many days before his death charged his soul to 
present to his God each morning and evening a new and 
spiritual song/' Such were the accomplished Walter 
Ealeigh, the scholar and diplomatist Wootton, Dr. Donne, 
George Herbert, and the erratic but pious Edward 

28 



326 INFLUENCE OF IIY.MNs OB 

Irving, who died while singing the Hebrew of the 
Twenty-Third Psalm. Southey has truly said of the 
hymns of the Wesleys, "Perhaps no poems have ever 
been so devoutly committed to memory, or quoted so 
often on a death-bed." 

A Military Officer. — A few years ago an interesting 
incident occurred at the funeral of a pious military 
officer at Montreal. Several officers and other Christian 
friends were sitting round a fire singing to an old minor 
tune the hymn, — 

" Not all the blood of beasts," 

when Captain L said to his friend Captain Hammond, 

" I have a curious fancy concerning that hymn. I should 
like it sung by six young men as they lower me into the 

grave." But a short time elapsed before Captain L 

was removed from earth; and his request was carried 
into execution. We can scarcely imagine any thing more 
impressive than such a scene in the presence of his 
military friends at such a time and under such circum- 
stances. A short time afterwards Captain Hammond 
followed his friend to the world of spirits. 

The Blind Psalmist. — We do not dread giving offence 
to our readers by here quoting some beautiful lines from 
the pen of Mrs. E. C. Kinney, written on hearing a blind 
clergyman, aged eighty-six, sing hymns, accompanying 
himself on the bass-viol : — 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL ITAPPINKSS. 32' 

• He sang the aira of olden times 
In soft, low tones, to sacred rhymes, 
Devotional but quaint ; 

His lingers touched the viol's strings, 
And, at their gentle vibratings, 
The glory of an angel's wings 
Hung o'er that aged saint. 

1 His thin, white locks, like silver threads 
On which the sun its radiance sheds, — 

Or like the moonlit snow, — 
Seemed with a lustre half divine 
Around his saintly brow to shine, 
Till every scar or time-worn line 

Was gilded with its glow. 

' His sightless eyes to heaven upraised, 
As through the spirit's lens he gazed 

On things invisible, 
Reflecting some celestial light, 
Were like a tranquil lake at night 
On which two mirrored planets bright 
The concave's glory tell. 

1 Thus, while the patriarchal saint 
Devoutly sang to music quaint, 

I saw old Homer rise, 
With buried centuries, from the dead, 
The laurel green upon his head, 
As when the choir of bards he led 
With rapt, but blinded, eyes. 

' And Scio's isle again looked green 
As when the poet there was seen 

And Greece was in her prime ; 
While Poesy with epic fire 
Did once again the bard inspire, 
As when he swept his mighty lyre 

To vibrate through all time. 

' The vision changed to Albion's shore : 
I saw a sightless bard once more 



328 I.MUK.VCE OF HYMNS OR 

From dust of ages rise : 
I heard the harp and deathless song 
Of glorious Milton float along, 
Like warblings from the birds that throng 

His muse's paradise. 

11 And is it thus when blindness brings 
A veil before all outer things, 

That visual spirits see 
A world within, than this more bright, 
Feopled with living forms of light, 
And strewed with gems, as stars of night 

Strew diamonds o'er the sea ? 

" Then, reverend saint, though old and blind, 
Thou with the quenchless orbs of mind 

Canst natural sight o'erreach, — 
Upborne on Faith's triumphant wings, 
Canst see unutterable things, 
Which only through thy viol's strings 

And in thy songs find speech." 

Two Sisters in New York State. — To the compara- 
tively few persons among our readers who knew the 
truly-excellent Rev. Dr. Nettleton, it will be pleasant to 
be reminded of him. During one of his tours which 
were so remarkably blessed to the salvation of men, he 
stopped at a house in the region of the Catskill Alount- 
ains. While conversing with the older members of the 
family, he heard two young, sweet, and clear voices in a 
room above warbling the exquisitely-beautiful air of 
"Bonnie Boon" "Ask them/' said he to their parents, 
" to come down and sing it to me ; for I am ardently de- 
voted to music." The request was complied with, and 
he listened with delighted attention till the close of the 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 329 

song, when, kindly turning to the young ladies, he said, 
"I think I can teach you some far better words to that 
tune," and then sang to them that almost matchless 
hymn — 

" When marshalled on the mighty plain," 

and proceeded so touchingly and tenderly to call their 
attention to the beauty of its sentiments, that tears soon 
flowed from their eyes ; and these two young girls were 
among the first subjects of a revival which was the 
blessed fruit of his labors. 

The Young Captive and her Mother. — The following 
narrative of facts, which will show how a hymn may be 
useful in a very unexpected manner, was written by 
Pastor Rone, formerly of Elsinore : — 

Many years ago, several German families came over 
and settled in this country, among whom was a man 
from Wurte in berg, who with his wife and a large family 
established himself in Pennsylvania. There were no 
churches or schools in the neighborhood, and he was 
compelled to keep the Sabbath at home with his family, 
instructing them himself to read the Bible, and praying 
to God. He used very often to read the Scriptures to 
them, and always used first to say, " Now, my children, 
be still, and listen to what I am going to read j for it is 
God who speaks to us in this book." 

In the year 1754 a dreadful war broke out in Canada 
between the French and the English. The Indians took 



INFI.l "KM M <»F hymns OH 

part with the French, and made excursions a< far M 
Pennsylvania, where they plundered and burned the 
houses they came to and murdered the people. In 
1755 they reached the dwelling of the poor family from 
Wurtembergj while the wife and one of the eons were 
gone to a mill four miles distant to get some corn 
ground. The husband, eldest BOn, and two little girls, 
named Barbara and Regina, were at home. The father 
and his son were instantly killed by the savages; but 
they carried the two little girls away into captivity, 
with a great many other children who had been taken in 
the same manner. They were led many miles through 
woods and thorny bushes, that nobody might follow 
them. In this condition they were brought to the habi- 
tations of the Indians, who divided among themselves 
all the children whom they had taken captive. 

Barbara was at this time ten years old and Regina 
nine. It was never known what became of Barbara ; 
but Regina and a little girl two years old, whom she 
had never seen before, were given to an old widow, who 
treated them very cruelly. Her only son lived with 
her and maintained her- but he was sometimes from 
home for weeks together, and then these poor children 
were forced to go into the forest to gather roots and 
other provisions for the old woman ; and when they did 
not bring her enough to eat she would beat them in so 
cruel a manner that they were nearly killed. The little 
girl always kept close to Regina; and, when she knelt 
down under a tree and repeated the prayers to the Lord 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 331 

Jesus and the hymns which her father had taught her, 
the little girl prayed with her and learned the hymns 
and prayers ly heart. In this melancholy state these 
children remained nine long years, till Eegina reached 
the age of nineteen and her little companion was eleven 
years old. While captives, their hearts seem to have been 
drawn toward what was good. Eegina continually re- 
peated the verses from the Bible and the hymns which 
she had learned at home, and taught them to the 
little girl. They often cheered each other with one 
hymn from the hymn-book used at Halle, in Ger- 
many : — 

" Alone, yet not alone, am I, 

Though in this solitude so drear." 

They constantly hoped that the Lord Jesus would 
some time bring them back to their Christian friends. 

In 1764 the hope of these children was realized. The 
merciful providence of God brought the English Colonel 
Boquet to the place where they were in captivity. He 
conquered the Indians and forced them to ask for peace. 
The first condition he made was that they should restore 
all the prisoners they had taken. Thus the two poor 
girls were released. More than four hundred captives 
were brought to Colonel Boquet. It was an affecting 
sight to see so many young people wretched and dis- 
tressed. The colonel and his soldiers gave them food 
and clothing, took them to Carlisle, and published in the 
newspapers that all parents who had lost their children 
might come and seek them, and they should be restored. 



332 INFLUENCE Of BTMNfi «.\ 

Among other bereaved parents, poor Eegina's mother 
came; but, alas! her child had become a stranger to 
her. Eegina had acquired the appearance and manners 
of the natives, and by no means could the mother dis- 
cover her daughter. Seeing her weep in bitter disap- 
pointment, the colonel asked her if she could recollect 
nothing by which her poor girl could be known. She 
at length thought of, and began to sing, the hymn, — 

'•Alone, yet not alone, am I, 

Though in this solitude so drear : 
I feel my Saviour always nigh, — 

He comes the weary hours to cheer. 
I am with him, and he with me ; 
Even here alone I cannot be." 

Scarcely had the mother sung two lines of it when 
Eegina rushed from the crowd, began to sing it also, 
and threw herself into her mother's arms. They both 
wept for joy; and with her young companion, whose 
friends had not sought her, she went to her mother's 
house. Happily for herself, though Eegina had not seen 
a book for nine years, she at once remembered how to 
read the Bible. 

A Family in Louisiana. — The late Eev. James Haxley, 
about the year 1806, was sent by a Methodist Conference 
to itinerate as a missionary in Louisiana, then chiefly 
inhabited by French Catholics. Jimmy, as he was 
familiarly called, had small expectation of comfort with- 
out payment ; and he seldom possessed any money. He 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 333 

was one evening reduced to the very verge of starvation : 
he had spent the preceding night in a swamp, and had 
taken no food for thirty-Mx hours, — when he reached a 
plantation. He entered the house and asked for food 
and lodging. The mistress of the house, a widow, with 
several daughters, and several negro children playing 
about, recognised his calling, and insultingly refused his 
request. He obtained, however, permission to warm 
himself for a few minutes before the fire. As he sat 
thus, he felt the demands of hunger and sleep, and 
looked forward to another night in the swamp. Feel- 
ing this might prove his last night on earth, he thought 
sweetly of the celestial city to which he felt he was 
travelling; his heart swelled with gladness, and he 
cheerfully sung one of his favorite hymns : — 

"Peace, my soul! thou needst not fear: 
The Great Provider still is near." 

He sang the whole hymn • and when he looked around 
him the mother, daughters, and negroes were all in tears. 
"Here, Sally/' said the mother; "get the preacher a 
good supper. Peter, put up his horse : he shall stay a 
week, if he pleases." Has hymn-singing no influence ? 

The Brothers and Sister. — More than thirty years 
ago, a pious young lady in ill health was resting on her 
couch, and by her side sat a beloved brother, himself 
scarcely well, and utterly without a feeling of love to 
God His sister, as descriptive of the emotions of her 



334 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

soul, repeated to him, with remarkable emphasis, the 
lines, — 

"Oh, what hath Jesus bought for me ! 

Before my ravished eyes 
Rivers of life divine I see 

And trees of paradise ! 
I see a world of spirits bright, 

Who taste the pleasures there : 
They are all robed in spotless white, 

And conquering palms they bear." 

Scarcely had she uttered these words before he began to 
think seriously on the state of his soul, and asked him- 
self, " Has he bought nothing for me V 9 His dear sister 
had soon the happiness of having him as a companion 
in her Christian course; and both brother and sister, 
with another brother, not long after departed for mis- 
sionary fields in the island of Ceylon. 

Two Young Women. — When the late Eev. Sylvester 
Hutchinson was stationed on Salem Circuit, Xew Jersey, 
his first station, and while he was yet a boy, he was 
sitting in his temporary boarding-house waiting for the 
hour of preaching, when two young women came in to 
have some sport with the boy-preacher. They began to 
ridicule his size and his insignificant appearance, when, 
suddenly lifting up his head from a reclining posture, he 
repeated, in slow and solemn tones, — 

" My thoughts on awful subjects roll, — 
Damnation and the dead. 
What horrors seize the guilty soul 
Upon a dying bed '." 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL 1 1 A IMM N ESS. 339 

I Lis voice 1 , his countenance, bis manner, were all 
adapted to make them feel thai 

"'Tis not the whole of life to live, 
Nor all of death to die." 

The words of the preacher were "like nails fastened 
in a sure place by the Master of assemblies." Tears 
rolled down their cheeks : they left the room, and rested 
not till they found a refuge in the Son of God. Not 
long after, they each said to the Church, " Thy people 
shall be my people, and thy God my God." 

Quarrelsome Neighbors. — Three men became hope- 
fully pious about the same time. They were neighbors, 
heads of families, and singers. For a season they lived 
in love and exhibited in their lives the graces of the 
Holy Spirit. During this period they often united in 
sweetly singing the praises of God. But, as one of them 
was once passing the house of another, he heard loud 
words and found his friends in angry dispute. He went 
into the house, and began by saying, " Come, neighbors, 
let us sing one of our favorite hymns : — 

'How pleasant 'tis to see 
Kindred and friends agree !' " 

They became silent, looked first at him and then at 
each other, and then one joined the singing. The other 
very soon followed his example, and the three neighbors 
sang harmoniously together as usual, till all their angry 
passions were lulled to sleep. They parted in peace, 



886 INFLUENCE OF 11VMNS ON 

and ever afterward lived in harmony. In this instance, 
at least, a hymn was better than an exhortation. 

Klopstock and his Wife. — Frederick Klopstock, who 
died at the age of eighty, at Hamburg, in 1803, in the 
presence of fifty thousand people, and who is still re- 
membered as "the .Milton of Germany/' was a poet 
before he had ever scon a vci'se written, and commenced 
his ''Messiah" knowing nothing of his subject or of the 
style in which it was written but what he learned from 
a large collection of Bibles in his father's library, but 
which contained " not a single production of any muse." 
Beautifully did he write, "How happy shall I be if by' 
the completion of the ' Messiah 7 I may contribute some- 
what to the glory of our great and divine religion! 
How sweet and transporting is this idea to my mind ! 
That is my great rewai'd." 

In early life Klopstock knew a lady worthy of himself. 
They loved and breathed poetry together. At the end 
of four years she wrote concerning him, "If you knew 
his poem, I could describe him very briefly in saying he 
is in all respects what he is as a poet." But, alas ! soon 
after this he wrote thus to a friend, seven days after 
her removal from earth : — " I supported first myself, and 
then her, by repeating that without our Father's will 
not a hair in her head could fall ; and more than once I 
repeated to her the following lines from my last Ode. 
Once I was so much affected as to be compelled to stop 
at every line : — 



PERSONAL ami SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 337 

' Though unseen by human eye, 
My Redeemer's hand is nigh : 
He has poured salvation's light 
Far within the vale of niglit ; 
There will God my steps control, 
There his presence bless my soul. 
Lord, whate'er my sorrows be, 
Teach me to look up to thee.' " 

This truly-great man was buried under a weeping- 
willow, with a single line on his tomb : — 

" Seed sown by God to ripen for harvest." 



Eev. Samuel Bradburn. — Few things are of more 
importance than a good enunciation of hymns; yet 
perhaps in nothing more than in this do our clergymen 
fail. Let us illustrate its importance. 

William Dawson, — a late very eminent local preacher 
in England, — before he began to preach, having heard of 
the fame of the Eev. Samuel Bradburn as an orator, 
went to Leeds, in the year 1793, to hear him in the Eev. 
Edward Parsons's church. His commanding figure, 
powdered hair, and advanced age fixed Dawson's eye 
and attracted his admiration. The subject of his sermon 
was the kingly office of Christ : it was a masterly per- 
formance; and Dawson was filled with admiration. 

On reading the last hymn, Mr. Bradburn inclined his 
person over the front of the pulpit, and, looking to the 
precentor, or clerk, as though somewhat displeased with 
him, — or rather preferring, like his Methodist brethren in 

29 



338 INI l.i l :.\« JE 01 DTMK6 ON 

eral, to read the hymn- to be Bnng, — be said, u I will 
give out the last two \ ':" — 

'•The government of earth and seas 
Upon his shoulders shall be laid, 
His wide dominion shall increase, 
And honors to his name be paid. 

"Jesus, the holy child, shall sit 

High on his father David's throne, 
Shall crush his foes beneath his feet, 
And reign to ages yet unknown." 

Mr. Dawson had never heard these words before; but 
Bradburn's manner of repeating them was such that he 
ever after remembered them. 

Eev. Dr. E. D. Griffin.— Of the late Rev. Dr. E. 
Griffin it has been said that, while in reading the Scrip- 
tures he seemed to evolve a meaning and richness never 
thought of before, in reading hymns he gave more force 
of expression, and often more impressiveness to their 
sentiments, than could be given by the singing of even 
a good choir. Indeed, the great masters of sacred music 
are not more careful to bring the force of their art to 
bear on each note than was the excellent doctor to 
bring the resources of eloquence to bear upon every 
syllable of the hymn which he read. He read slowly, 
and gave himself time to throw the right and full ex- 
pression and inflection on each word. Moreover, he 
infused his whole pathos into the reading, as much as if 
the lines were a fresh and original utterance of his own 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. S39 

feelings. It has been often said that by the simple 
reading- of the hymn, — 

" Mighty God, while angels bless thee, 
May an infant bless thy name," 

he would produce as much impression upon an audience 
as would ordinarily be effected by an eloquent sermon. 



The late extraordinary man, Eobert Hall, of England, 
eminently excelled in reading hymns. No one who ever 
heard him at his social prayer-meeting can forget the 
intense dignity and feeling with which he would enun- 
ciate the words of Dr. Doddridge, — 

"The splendid crown which Moses sought 
Still beams around his brow, 
Though soon great Pharaoh's sceptred pride 
Was taught by death to bow." 

Eev. Dr. Stillman. — Few men could read a hymn 

with more effect than the Eev. Dr. Samuel Stillman, of 

Boston, who died in 1807. Xone who ever heard him 

will forget the verse of Watts, as it was enunciated by 

him from the pulpit : — 

"Well, the Redeemer's gone, 

To appear before our God, — 
To sprinkle o'er the flaming throne 
With his atoning blood." 

Some cold-blooded critic, who probably never read 
Numbers xxv. 2, has censured this verse; but I think 
he would have been disarmed had he heard Dr. Still- 
man read it. His voice had a beautiful circumflex to it: 



340 [NFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

he threw liis emphasis on the word u well/ 1 then a pause, 

— and the rest of the verse was pronounced in that cheer- 
ful and animating tone which seemed to rend the veil and 
transport the hearer into the unseen world. The most 
skilful actor never made a more sudden and happy 
transition. There was no apparent art in his style or 
delivery. It was all earnest simplicity. 

Rev. Dr. Broaddus. — The Rev. Dr. J. L. Dagg gives 
an interesting account of the manner in which the late 
Rev. Dr. A. Broaddus, a Southern Baptist minister, con- 
ducted public worship. The manner in which he read 
his hymns may furnish an important hint to minister-. 

Dr. D says, " He read the hymn of Dr. Watts, which 

begins, — 

'Lord, we are blind, we mortals blind; 

We can*t behold thy bright abode: 
Oh, 'tis beyond a creature mind 

To glance a thought half-way to God.' 

His manner of reading was to me new and attractive; 
and before he had finished this first stanza my attention 
was riveted. He read through the hymn; and the im- 
pression produced on my mind forty years have not 
erased. From that time I have regarded this hymn — 
perhaps on account of the imjn-ession then made — as one 
of the most beautiful that Dr. AVatts ever composed.'' 

Thoughtless Clergymen. — AVe really do wish that 
our ministers were always careful in the selection ot 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 341 

their hymns, that they may be appropriate and season- 
able. We have heard a hymn written to describe winter 
and to draw from it appropriate lessons read to be sung 
in the sultry heats of July or August; and some time 
ago a somewhat aged minister, in a large, intelligent, and 
pious congregation, announced, on a bright Sabbath 
morning, the beautiful evening hymn written by 
Edmeston, — 

"Saviour, breathe an evening blessing, 
Ere repose our spirits seal." 

What a lamentable indication of bad taste ! 

A still more ludicrous scene, arising from a similar 
cause, has been described to us by a Methodist clergy- 
man, in one of the papers of that body of Christians. 
He says : — 

" I had preached my last sermon at a favorite appoint- 
ment on my first circuit. The people had been kind 
and generous, and I loved them dearly. The house was 
full; it was my final appeal to the flock beloved; and, 
though almost overcome with emotion, I had got through, 
somehow, with the 'farewell sermon/ — my first and last. 
I knew T that, either from sympathy or sorrow, the con- 
gregation was sharing largely in my feelings, — that I 
was not alone 'in the melting mood.' As I sat down, 
overwhelmed with grief at the sore parting, a local 
preacher, whom I had invited to close the service, rose, 
and, opening the book at random, read, in solemn tones, 
the hymn commencing, — 

29* 



342 i.M m BM01 01 HI UNA 

1 Jesus, we lift our souls to thee : 
Thy Holy Spirit breathe, 
And let this little infant be 
Baptized into thy death* 

The effect of this malapropos selection you may possibly 
imagine, but I cannot describe." 

Another illustration of inappropriate hymns ar 
from the custom, allowed by some ministers, of permit- 
ting the choirs to sing voluntaries at all times and 
under all circumstances. We have heard a doctrinal 
sermon directly opposed by the "voluntary" sung after 
it; and we have just read of the choir of a very large 
congregation in Massachusetts, who sang at the funeral 
of a man of distinction, with great unction, — 

" Believing we rejoice 

To see the curse remove." 



A Tory Minister. — It is of no small importance that 
the clergy should be acquainted with hymns and psalms 
before they read them Avith a view to their being sung 
by congregations. Some years ago, a somewhat idle 
Tory Congregational minister in England announced 
Dr. Watts's version of the Seventy-Fifth Psalm, "To 
thee, most holy and most high," etc. When he had 
reached the second verse, u Britain was doomed to be a 
slave/' etc., he became alarmed, and fled to the sixth 
verse, which, to his sad amazement, flatly denied the 
divine right of kings: — 



PEfieONAI AND social HAPPINESS. B43 

"No vain pretence to royal birth 
shall fix a tyrant on the throne: 
God, the great Sovereign of the earth, 
Will rise and make his justice known." 

His confusion became apparent; but, happily for 
him, the people supposed he might have a reference to 
the King of Hanover, then very unpopular among the 
British people, but who, on the first accession of Queen 
Victoria, and before she had a family, was heir-pre- 
sumptive to the throne. 

Doctor Mason. — Doctor Lowell Mason has given us 
a very striking narrative illustrating the importance ot 
carefully examining a hymn before even abridging it. 
Some years ago, when that gentleman was organist and 
the conductor of the singing at the Bowdoin Street 
Church, Boston, a visiting clergyman conducted the 
service. Dr. Mason says, " The whole hymn was first 
read by the minister, and then, just before the singing- 
exercise commenced, the direction was given, ' Omit the 
second stanza/ The following are the first three stanzas, 
and the connection between the first and third stanzas 
will be seen at a glance : — 

1 When thou, my righteous Judge, shalt come 
To take thy ransomed people home, 

Shall I among them stand ? 
Shall such a worthless worm as I, 
Who sometimes am afraid to die, 

Be found at thy right hand ? 

' I love to meet thy people now, 
Before thy feet with them to how. 



344 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

Though vilest of them nil; 
But — can I bear the piercing thought — 
"What if my name should be left out 

When thou for them shalt call ? 

1 Lord, prevent it by thy grace : 
Be thou my only hiding-place 

In this the accepted day ; 
Thy pardoning voice, oh, let me hear, 
To still my unbelieving fear, 

Nor let me fall, I pray.' 

" The organist did not perceive the fearful connection 
between the first and third stanzas until a moment be- 
fore it was time to commence the latter, when, startled 
and terrified, he cried out, 'Sing the second stanza !' just 
in time to avoid the utterance of the frightful petition." 

Dr. Mason properly adds, " It is unquestionably the 
duty of the choir to follow implicitly the directions of 
the minister in all that appertains to the singing in 
public worship ; and the habit which prevails in some 
places of inattention to the directions given from the 
pulpit in relation to the abridgment of the hymn is 
wholly unjustifiable; but there seem to be exceptions 
to almost all rules, and here was an occasion when dis- 
obedience to the oral rubric seemed to be positively re- 
quired : indeed, it was a case of life or death, and it 
was impossible to follow it. Warm were the thanks 
expressed by members of the congregation after the 
service for their deliverance from the terrible moral col- 
lision with which they were threatened." 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 346 

Mr. Dawson. — We have sometimes, when conducting 
the worship of God, felt strongly disposed to interrupt 
the choir for the sake of a striking remark on what is 
too often thoughtlessly sung. We have before us an 
instance in which the monotony was broken with good 
effect. Mr. Dawson, an eminent English Wesleyan local 
preacher, had once preached a very impressive sermon, 
and at its close read Charles Wesley's beautiful hymn, — 

"0 love divine, how sweet thou art !'' 

When the choir were singing the third verse, — 

"God only knows the love of God,*' 

he stopped them and said, " Stop, friends ! If angels, 
the first-born sons of light, cannot understand the height, 
the breadth, the depth, the length, of the love of God, 
how can we expect to fathom it while here below V* He 
then repeated, with profound feeling, thrilling his large 
auditory, — 

" 'God only knows the love of God.' 

Let us sing it again, friends; for we shall have to sing 
it in heaven : — 

1 God only knows the love of God.' " 

Fault Found. — It is usually true that the members 
of every denomination praise their poets and their 
hymns j but we have before us a remarkable fact of an 
opposite character. The Eev. Samuel Bradburn, a man 
of fine talents, and of wit as well as piety, and an emi- 



346 INFLUENCE Of HYMNS ON 

nenl preacher among the English Wesley an Methodists, 

was once engaged to preach, and read the hymn written 
by Charles Wesley contains this verse: — 

••Ah, lovely appearance of death! 
What sight upon earth is so fair'.' 
Not all the gay pageants that breathe 
Can with a dead body compare." 

He broke out : — " What business has this hymn in our 
book, containing as it does a sentiment so false, — ' Ah, 
lovely appearance of death !' — when there is nothing 
lovely about it. Why did Abraham's beloved and beau- 
tiful Sarah, when she died, become so unlovely that he 
expressed his wish, ' Bury my dead out of my sight' t " 
It is right to say that the Methodists of this country 
have omitted this hymn from their book. 

A Clergyman in Georgia. — A few years ago, an aged 
minister was officiating for the first time in a Methodist 
church in Georgia, where they keep up the old custom 
of having the h}'mns " lined," that the whole congre- 
gation may, according to the wise discipline of that 
Church, join in the singing, whether they have hymn- 
books or not. The venerable man could not see dis- 
tinctly, and intended to omit singing during that service. 
To announce his purpose, he arose and said, — 

" My eyes are dim : I cannot see*' 

and immediately the chorister commenced singing it to 
the tune of " Old Hundred." Surprise and mortification 



PERSONAL AM> BOCIAL HAPPINESS. 347 

made the clergyman almost speechless; but he stammered 
out, — 

"I meant but an apology." 

This line was immediately sung by the congregation, 
and the minister, now quite excited, exclaimed, — 

"Forbear, I pray : niy sight is dim" 

but the singing proceeded, and the couplet was finished 
by his troubled and beseeching explanation, — 

" I do not mean to read a hymn." 

Strange as it may seem, this was also simg with much 
energy, while the worthy old gentleman sat down in 
actual despair of accomplishing his purpose to do without 
singing. 

A Deacon in a Difficulty. — Deacons, as well as 
ministers, have sometimes been placed in an awkward 
predicament. On one occasion, in New England, a gen- 
tleman of this order had been called on to deacon the 
hymns, — that is, to read them line by line. He looked at 
his book for some time, endeavoring to spell out the 
words j but, having unfortunately left his spectacles at 
home, he was compelled to make known his difficulty, 
and said, — 

"My eyes, indeed, are very blind." 

The choir, who had been impatiently waiting for a line, 
supposing this to be the first of a common-metre hymn, 



348 IMI.I ENCE OB HYMN 8 OS 

immediately Bang it. The good deacon exclaimed, with 
emphasis, — 

" I cannot see at all." 

This, of course, they also sung, when the astonished 
pillar of the church cried out, — 

"I really think you are bewitched !" 

which the choir at once repeated in full tone; and the 
deacon added, — 

" The mischief's in you all;" 

when the choir finished the verse by echoing the last line, 
and the deacon sat down in despair. 

Regulations of Singing. — The History of the Pres- 
byterian Church at Kockaway, New Jersey, tells us, 
" That part of divine service pertaining to the singing 
of psalms, and what version of psalms should be used 
in worship, having made great uneasiness and inquietude, 
in April, 1780, it was voted to appoint four choristers to 
set the tunes; that Benjamin Jackson, Francis AL'Carty, 
and Jacob Lyon be appointed choristers ; that they sing 
in the afternoon without reading the psalm line by line ; 
and David Beeman to sing the forepart of the day, un- 
less otherwise agreed on by Mr. Beeman and the other 
choristers; and that they sing any tunes that are sung 
by the neighboring churches, as they shall judge proper." 
. . . April, 1789, some further difficulty having arisen 
respecting the singing in the church, " It was voted at a 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 



349 



parish meeting to have the psalms read line by line, or 
by two lines, in singing, in future, except on particular 
occasions." ... At a parish meeting May 14, 1792, 

" The mode of singing was again adjusted by the ap- 
pointment of Benjamin Johnson, Russel Davis, and 
Daniel Hurd as choristers, and that they act discretion- 
ary when to sing without reading the lines." 

Importance of Eight Feelings. — In ''Hood's History 
of llusic in New England," it is said that when, in 1640, 
the unhappy Charles I. fled from Oxford, he threw him- 
self upon the army of his countrymen, then encamped 
before Newark. Here, instead of being befriended, he 
was reproached and insulted to his face. Upon one 
occasion during public service, one of the chaplains, after 
having used harsh language, directed the Fifty-Second 
Psalm to be sung, beginning, — 

"Why dost thou, tyrant, boast thyself 
Thy wicked deeds to praise ?" 

As soon as they had sung it, the king rose and re- 
quested the soldiers to sing the Psalm, — 

" Have mercy on me, Lord, I pray ; 
For men would me devour." 



This was accordingly sung in compassion for his dis- 
tress, which saw no relief till he reached the scaffold 
ordered by the High Court of Justice. 

The history of our country relates a not dissimilar 
anecdote of the visit in 1686 of Sir Edmund Andross to 

30 



350 INFLUENCE Of IIVMNS ON 

New Haven in search of Goffe, one of the regicides, who 
really w&b present at the church when Sir Edmund was 
there. The clerk felt it his duty to select a psalm not in- 
capable of a double application, and which accordingly 
hit Sir Edmund in a tender part : — 

•• Why dost thou, tyrant, boast thyself, 
Thy wicked deeds to praise?" 

All his attempts to discover " his man" utterly failed. 



A complete history of hymns would develop facts both 
pleasing and painful as to the state of religion in dif- 
ferent places and at different periods. The Eev. John 
Adams, of Durham, New Hampshire, graduated at 
Harvard College in 1745, and was ordained in 1748. 
After thirty years' residence at Durham, difficulties arose 
with his people, and he was dismissed. We fear that 
Christian feeling did not abound even in his heart; for at 
the close of his farewell sermon he requested his people 
to "sing to the praise and glory of God, and to their 
own edification," the first three verses of the One Hun- 
dredth and Twentieth Psalm of Dr. Watts, — 

"Thou God of love, thou ever blest, 
Pity my suffering state : 
When wilt thou set my soul at rest 
From lips which love deceit ? 

" Hard lot of mine ! my days are cast 
Among the sons of strife, 
Whose never-ceasing brawlings waste 
My golden hours of life. 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 351 

"Oh, mighl I fly to ohange my place, 
How would I choose to dwell 
In Borne wild, lonesome wilderness, 
And leave these gates of hell!" 

An Old Parody. — 

"Come, thou Almighty King," 

is a parody on the old English national anthem, " God 
save the King," and first appeared in that country some 
nineteen years after " God save the King" had been first 
printed in the " Gentleman 7 s Magazine" which was in 
1745, where it was simply called "A song for two voices." 
It is now common among us under the disguise of 
"America." The first appearance of the hymn was in 
1764, in a collection of Psalms and Hymns, extracted 
from various authors, by the Rev. Spencer Madan. 
From this fact it is often attributed to Madan's own 
pen; but of this there is no evidence: all believe the real 
author to be as much unknown as that of which it is a 
parody. It has ever since retained its place in most of 
our collections, with remarkable integrity and freedom 
from "emendations," and will probably do so till the 
Church loses its militant character. 

Singular Music. — One of the most singular curiosities 
of musical literature with which we are acquainted 
relates to a fugue tune to which is sung a version of the 
One Hundred and Thirty-Third Psalm, in the prodigious 
effort of the performance of which the ear-splitting com- 



INFLUENCE Of BTHNS OH 

bination of the several voices scarcely bears a resemblance 
to that oily current poured on Aaron's head, which 

" Ran down his beard and o'er his head — 

Ran down his beard 

his robes 

And o'er his robes 

Elan down his beard ran down his 

o'er his robes 

His robes, his robes, ran down his beard 

Ran down his 

o'er his robes 

Ran down his beard 

h-i-s b-e-ard 

Its costly moist 

Ran down his beard 

ure — beard — his — beard — his — shed 

— ran down his beard — his — down 

his robes — its costly moist — his beard 

ure shed — his — cost — his robes — robes — ure shed 

I-t-s c-o-s-t-l-ie moist — ure s-h-e-d." 



Bishop Seabury, on one of his visitations, was asked 
his opinion of this composition; and his reply was that 
he had paid no attention to the music, but that his 
sympathies were so much excited for poor Aaron that 
he was afraid he would not have a hair left. 

Hymns of the Old Style. — It may be of some interest 
to the reader to have before him two or three verses of 
the hymns in use before the days of Dr. "Watts, which 
gradually gave way, as the taste for harmony and beauty 
increased in our churches, to the hymns now in use. To 



PERSONAL AM) 800LAX HAPPINESS. 353 

understand the true character of these verses, they should 
be " deaconed off," and sung one line at a time. 

"Tis like the precious ointment 
Down Aaron's beard did go ; 
Down Aaron's beard it downward went, 
His garment-skirts unto." 

Here is another specimen; and though our readers 
may smile at it, their fathers did not : — 

"Ye monsters of the bubbling deep, 
Your Maker's praises spout ; 
Up from the sands, ye codlings, peep, 
And wag your tails about." 

The following specimen, and our last, contains truth, 
whatever may be said of its poetry : — 

" The race is not forever got 
By him who fastest runs ; 
Nor the battle by those people 
Who shoot the longest guns." 



Singing at Bangor. — It is both interesting and pro- 
fitable to understand the manner in which our fathers 
conducted their worship. A concert by the Billings and 
Holden Society of Bangor, Maine, composed of elderly 
ladies and gentlemen, was held in that city in 1848. 
They were " singers of the olden time," veritable anti- 
quarian musicians, worshippers of the majestic melodies 
of Luther, Pleyel, Tansur, Holyoke, and the rich fugues 
of Billings, Holden, Edson, and Eead, of by-gone days. 
The enraptured writer of the description of this meeting 

30* 



854 ran i hymns oh 

exclaims, "Oh, could you have been there! It \\ 
glorious sight as weD as Bound. Those old gentlemen 
took us back again to thirty or forty go ! But 

let me give you a description of them. 

"The number of singers, I should judge, was nearly a 
hundred: at any rate, they filled the singing-gallery and 
part of the side galleries of the First Baptist Church. 
Among them were at least four deacons, four colonels, 
several captains, judges, doctors, lawyers, esquires of the 
old school, and, last, though not least, the chief members 
of the Bangor Antiquarian Society. All classes were 
represented. An ancient colonel led off the singing, 
with a white wand and blue ribbon. He is a stout man, 
between fifty and sixty years of age, with gray hair, of 
considerable vigor, with a voice commanding and pre- 
cisely adapted to the music sung that evening. On his 
right was an elderly tenor deacon, who at times was 
evidently as near heaven as he could be and still be on 
earth. lie is a tall man; and not unfrequently, during 
the performance of some unique passage, you might 
have heard the whisper. ' See him go up!' as. while beat- 
ing time, he would draw up his tall form to its full height 
and elevate his face toward the eeiling. On the left of 
the leader was an ancient tenor judge, who prides him- 
self on being able to sing all the k old tunes' without 
looking at a note. He stood erect, looking straight for- 
ward, preserving an astonishing equanimity during the 
whole evening, although he beat time — as did all the 
other singers — quite emphatically. At the extreme right 



PERSONAL and SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 366 

of the choir wore the ladies, — matronly personages in 
caps, With Strong voices and peculiar intonations. In- 
deed, the style of singing was quite different from that 
of the present day throughout ; and I was happy to find 
that the rich nasal sound of forty years ago is not yet 
forgotten, and that the practice of beating time with the 
hand still exists. 

" The number of tunes sung was about thirty. Some 
were repeated. Among the tunes were Bridgewater, 
Element, Tilden, Bristol, Portland, Buckingham', Lynn- 
field, Montague, Eainbow, Sherborne, Victory, Ode on 
Science, Heavenly Yision, Calvary, Invitation, etc. Invi- 
tation was encored. It was sung in magnificent style. 
When the part beginning 

1 Fly like a youthful hart or roe' 

was repeated, one could hardly help imagining himself 
among a flock of young deer, scampering 

' Over the hills where spices grow,' 

so swiftly did the chorister lead off and the singers 
follow. 

" The singing commenced at seven, and continued with- 
out cessation, except during a recess of a few minutes to 
get breath, until nine o'clock. The audience were de- 
lighted not only with the music, but with the high enjoy- 
ment manifested by the venerable musicians." 



356 INH.LENCE UP HYMNS ON 

Bedstone Pbesbyxery. — In the Latter part of the 

eighteenth century considerable discussion took place 
in the Old Redstone Presbytery in reference to the in- 
troduction of Dr. Watts'fl Psalms and Hymns, most of 
the older people being in favor of the older version. In 
some places a compromise was adopted. They would 
begin with an old psalm and conclude with a psalm 
or li^mm from Watts. Though Dr. Power used Watts 
in his own family, he yielded to the preferences of his 
people in the use of Rouse in public worship. The lines 
were "given out" by a precentor, or clerk, as he was 
called. Dr. Power's clerk used to give out one line at a 
time, and always, in doing so, sounded the last syllable 
on a dead level with the first note of that part of the 
tune, prolonging the sound a little, so as to slide grace- 
fully and imperceptibly into the singing. To a stranger 
the effect was rather ludicrous; but he was considered a 
great master of his business, especially by the older 
people. 

At Buffalo and Cross Creek, Watts's Psalms and Hymns 
were used at the prayer-meeting, though Mr. Porter 
scarcely approved of it. On one occasion, however, his 
people sang with great animation the lines, — 

"Let those refuse to sing 

Who never knew our God," 

when the old gentleman was constrained to join in the 
service, saying afterward, "If my conscience won't let 
me sinsr, T'll wring its neck." 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 357 

Boston Congregations. — A beautiful fact in connec- 
tion with singing is told of the excellent George White- 
field. During the delivery of a sermon in Boston on 
the wonders of creation, providence, and redemption, 
a violent tempest of thunder and lightning came on, 
which so alarmed the congregation that they sat in 
breathless awe. The preacher closed his note-book, and, 
stepping into one of the wings of the desk, fell on his 
knees, and, with much feeling and fine taste, repeated 
from Dr. Watts, — 

u Hark ! the Eternal rends the sky ! 
A mighty voice before hini goes, — 
A voice of music to his friends, 

But threatening thunder to his foes. 

" Come, children, to your Father's arms ! 
Hide in the chambers of my grace 
Till the fierce storm be overblown 
And my revenging fury cease!" 

"Let us devoutly sing to the praise and glory of God 
this hymn : — Old Hundred. " 

The whole congregation instantly rose and poured 
forth the sacred song. By the time the hymn was 
finished, the storm was hushed, and the sun, bursting 
forth, showed the magnificent arch of peace. Resuming 
the desk, the preacher quoted, with admirable tact, 
" Look upon the rainbow : praise Him that made it. 
Very beautiful is it in the brightness thereof! It com- 
passeth the heaven about with a glorious circle; and 
the hands of the Most High have bended it." The epi- 
sode added intense interest to the service. 



358 i mi. i i:\CE OF HYMNS on 

Coincidence. — One of the Boston papers, a few years 
ago, related a very beautiful coincidence. During the 
morning service at Christ's Church, Salem Street, an 
incident occurred which would have been interpreted by 
some of the ancients as a signal of divine approbation. 
The Eev. .Mr. Marcus, of Xantucket, the officiating 
minister, read, in order to be sung, the Eighty-Fourth 
Psalm, in which may be found the verse, — 

" The birds, more happier far than I, 
Around thy temple throng : 
Securely there they build, and there 
Securely hatch their young." 

While he was reading this psalm, a dove flew in at one 
of the windows and alighted on the capital of one of 
the pilasters near the altar, and almost over the head 
of the reader. A note of the psalm and hymn to be 
sung had been previously given, as is customary, to the 
choir, or it might have been supposed that there was 
design in the selection; for the second hymn com- 
menced, — 

"Come, Holy Spirit, Heavenly Dove, 

With all thy quickening powers ! 
Kindle a flame of sacred love 

In these cold hearts of ours!" 

The preacher was unconscious of the presence of the 
bird until the close of the services, when the innocent 
visitor was suffered to depart in peace. 

" China." — Say what we will, and whatever may be 
the taste of different persons as to tunes ancient and 



PERSONAL AM) SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 

modern, it is certain thai we all enjoy the occasional 
treat of an old tune. A congregation in Boston, a few 
years ago, who seldom heard old-fashioned music, were 
one day surprised and delighted when the choir sung 
the tune of " China," as set to the well-known words of 
Dr. Watts,— 

••Why do vre mourn departing friends, 
Or shake at death's alarms ?" 

The incident led one of the hearers to express his 
feelings in some lines which may gratify the reader : — 

"The preacher had bis sermon preached, 

And prayer befitting marked its course. 
When, lingering yet where prayer was made, 

The preacher and the people rose. 
They sung a hymn : the hymn was old, 

The lines were like familiar things ; 
But, bursting as from harps of gold, 

The music swept a thousand strings, 
While, with a low and reverend air, 
The people bowed and worshipped there. 

" The young man paused, and wondered why 

He had not heard such strains before ; 
The old man wept, and seemed again 

To live his very childhood o'er, 
As quickly from the treasured past 

Came visions of the olden time, 
When his dear father worshipped God 

While swaying to the music's charm, 
And by his side they sat who shared 

The sunshine of his early days : 
What other could he do than weep 

To hear once more those good old lays ? 

"Oh, art may charm, and newer strains 
May better please the youthful breast; 



360 1M 1. 1 ! NOE Of HYMNS ON 

But unto him whose locks are gray 

The oldest music is the best. 
And so methought, as died away 

Those strains within that place of prayer, 
That heaven to some will sweeter be 

If " Cltina" is remembered there." 

Eev. Dr. Emmons. — The late distinguished Dr. Em- 
mons was a great lover of sweet sounds, — that is, the 
sound of the human voice, — and religiously excluded 
from his meeting-house all instrumental music except a 
little mahogany-colored wooden pitch-pipe, about five 
inches by three. A member of his choir had learned to 
play the bass-viol, and, anxious to exhibit his skill, 
early one Sunday morning most unadvisedly introduced 
his big fiddle into the singing-gallery. After the first 
prayer was ended and the doctor began to handle his 
"Watts" the " bass-violer" lifted up his profanation, 
and, trying his strings, instantly attracted the doctor's 
attention. He paused, laid down his hymn-book, took 
his sermon from the cushion, and proceeded with his 
discourse as if singing was no part of public worship, 
and finally dismissed the congregation " without note 
or comment." The whole choir were indignant. They 
stayed after u meeting/' and all the girls and young men 
resolved not to go into "the singing-seats" at all in the 
afternoon; and the elders who did go there bore the 
visages of men "whose minds were made up." 

Services, in the afternoon began as usual. The doctor 
took his psalm-book in his hand, looked over his spec- 
tacles at the gallery, and saw only a few there, but, 



PERSONAL AM) SOCIAL BAPPINJ 361 

Dothing daunted, read a psalm and sat down. No bound 
followed; no one stirred; and the "leader" looked up 
in utter unconsciousness. After a long and most uneasy 
silence, the good man, his face somewhat over- flushed, 
his manner rather stern, read the psalm again, paused, 
then re-read the first verse, and, pushing up his spec- 
tacles, looked interrogatively into the gallery. The 
leader could bear it no longer, and, half rising, said, 
decidedly, " There won't be any singing here this after- 
noon." 

Quick as thought the doctor replied, " Then there 
won't be any preaching;" and, taking his cocked hat 
from its peg, he marched down the pulpit-stairs, through 
the broad aisle, and out of the house, leaving his congre- 
gation utterly astounded. We need not inform our 
readers that "the big fiddle" did not appear in "the 
singing-seats" afterward. 

English Clerks. — It is well known that in most of 
the congregations of England the hymns are "given 
out" by a clerk, who occupies a seat below the pulpit. 
These gentlemen are not always remarkable either for 
their intelligence or their humility; and if the minister 
leaves the choice of the hymns to them they will some- 
times select such as may reprove him or some other per- 
sons for what they may consider errors or faults; or 
sometimes they will make alterations of even a ludicrous 
character in the hymns or psalms. We remember once 
to have heard an occasional sermon, which was a some- 



INFLUENCE OF BYMKfl OH 

what singular one, from a singular man. His text - 

ry man that hath this hope in him purifieth him- 

■■i . ;i as he is pure," (1 John iii. 3.) — the common 
understanding of which is that the Christian aims to 
imitate the purity of Christ; but worthy Pastor Eenals 
treated the text so as to make the Christian the source 
of his own purity. In this view of the matter. Brother 
Beal, as we think, properly differed from him. — though 
no one expected a public reproof administered by him to 
the minister. Xo one who was present will ever forget 
how the said clerk rose, with majestic mien and power- 
ful voice, to " give out" the hymn Dr. Watts founded on 
the text, or with what emphasis he read the last two 
lines of the verse, — 

" A hope so much divine 

May trials well endure, — 
May purge our souls from sense and sin, 
As Ch.ist the Lord is pure." 

The clerk evidently exulted, the congregation smiled ; 
but the poor preacher looked unutterable things, and, 
the hymn having been sung, he omitted the last prayer 
and pronounced the benediction. He could never be pre- 
vailed on to preach in that pulpit again. 



In the days of our youth we remember to have 
preached a sermon which gave offence to one of these 
gentlemen, — he having, contrary to our own view of the 
matter, an insurmountable objection to unregenerated Mn- 
ners being exhorted to pray or to do any other spiritual 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL BAPPINE8& 303 

act. At the close of the sermon he led us to sing, with 
what of good feeling we might, the lines of Watts, — 

"The men who fear thy word 
Grow wiser than their teachers are 
And better know the Lord.'" 

h\ a note in the fourth volume of his "History of 
the Baptists" Mr. Ivimey tells us that he one evening 
stepped into a meeting-house in London, where one of 
these hyper-Calvinistic gentlemen was "the clerk," and 

hoard him perpetrate a somewhat remarkable change 
in some lines of Watts. The good doctor, speaking of 
the kindness of God to his people, wrote, — 

" And fixed my standing more secure 
Than 'twas before I fell." 

The very sound clerk, however, changed it to, — 

" And fixed my standing most secure 
Tn Christ before I fell " 

Possibly some of the congregation regarded this change 
as an improvement; but Mr. Ivimey asks, with some- 
thing like common sense, "If the good man was made 
so secure before he fell, how came he to fall at all?" 



The late eminent Robert Hall used to tell an amusing 
anecdote of a clerk of his church in Leicester. It appears 
that an unpleasant feeling had for some time existed 
between the said clerk and the choir. The dispute was 



36 1 INFLC K\« i: Of BTMNfl OH 

referred to .Mr. Hall, and the clerk was dismissed. Sach, 

however, was the grief of the worthy official on the 
of his dignity that he was soon after reinstated in office. 
On the following Sabbath morning the honest precentor 
extorted an almost general smile by commencing the 
service with Dr. Watts's version of the Twenty-Seventh 
Psalm, reading with much emphasis the lino. — 

" Now shall my bead be lifted high 
Above my foes around, 
And songs of joy and victory 
Within thy temple sound.*' 

Facts about Anthems. — While speaking of hymni 
few interesting facts relating to anthems will be perhaps 

acceptable. In the last century, the noble Count S , 

of Hungary, had lost, under the most distressing circum- 
stances, his only child, a beautiful girl, who was on the 
eve of marriage. Although two years had elapsed since 
this bereavement, the unhappy father remained in the 
most melancholy condition. From the hour when he 
had taken his last look at the dead bod}' of his child, he 
had remained in the same room, shedding no tears 
and uttering no complaints, but remaining in a speech- 
less state of despair. The most celebrated physicians 
had been consulted, and every means which could be 
thought of used to rouse the count from his lethargy of 
grief; but all in vain, and his physician became hope- 
less of his recovery. 

Under these circumstances, a member of his family 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 365 

remembered to have heard the distinguished Elizabeth 
Mara, for ten years the first singer at the Prussian court, 
eing some exquisitely beautiful sacred pieces, and became 
impressed with the thought that, if an}' sound on earth 
could reach the heart which was already buried in his 
daughter's grave, her voice, which seemed to be that of 
an angel rather than of a human being, would have that 
power. Arrangements were at length made for the trial ; 
and, to give every possible effect to the powers of the 
singer, an ante-room, opening into that where the 
count sat, was prepared. Mara stood alone in the fore- 
ground, yet in such a position that she could not be seen 
in the next room, which w T as hung with black, and a 
faint, shadowy twilight only admitted, except a few r 
golden rays from a small lamp which burned in a niche 
before a beautiful Madonna. Suddenly upon the soli- 
tude and silence of that sick-room there broke a won- 
derful harmony. Elizabeth had chosen Handel's " 21es- 
siah," and took her place, deeply moved by the singular 
circumstances under which she was called to exert her 
talents. 

At first the music and that heavenly voice all seemed 
to be unheeded; but by degrees the desolate parent 
raised himself on his couch and glanced with earnest 
longing toward the spot whence those soul-moving 
sounds proceeded. At length, when Mara sung the 
words, "Look and see if there be any sorrow like to 
my sorrow," she appeared inspired by the sympathy sho 
felt; and the relatives of the count, who listened with 



oOG INFLUENCE Of Bl |fN8 ON 

beating hearts, could not restrain their tears. Nor did 
these alone bear -witness to the singer's power: h< 
sighs escaped from the sufferer; large tears stood in 
those eyes which the very extremity of grief itself had 
long forbidden to wee]). Crossing the room with feeble 
steps, he prostrated himself before the image of that 
Heavenly One who "bore all our griefs;" and, when the 
full choir joined in the Hallelujah Chorus, his voice of 
praise and thanksgiving mingled with those strains. 
The recovery was complete and lasting, and was the 
marvel of all Germany. 



A lady had been in deep despondency for many months. 
Her sins appeared so numerous and aggravated that she 
dared not trust in the promises of the gospel. These 
promises seemed very precious for others, but could not 
avail for her. Conversations with her minister and with 
Christian friends added to her gloom, instead of dis- 
sipating it. She attended with great eagerness the 
means of grace, read her Bible almost incessantly at 
home, and withdrew herself from all gay companions, 
and even from the most innocent social enjoyments. 
Her health began to suffer from extreme depression of 
spirits, and her friends were apprehensive of an early 
death. 

'When she heard that Jenny Lind was to visit the city 
near which she resided, her curiosity was excited to hear 
her. She consulted her minister: and he advised her to 



PERSONAL AM) SOCIAL HAPPINESS :.',, 

go on the evening when u The Messiah" was to be sung. 
The rendering of those sublime passages, •• I know that 
my Redeemer liveth," and "Come unto me, all ye that 

labor and are heavy laden/' by the Swedish songstress, 
quite overwhelmed her. She was spell-bound. The 
words seemed clothed with a fulness of meaning she 
bad never before discovered. The fitness of Jesus to 
save Sinners, and his infinite condescension and pity, 
melted her heart. She wondered that she had ever dis- 
trusted him, and with a childlike faith threw herself on 
the promises, knowing that in her case they would not 
fail of fulfilment. From that hour her gloom vanished, 
and she went forward in the path of Christian duty with 
a joyous and obedient heart. 

We transcribe another fact from a letter of Dr. Beattie 
to Dr. Laing, in 1780: — "When Handel's 'Messiah' was 
first performed, the audience were exceedingly struck 
and affected by the music in general; but when the 
chorus struck up, ' For the Lord God omnipotent 
reigneth/ they were so transported that they all, to- 
gether with the king, [George III.,] who happened to be 
present, started up, and remained standing till the chorus 
ended; and hence it became the fashion in England for 
the audience to stand up while that part of the music is 
performing. Some days after the first exhibition of the 
same divine oratorio, Mr. Handel came to pay his re- 
spects to Lord Kinnoul, with whom he was particularly 
acquainted. His lordship, as was natural, paid him some 
compliments on the noble entertainment which he had 



.'>('» v INFLUENCE oi in M.N s u.N 

lately given the town. 'My lord/ said Handel, 'I 
should be sorry if I only entertained them : I wished to 
make them better.' " 

It is a Bomewhst curious fact that on the first per- 
formance of "The Messiah" in London, in 1741. it 
excited a very small degree of attention, but soon after- 
ward in Dublin it called forth every proof of the hi_ 
admiration. Tins fact led to a powerful and pathetic 
age in " Pope's Dunciad." 



This will not be considered an inappropriate place 
to add a few lines on the feelings and habits of this, 
one of the greatest of human composers. Being once 
inquired of as to his ideas and emotions when writing 
the "Hallelujah Chorus," he replied, in the best English 
he could command, u I did think I did see heaven all 
before me, and the great God himself." It is said that a 
friend called upon him when he was setting to music the 
pathetic words, "He was despised and rejected of men," 
and found him actually sobbing. And Shield telle 
that when Handel's servant used to bring him in his 
chocolate in the morning he often stood in silent astonish- 
ment to see his master's tears mingling with his ink as 
he wrote his masterly works. Indeed, it appears to 
have been usually the case that during his compositions 
his face would be bathed in tears. 



PERSONAL \M> SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 369 

Another statement has been given, which may properly 
suggest the importance of cultivating right feelings alike 
in the composition and the performance of sacred music. 
Handel was once asked by a friend why his church-music 
was always so cheerful. His admirable reply was, "I 
cannot make it otherwise: I write according to the 
thoughts I feel. When I think on God, my heart is so 
full of joy that the notes dance and leap, as it were, 
from my penj and, since God has given me a cheerful 
heart, it will be pardoned me that I serve him with a 
cheerful and devout spirit." 

Handel's habit of composition was exceedingly rapid; 
but still the motion of his pen could not keep up with 
the rapidity of his conceptions. The mechanical power 
of his hand was not sufficient for the volcanic torrent of 
the brain. Novell©, his learned publisher, who seems 
to have well studied the manuscripts at the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, in London, seeing a page on which the sand is 
still upon the ink at the top as well as at the bottom of 
the page, left in the book the remark, " Observe the 
speed with which Handel wrote. The whole of this 
page is spotted with sand, and, consequently, must have 
been all wet at the same time." 

Another fact or two on this subject will be permitted. 
A pious old deacon, who died at Bradford, in Xew Hamp- 
shire, in 1825, some years before his decease attended a 
meeting of the Musical Society of that State. A very 
large company were assembled to rehearse the anthem 
u Lord God of Israel" when he entered the hall. The 



oTO [NFLUENCE 01 HTMN8 ON 

sudden opening of the door and the burst of sound that 
met his ear nearly paralyzed his whole frame; his 
whole man trembled, his limbs refused to aet, and he 
appeared almost intoxicated. A gentleman, who had 
witnessed the powerful effect of good singing upon him 
many years before, obtained him a seat; and, when the 
venerable saint collected power to sj)eak, he broke 
silence with the remark, " If I cannot bear the com- 
bined yoices of a hundred singers here on earth, am I 
prepared, and can I bear the sound of an innumerable 
multitude of yoices in heayen, where I soon hope to be V* 
One fact more, and we will close. The late Key. 
Roger Harrison, who died in Connecticut, in 1853, at 
the age of eighty-four, once spent a night at the house 
of the Key. Dr. Cooley, of Granyille, and at family wor- 
ship sang the Judgment Anthem with such thrilling 
effect that one of the doctor's students sprang from his 
chair, rushed at the singer, and was entirely bewildered 
for seyeral hours. 

Congregational Singing. — It would be almost an act 
of injustice were we to omit a reference to the general 
excellence of the African ear for singing, which is so com- 
monly shown in many of the ordinary occurrences of 
lite as to be a frequent subject of remark in every part 
of our country. Indeed, it has been stated, apparently 
on sufficient grounds, that much of our popular music 
can be traced to negro origin. 

But most of all do we love to hear the hymn-singing 



PERSONAL AM) SOCIAL BAFFIN] 371 

of the African race, and entirely sympathize with the 

Rev. Mr. Kirkland, who writes, "You know how sweetly 
a congregation of plantation-negroes can sing the songs 

of Zion. Tell me not of city choirs. I would rather 
hear <I am passing away,' or 'Give me Jesus,' sung as 
We sometimes hear them, out of full hearts, by T hundreds 
of these poor people, than their best performances. It 
is spirit-stirring: there are life and soul in it." 

Lady Mary W. Montague, in a letter to Dr. Beattie, 
thus gives her opinion of the influence of plain congre- 
gational singing on a worshipping assembly : — "I think 
psalms written with great and noble simplicity, and sung 
in the same manner, friendly to devotion j and it is 
almost an offence to call in the aid of insensible and in- 
animate things to praise the Giver of life and reason. 
A psalm decently sung by the congregation always ex- 
cites my devotion more than the organ. I would em- 
ploy musical instruments in a pagan temple, but only 
the voice of man in a Christian church. " 

We can easily imagine the scene presented at the 
Music Hall in Surrey Gardens, London, at one of the 
assemblies of from eight to ten thousand people wor- 
shipping under the guidance of the popular Charles H. 
Spurgeon, as described by one of our countrymen : — 

" The prayer concluded, Mr. Spurgeon announced the 
well-known Psalm beginning, — 

'Before Jehovah's awful throne.' 
He read it through, having first announced that the 



l.M 1.1 K.Nf'E OF 1IV.M.NS UN 

tunc would be the ' Old Hundredth, and then read each 
verse separately before it was sung. It is scarcely pos- 
sible to give any idea of the sublime effect prod need by 
those ten thousand voices as they swelled the massive 
harmonies oi* that grand tune with a fulness of sound 
rarely heard. After singing the second verse, Mr. Spur- 
geon said, 'I will read the third verse, and you will sing 
the fourth; and let the uplifting of your voices be as 
the sound of many waters.' His auditory responded to 
his wish. The w r ords were, — 

1 "We'll crowd thy gates with thankful songs, 

High as the heavens our voices raise, 
And earth, with her ten thousand tongues, 
Shall fill thy courts with sounding praise.' 

Most magnificent was the shout of praise that now went 
up. Not a voice was mute, save where occasionally 
some one's nerves were overpowered by the massive 
rolling chorus that rose on every side. Xever did we 
before so realize what congregational singing might be- 
come. It was an uplifting of voice and heart such as 
one can hope to hear only a few times in the course of a 
life. Much of this grand effect was no doubt owing to 
the majesty of the tune itself, — much to the fact that all 
the congregation knew it, — and perhaps not a little to 
the practice of reading each verse before it was sung, 
a practice we have alwa}^s thought a very reasonable 
one, and commonly adopted in England, especially among 
1 he poor and those who cannot read." 

Though this is a striking instance of the grandeur of con- 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 373 

grcgational singing, it was by no means singular. Gould 
very properly asks, " Who has ever attended a meet- 
ing of several churches, or some religious anniversary, 
\\ -here there were a multitude of professors of religion, 
a great proportion of whom are always found able to join 
in singing, when they rise and sing a hymn at the cele- 
bration of the Lord's Supper, and has not felt the power 
of sacred music sung with both the spirit and understand- 
ing ? How many who have been spectators only at the 
time have felt its power and been led to decide that it was 
something to them who were passing by, and from that 
time realized that unless they repented they never could 
join the angelic host, either on earth or in heaven !" 

Even on occasions less solemn than these have vast 
effects been produced by singing. Was it not an im- 
pressive scene when, at the collegiate dinner-table at 
Andover, in 1858, upon an unexpected communication 
being made of the successful laying of the telegraphic 
cable, a thousand gentlemen spontaneously rose and, in 
the majestic sounds of " Old Hundred" sang the fine 
words of Bishop Ken ? — 

"Praise God, from whom all blessings flow!" 

And, on a smaller scale, intense must have been the 
feeling among a number of converted sailors on board 
the North Carolina in the revival of 1858-59. They were 
speaking of the different countries in which they were 
born ; and it was found that they represented ten dif- 
ferent nations, the last man having said that he was 



374 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

born in Greenland. Unable to contain themselves longer, 
one commenced, and the others followed, in the hymn, — 

"From Greenland's icy mountains," 

which was sung with delightful earnestness. 

Churches in Scotland. — "We have met with some 
beautiful incidents of singing in the Scottish churches. 
They use a metrical version of * The Psalms of David," 
adopted in 1650, and " The Paraphrases/' which are free 
renderings of various parts of Scripture, adopted in the 
present form in 1781. The tunes in use are nearly all 
the old and familiar ones sung by the Eeformers and the 
persecuted Covenanters, and associated in the Scottish 
mind with so much that is tender and solemn in the 
past. "So averse," says Dr. Jameson, "are the people 
generally to innovations in these melodies, that when, 
early in the present century, a few tunes were intro- 
duced in which one and another of the lines in a stanza 
were sung twice over, numbers of the old people refused 
to join in the praise, left the place of worship." 

The Scottish children are taught to commit to memory 
many of the psalms and paraphrases. Every one can 
sing the Twenty-Third Psalm. On a dark Sabbath after- 
noon, more than twenty years ago, the service in the 
Eev. Dr. Gordon's church, in Edinburgh, was drawing 
to a close at near four o'clock, and the gas had been 
lighted; but, by some accident, the light had become very 
feeble. The minister could not see to read the hvmn 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 375 

with which he had intended to close and simply said, "Let 
us sing the Twenty-Third Psalm." The whole congrega- 
tion, old and young, a thousand voices, united, amid the 
flickering lights, in that, beautiful composition. 

An Impressive Scene. — It will scarcely be believed in 
coming generations that many Christians in the United 
States, in the middle of the nineteenth century, trans- 
ferred much of the public singing of the praises of God 
in their houses of worship to choirs, while the members 
of churches sat quietly in their pews, or, as a good old 
man in Boston expressed it, thanking God that the} r 
could hear singing, though public opinion prohibited 
their joining in it. Some few congregations in large 
cities went even beyond this, and, at an expense which 
exceeded the combined average salary of four pastors, 
employed/owr persons in their singing-gallery — generally 
performers at the opera-houses — to praise God for them. 
We attended, in 1855, the dedication of a house of 
worship in one of our largest cities, when one of these 
" Quartets" entered on their so-called duties. A pro- 
gramme had been published, and the first hymn was 
duly "performed in fine style;" but, most unfortunately, 
the excellent preacher required that the second hymn 
should be laid aside and that an old favorite of his 
should be substituted, beginning, — 

" There is a fountain filled with blood." 
The " Quartet" got through the first verse very grace- 
fully ; but. when the second was begun, — 



376 imi.ii.M'K 01 HTMNfl 01 

" The 'lying thief rejoiced to see 
Thai fountain in his day," 

■ voice was heard here and there in the congregation 
" spoiling the music" by joining in the singing; and, 
when the third line commenced, all bounds were broken, 
and, in a voice "like many waters," the vast mass of 
people, rising from their seats, burst forth, — 

" Oh, may I there, though vile as he, 
Wash all my sins away !" 

No language can describe the scene or the feelings which 
it inspired. Some scientific gentlemen spoke of it as the 
grandest thing they had ever witnessed. 

A Real Amendment. — The scene was a small prayer- 
meeting of a rural village church. Very few were pre- 
sent; for it was a time of much coldness and great 
apparent decline. But a few Christian hearts even there 
had deep feeling. Their strong emotions and prayers 
were unconfessed to each other, but the object of their 
worship had observed them all. The prayer-meeting was 
going on as usual, though the pastor was absent and 
his place was occupied by one of the deacons. This 
worthy man was plain in his manners, a true son of the 
soil, with a bronzed countenance, hard hands, and wear- 
ing his working-dress. But with all the earnestness of 
his soul he had for months past been mourning in secret 
over the desolation of the church. The hymn he se- 
lected with which to commence the service was the one 
often sung by our fathers : — 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 377 

" Hear, gracious Sovereign, from thy throne, 
And send thy various blessings down." 

Two or three verses were sung to an old tune, till the 
good deacon came to the last, which thus reads. The 
reader will observe especially the last two lines : — 

" In answer to our fervent cries, 
Give us to see thy church arise ; 
Or, if that blessing seem too great, 
Give us to mourn its low estate." 

While reading this verse, the good man paused : it evi- 
dently did not exactly accord with the feelings of his 
soul : it was not the expression of his prayer. He in- 
dulged a moment's thought, — swift and excellent : an 
alteration suggested itself, — his eye sparkled with joy, — 
and out it came : — 

" In answer to our fervent cries, 
Give us to see thy church arise : 
That blessing, Lord, is not too great, 
Though now we mourn its low estate.'" 

Every heart was arrested, and sudden emotion so over- 
powered all in the little assembly that they could scarcely 
sing the words ; but each in silence gave to the sentiment 
his own earnest amen. They happily proved it to be 
true. From that evening a revival began : the church 
arose from its slumber to new faith and works; and 
very soon the windows of heaven were opened and a 
plenitude of blessings was showered down, which con- 
tinued for several years. 



o78 . IN FLUE NCI Off HYMNS <>\ 

Miscellaneous Facts. — An aged clergyman in Massa- 
chusetts was, some years since, preaching from the text, 
" I speak as to wise men : judge ye what I say/' (1 Cor. 
x. 15,) when, having advanced as far as " thirdly," he 
observed that many of his hearers, overcome by the 
heat of the day, had fallen asleep. Stopping in his dis- 
course and wiping the perspiration from his forehead, 
he exclaimed, " My friends, as the day is oppressively 
hot, I will stop a while and request the choir to sing the 
tune t Coronation' to the words, — 

"My drowsy powers, why sleep ye so ?' " 

The effect was electrical, bringing the audience to their 
feet. They sang the hymn : sleep was entirely driven 
away, and the preacher resumed his discourse at 
" thirdly." 



A very trivial affair led to the dismission of a clergy- 
man. At one of the meetings of the congregation the 
pastor read the hymn, — 

"I love to steal a while away," 

and the chorister commenced singing, but, forgetting 
the tune, could proceed no further than " I love to steal," 
which he did several times, — when the clergyman, some- 
what smilingly, relieved him from the dilemma by say- 
ing, "It is very much to be regretted," and adding, 
" Let us pray." 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 379 

It is said that in 1785 the vestry of Christ Church, 
Philadelphia, gravely determined " that the clerks be 
required to sing such tunes only as are plain and familiar 
to the congregation, and that the singing of other tunes, 
and the frequent changing of tunes, arc deemed dis- 
agreeable and inconvenient." 

It may at least excite a harmless smile to be told 
that a good old lady, a member of Dr. John Gill's church 
in London, once waited on her venerable pastor to 
complain about "the new-fangled notions" which had 
got among the congregation about singing. The good 
doctor was anxious, if possible, to calm her agitated 
spirit, — which he found was no easy matter. At length 
he asked her what tunes she would wish to have sung, 
and the venerable lady replied, with avidity, " 1 want Da- 
vid's tunes sung, sir." " So do I," said the worthy pastor, 
" but most unfortunately they have been lost ; but I will 
give you my promise that, as soon as they can be found 
again, we will sing David's tunes and no others." The 
good lady, it is said, went away considerably relieved by 
her pastor's promise. 

A Private Circle. — Charles Butler, in his very in- 
teresting letter on ancient and modern music, introduces 
the following anecdote, relating to Mara, an Italian 
vocalist : — 

" Once, in a private society, in consequence of some- 
thing that fell in conversation, she sang, without any 
accompaniment, the simple air, in Mareello's Psalms, 'In 



380 I.MI-I BNOI Of HYMNS ON 

my distress I called upon Jehovah, and be did hear me/ 
with such exquisite taste and pathos that she entranced 
every hearer. To our infinite gratification, she repeated 
it half a dozen times, and every time more beautifully and 
impressively than before. A person, observing that there 
was a violoncello in the room, requested that she would 
permit the late Mr. Paxton, who was present, to accom- 
pany her. This was done. It was fine, — very fine; but the 
charm was lost. This little circumstance," says Butler, 
"may be thought to strengthen Eousseau's hypothesis, — 
'that harmony is unnatural, and rather weakens than in- 
creases the effect of simple melody.' Mara was particularly 
distinguished by the manner in which she sung, ' I know 
that my Eedeemer liveth/ It was beyond singing : it 
was eloquence. She opened it with great solemnity; 
hope was discernible, — but it was only the dawn of hope. 
As she proceeded, it brightened and expanded; but 
when she came to the last repetition of the sentence, the 
firm and animated confidence with which she uttered 
the words ' I know/ and the jubilation of soul with which 
she pronounced the words 'and in my flesh I shall see 
God/ no language can adequately tell. The audience 
thought not of the air. or of the band, or even of the 
singer : they only felt the sentiment; and they felt it in 
all its sublimity." 

A Vast Crowd. — Few events in English history will 
ever be invested with a more touching interest than the 
fact that at the inauguration of a beautiful park and 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 08 1 

public hall secured for the use of the working-classes of 
Birmingham, in the year 1858, forty-seven thousand Sunday- 
school children sang a hymn in the presence of her majesty 
Queen Victoria. The account given by a public reporter 
may be read with more than common pleasure. We give a 
short extract : — " Each section had its musical conductor, 
armed with a long white wand by way of baton, and 
assisted by a drummer and two cornets, — the first to give 
the little singers the signal to begin, and the latter to 
play over the simple music of this wonderful child-con- 
cert. As her majesty passed, they sang, in a low, gentle 
manner, — almost seraphic, — a hymn, which moved the 
royal lady and thousands of others even to tears." 

Anniversary at Andover. — Perhaps one of the most 
interesting and touching incidents connected with the 
history of singing occurred, at the separation from each 
other of thirty students, at the Andover Theological 
Seminary in 1832. A question was proposed by a single 
finely-toned voice from the orchestra, and a response 
was made from the stage on which the graduated class 
stood, — first by the Foreign Missionaries, then by the 
Domestic Missionaries, and finally by the Home Preachers: 
then followed the chorus from the whole. The reader 
will be gratified to have the whole hymn before him: — 

Question. — "And I heard the voice of the Lord, say- 
ing, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?" — 
Isa. vi. 8. 



382 [NFLUENOE Of HYMNS ON 



Foreign Missionaries. 

From dear New England's happy shore, 

Where all our kindred dwell, 
"We go, — on pagans light to pour : 

Our native land, farewell! 

Question. — "And I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, 
Whom shall I send, and who will go for us ?" 

Domestic Missionaries. 

We go where seldom on the ear 

Salvation's tidings swell : 
We go to dry the mourner's tear : 

Our pleasant home, farewell. 

Question. — "And I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, 
Whom shall I send, and who will go for us ?" 

Home Preachers. 

Where all our earthly friendships blend, 

Of Jesus' love we'll tell, 
And in the work our lives will spend : 

Brethren, a short farewell. 

Chorus. 
From all these cherished scenes we go, — 

The home of praise and prayer, — 
To meet earth's gladness or earth's woe, 

And many a toil to bear. 

Farewell, ye friends who shared our joy, 

Ye in whose hearts we dwell : 
A noble work shall now employ 

Our energies. Farewell ! 



PERSONAL AND SOCIAL HAPPINESS. 383 

Brethren, we press the parting hand: 

Our songs of parting tell : 
Then, till we reach heaven's holy land, 

A sweet but brief farewell! 

The whole presented an extraordinary scene. 

The audience felt that it was not a mere show, — not 
an exhibition of musical skill. The tones in which the 
hymn was sung were those of deep emotion j and many 
hearts were melted as these young servants of Christ 
poured forth their impassioned farewell, — some of them 
to the scene of their sacred studies, others to the pleasant 
hills and valleys and churches of New England, and 
others to all the endearments of their native land. 

The Missionary's Landing. — Deeply do we sympa- 
thize with an honored missionary who writes a narra- 
tive now before us of his first arrival, with fifteen other 
missionaries and their wives, on a foreign shore, where 
the best years of his life were devoted to labors for the 
conversion of the heathen; and most heartily do we pity 
the reader who can suppose that singing such a hymn 
under such circumstances produced no happy or lasting 
effect, or who can even read the fact without emotion. 
Our friend says, — 

" To prepare for landing was all our care. Soon we 
were delighted to see some of the ' Mission Family/ as 
we found the whole of the Baptist missionary brother- 
hood were termed. But our first tidings were sad. One 
dear brother had just been laid in his grave. To some 



384 INFLUENCE OF HYMNS ON 

of us how appropriate a memento was this! In little 
more than half a year two of our affectionate party were 
also in their graves. 

" We landed, singing Addison's hymn, — 

' How are thy servants blest, Lord,' 

every word of which went to our hearts and seemed 
from thence to arise to God. With many tears that 
hymn was sung; and well did the last verse bring us to 
the shore : — 

'Our life, whilst thou preserv'st that life, 
Thy sacrifice shall be, 
And death, when death shall be our lot, 
Shall join our souls to thee.' 

"With most hearty greetings were we welcomed to 
that shore. Every one present seemed to vie with every 
other in expressing gladness and gratitude and praise 
to our God. What eagerness was there to get one grasp 
of the hand and to speak or to hear but one word with 
the ' new massas' and the ' new ladies'! " 

Such is the account given by the Eev. P. H. Cornford, 
an English Baptist missionary, of the landing of him- 
self and a missionary party on the island of Jamaica 
in January, 1841. 

From another source we learn that the missionaries 
and their friends did not monopolize the whole of the 
singing. Mr. Hinton tells us, " As soon as their voices 
had ceased, their African brethren and sisters struck up 



PERSONAL AM) SOCIAL HAPPINESS. >85 

a few verses of affectionate welcome 
which had been written for the occasion." 

Officers of the British Navy. — That singing the 
high praises of God has sometimes a salutary influence 
on unconverted men was clearly proved during the War 
of 1812, in the case of the late eminently worthy Deacon 
Epa Norris, who lived and died in the Northern Neck, — 
the peninsula formed by the Chesapeake Bay and the 
Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers in Virginia. During 
the war between the United States and Great Britain, 
this excellent man was taken prisoner, hurried on board, 
and required to give information as to the strength and 
position of the American forces. He told his inquirers 
that he did not read the papers and had very little 
knowledge of national affairs, but that if he had the 
knowledge they desired he would suffer death before he 
would communicate it to them. By degrees the officers 
became convinced that he was an honest and unsophisti- 
cated man, and admired his patriotism and heroic firm- 
ness. The commandant of the ship gave a dinner to the 
officers of the fleet, and did Mr. Norris the honor to 
select him from the American prisoners of war to be a 
guest. The deacon, in his homespun attire, took his seat 
at the table with the aristocracy of the British navy. 
The company sat long at the feast : they drank toasts, 
told stories, laughed and sang songs. At length Mr. 
Norris was called on for a song. He desired to excuse 
himself, but in vain : he must sing. He possessed a fine, 

33 



386 IMI.I jack 01 HYMNS ON 

strong, musical voice, which bad been improved by - 

ing simple and plain tunes. In an appropriate and 
beautiful air, he commenced singing the Ninety-Second 
Psalm of Watts :— 

"Sweet is the work, my God, my Kirg, 
To praise thy name, give thanks, and sing.* 

Thoughts of home and of his lost religious privileges, 
and of his captivity, imparted an unusual pathos and 
power to his singing. One stanza of the excellent psalm 
must have seemed peculiarly pertinent to the occasion : — 

" Fools never raise their thoughts so high : 
Like brutes they live, like brutes they die ; 
Like grass they flourish, till thy breath 
Blast them in everlasting death." 

AVhen the singing ceased, a solemn silence ensued. At 
length the commandant broke it by saying, "Mr. Xorris, 
you are a good man, and shall return immediately to 
your family." The commodore kept his word; for in a few 
days Mr. Xorris was sent ashore in a barge, with a hand- 
some present of salt, — then more valuable in the country 
than gold. 

Xew York Merchants. — Xot long since, a newsboy 
in New York was heard crying, "' Bank-Note Reporter,' 
sir? Three more banks down!" The little fellow had 
not known half a score years, but his eyes were bright, 
his tongue fluent, and his manners attractive. Stepping 
into a counting-house, with his bundle of papers under 



PERSONAL AM) SOCIAL IIAIM'IN KSS. 387 

his arm, he Baw two gentlemen sitting in front of a fire, 
engaged in trilling conversation, and proposed to one of 
them his inquiry, " Bank-Note Reporter, sir?" 

"No," replied one of the gentlemen : "we don't want 
any. But stop ! if you will sing us a song we will buy 
one of your Reporters." 

The boy agreed to the terms, and the gentlemen, with 
an air which showed that they anticipated sport, placed 
the little fellow on a high stool and told him to proceed to 
sing. They evidently expected to hear some jovial song, 
— when, to their astonishment, he began the beautiful 
hymn,— 

"I think, when I read that sweet story of old, 
When Jesus was here among men, 
How he called little children the lambs of his fold, 
I should like to have been with them then." 

The effect upon his listeners was at once perceptible, 
and before he had sung through the four verses they 
were both in tears. When he had finished, one of the 
gentlemen inquired, " Where did you learn that hymn V* 
"At Sabbath-school," replied the boy. 

The reader will, of course, expect to hear that the 
gentlemen purchased the "Reporter" and will not be 
sorry to learn that, in addition to this, they presented 
him with a sum of money, and after they had obtained 
his name and residence they allowed him to go on his 
way. Is there nothing to move and improve the heart 
even in the singing of a child ? 



IM l.i I.M B 01 B1 MNfi 

lilSCELLANSOl 8. — Two of OUT modem DOetfl have n. 

an admirable use of the story of Damocles, as told by 
Cicero. Damocles waa one of the flatterers of Dionyi 
the monarch of Sicily, who died three hundred and sixty- 
eight years before the Christian era. lie admired the 
wealth and grandeur of that sovereign and pronounced 
him the happiest man on earth. Dionywus, wishing to 
correct his views, prevailed on him to undertake for a 
time the charge and the duties of royalty. Damocles 
consented; and, having ascended the throne, he gazed 
with delight on the splendor and luxury by which he was 
surrounded. But he soon perceived a sword suspended 
by a horse-hair directly over his head. This spoiled all 
his enjoyment; and he speedily hogged permission to 
relinquish so dangerous a position. 

The Eev. Joseph Stennett, in his paraphrase of Proverbs 
xiv. 9. thus alludes to the fact: — 

" Who laughs at sin laughs at his Maker's Crowns, 
Laughs at the sword of vengeance o'er his head." 

And Charles Wesley, in one of his hymns. Bays, — 

" Show me the naked sword 
Impending o'er my head." 



The celebrated William Byrd, the author of "Nbn / 
Domine," gave the following very forcible reasons for 
learning to sing, in a scarce work published in I 
entitled u Psahns, Sonnets, and Songs of Sadness and 
Pietie. 



PERSONAL AND 80CIA1 BAPPIN] 

" First, It is a knowledge easilie taughl and quickly 
Learned, when there i> a good master and an api 

lar. 
"Secondly, The exercise of Binging ifi delightful to 

nature and good to preserve the health of man. 

" Thirdly, It doth strengthen all parts of the heart, and 
doth open the pipes. 

" Fourthly, It is a singular good reraedie for a stuttering 
and stammering in the speech. 

" Fifthly, It is the best means to preserve a perfect pro- 
nunciation and to make a good orator. 

"Sixthly, It is the only way to know when Nature hath 
bestowed a good voice, — which gift is so rare that there 
is not one amongst a thousand that hath it; and in many 
that excellent gift is lost because they want an art to ex- 
press nature. 

"Seventhly, There is not any music of instruments 
whatsoever comparable to that which is made of men's 
voices when the voices are good and the same well 
sorted and ordered. 

"Eighthly, The better the voice is, the meeter it is to 
honor and serve God therewith; and the voice of man is 
chiefly to be emplo}-ed to that end." 



FIRST LINES OF HYMNS REFERRED TO IN THIS VOLUME. 



PAGE 

Affliction is a stormy deep 117 

Again we lift our voice 286 

Ah ! lovely appearance of death 346 

All hail the power of Jesus' name 219, 221, 222, 224 

All people that on earth do dwell 66, 243 

Alone, yet not alone, am 1 331, 332 

Am I a soldier of the cross 263 

And are ye wretches yet alive 53 

And will the great eternal God 138 

As I glad bid adieu to the world's fancied pleasure 317 

Asleep in Jesus ! blessed sleep 190 

Awake, and sing the song 163 

Awaked by Sinai's awful sound 213 

Awake, my soul, in joyful lays 194 

Awake, my soul, to meet the day 139 

Before Jehovah's awful throne 62, 371 

Behold a stranger at the door 161 

Behold the glories of the Lamb 258 

Behold the Saviour of mankind 289 

Behold the western evening light 217 

Behold where in a mortal form 146 

Beyond the glittering, starry sky 251 

Blessed are the sons of God 174 

Blessed Saviour, thee I love 142 

Blest be the tie that binds 147 

Blest hour, when mortal man retires 228 

By faith we find the place above... 277 

3 9 I 



392 FHL8T LINES 01 HTM! 

PAGE 

here longer to detain me 

Children of God, who faint and alow 

Children of the heavenly King 112 

- leads me through no dark 

IT hearts are warm 

. dearest Lord, and feed thy sheep 

Come, Desire of nations, come 271 

Come, Father, Son. and Holy Ghost 

Come, gracious Spirit, heavenly Dore 

Come, Holy Spirit, heavenly Dore 

Come, humble sinner, in whose breast 170 

Come, let our voices join 1"J 

Come, let us join our friends above 

Come, my soul, in joyful lays 91 

Come, thou all-victorious Lord 

Come, thou Almighty King 351 

Come, thou Fount of every blessing 229 

Come, thou soul-transforming Spirit 17o 

Come, ye disconsolate, where'er ye languish 203 

Come, ye souls by sin afflicted 244 

Creator Spirit, by whose aid 113, 141 

Dear Friend of friendless sinners, hear 172 

Dear is the hallowed morn to me 128 

Depth of mercy ! can there be 302 

Far from the world, Lord, I flee 121 

Father of spirits, hear our prayer 94 

Flow fast, my tears, thy cause is great.. .... 

From dear New England's happy shore 

From every earthly pleasure 131 

From Greenland's icy mountains 167, 

From heaven aloud the angelic song began 2 

From whence does this union arise 78 

Give me the enlarged desire - - 

Give me the wings of faith, to rise 

Give to the winds thy fears loG 

Glory to God, whose Borereign grace 






FIRST LINES 01 HYMNS. 393 

PACE 

God and the Saviour's grace proclaim 20 1 

God is in this and every place 285 

God moves in a mysterious way 119 

God of my life, and of my choice 85 

Go, preach the blest salvation 144 

Go to the grave in all thy glorious prime 202 

Great God, in vain man's narrow view 185 

Great God of all thy churches, hear 184 

Great God of heaven and nature, rise 138 

Great God of wonders, all thy ways 130 

Great God, the nations of the earth 253 

Great King of glory, come 152 

Guide me, thou Great Jehovah 294 

Hail, Father, whose creating call 290 

Hail, God the Son, in glory crowned 290 

Hail, mighty Jesus, how divine 252 

Hail, sovereign love, which first began 96 

Hail, sweetest, dearest tie that binds 241 

Hail, thou once-despised Jesus 77 

Hark, in the wilderness a cry 235 

Hark, the Eternal rends the sky 357 

Hark, the voice of love and mercy 146 

Have mercy on me, Lord, I pray 349 

Hear, gracious Sovereign, from thy throne 377 

Hearken to the solemn voice 280 

Hear, Lord, the song of praise and prayer 125 

He dies, the Friend of sinners dies 63 

He lives who lives to God alone 123 

Holy and reverend is the name 205 

Holy be this as was the place 245 

How are thy servants blest, Lord 384 

How blest thy creature is, God 120 

How fine has the day been, how bright was the sun 266 

How firm a foundation, ye saints of the Lord 186 

How happy is the pilgrim's lot 288 

How pleasant 'tis to see 335 

How sweet the name of Jesus sounds 86 



394 first limes of hymns. 

PAGE 

How vain are all things here below 261 

How weak the thoughts, and vain _7_: 

If e'er you meet with trials 820 

If human kindness meets return 210 

If I must die, oh, let me die 83 

If life's pleasures charm thee 183 

I love thy church, God 1 18 

I love to steal a while away '.»7, 378 

In all my Lord's appointed ways 

Infinite God, to thee we raise 141, 

In the cross of Christ I glory 

In the floods of tribulation 218 

I think, when I read that sweet story of old 387 

It is the Lord, enthroned in light 161 

I would not live alway, I ask not to stay 52, 2<J4 

Jerusalem, my happy home 182, 133 

Jesus, and shall it ever be 57, 161 

Jesus can make a dying bed 325 

Jesus, from thy heavenly place 283 

Jesus, full of all compassion 231 

Jesus, I love thy charming name 86, 136 

Jesus, I my cross have taken 190 

Jesus, in sickness and in pain 154 

Jesus, lover of my soul 321, 321 

Jesus, my all, to heaven is gone 112 

Jesus, the very thought of thee 86 

Jesus, thou art the sinner's friend 106 

Jesus, thy blood and righteousness Ill 

Jesus, we lift our souls to thee -U'2 

Just as I am, without one plea 141 

Learn we now that wondrous strain 2'>0 

Let every heart rejoice and sing 255 

Let others boast their ancient line 127 

Let the Most Blessed be my guide 104 

Let the old heathen tune their songs 321 

Let us awake our joys 184 



FIRST LINES OF QTHNS. o9.") 

PAOE 

Let Zion's watchmen all awake 187 

Long have I seemed to serve thee, Lord 

Lo, he comes, with clouds descending 214, 215 

Lord, dismiss us with thy blessing 104 

Lord, lead the way the Saviour went 1-7 

Lord of the Sabbath, hear our vows 136 

Lord, teach a little child to pray 233 

Lord, we are blind, we mortals blind 340 

Lord, we come before thee now 163 

Loving Shepherd, kind and true 74 

Mercy, good Lord, mercy I ask 194 

Mid scenes of confusion and creature complaints 131 

Mighty God, while angels bless thee 229, 231, 339 

Mortals, awake, with angels join 194 

My drowsy powers, why sleep ye so 378 

My faith looks up to thee 217 

My God, I thank thee : may no thought 211 

My God, thy service well demands 137 

My gracious Redeemer I love 151 

My Sabbath suns may all have set 103 

My thoughts on awful subjects roll 334 

No longer I follow a sound 124 

No room for mirth or trifling here 311 

Not all the blood of beasts 318, 326 

Not worlds on worlds in phalanx deep 159 

Now begin the heavenly theme 186 

Now from the altar of our hearts 193 

Now let our mourning hearts revive 137 

Now that the sun is gleaming bright 27 

O'er the gloomy hills of darkness 294 

O'er the realms of pagan darkness 116 

Oft have we passed the guilty night 280 

Oh for a closer walk with God 119 

Oh for a thousand tongues to sing 282 

Oh for the happy hour 90 

O holy, holy, holy Lord 144 



HRST LINKS OF I1V.M 

PAOl 

O God of Jacob, by whose hand 

() head so full of bruises 87 

Oh, what hath Jesus bought lor me 334 

o Lord, thy heavenly grace imparl 211 

() love divine, how sweet thou art :; 15 

Oh, most delightful hour by man 123 

Oh, tell me no more of this world's vain store 155 

On that great, that awful day Ill 

Our country's voice is pleading 76 

thou from whom all goodness flows 

() thou, my soul, forget no more lilt) 

Zion, afflicted with wave upon wave 160 

Faschal Lamb, by God appointed 77 

Peace, my soul, thou needst not fear 333 

Praise God, from whom all blessings flow 17 

Prepare us, gracious God 145 

Remember thee, remember Christ 

Return, wanderer, return 115 

Rock of ages, cleft for me 248, 250 

Savior, breathe an evening blessing 341 

See how great a flame aspires _-_ 

See the leaves around us falling 174 

Servant of God, well done 201 

Shepherd of Israel, bend thine ear 137 

Show pity, Lord, Lord, forgive 307 

Shrinking from the cold hand of death 286 

Since all the varying scenes of time 171 

Sinners, will you scorn the message 75 

Sleep safe, wave-worn mariner 

Softly fades the twilight ray 237 

Source of light and power divine 

Spirit, leave thy house of clay 200 

Stand, the omnipotent decree 276 

Stand up, stand up for Jesus 142 

Stop, poor sinner, stop and think 301 

Sweet as the shepherd's tuneful reed 2-j5 



FIRST LINKS OE HYMNS. 397 

PAQE 

Sweet is the work, my God, my King 38G 

Sweet the moments, rich in blessing 81 

Tell me not, in mournful numbers 188 

Thattbiy of wrath, that dreadful day 110 

The fabric of nature is fair 218 

The flowers of fifty summers gone 201 

The God of Abraham praise 214 

The great archangel's trump shall sound 285 

The Lord of Sabbath let us praise 290 

The morning flowers display their sweets 290 

There is a Fountain filled with blood , 324 

There is a happy land 314 

There is a land of pure delight 262 

There is an hour of hallowed peace 245 

There is a region lovelier far 250 

The sorrows of the mind 319 

The voice of free grace cries, Escape to the mountain 324 

The waters of Bethesda's pool 80 

They pass refreshed the thirsty vale , 196 

Thou art the Way, to thee alone 134 

Though all the world my choice deride 247 

Thou God of glorious majesty 60, 274 

Thou God of love, thou ever-blest 350 

Thou hidden love of God, whose height 247, 287 

Thou, O my Jesus, thou didst me 297 

'Tis midnight, and on Olive's brow 245 

To Jesus, the crown of my hope 125 

To thee, thou high and lofty One 216 

Vital spark of heavenly flame 225, 226 

Wake, Isles of the South, your redemption is near 245 

We come to the Fountain, we stand by the wave 91 

Well, the Redeemer's gone 339 

When Abraham's servant, to procure 233 

When, as returns this solemn day 79 

When gathering clouds around I view 158 

When Jesus dwelt in mortal clav 157 

54 



398 1IRST LINKS OF IIYM 

PAOB 

When Jordan hushed his waters still 107 

"When, marshalled on the nightly plain 291, 329 

When on my sick-bed I languish 226 

When thou, my righteous Judge, shalt come 343 

When torn is the bosom by sorrow or care 189 

"Where high the heavenly temple stands 187 

Where two or three together meet 182 

While on the verge of life I stand 140 

Why dost thou, tyrant, boast thyself 349, 350 

Why do we mourn departing friends 359 

Woe to the men on earth who dwell 277 

Worship, and thanks, and blessing 280, 282 

Would you win a soul to God 163 

Ye dying sons of men 92 

Yes, my native land, I love thee...., 237, 322 



INDEX. 



Actress, an English, 302. 

Adams, Rev. John: anecdote of, 350. 

Adams, Sarah F. : hymns and other writings by, 73. 

Addison, Joseph : sketch of his life, works, and hymns, 73 ; death 

and character, 74. 
Allen, Rev. James : hymn by, early life, persecution, 75. 
Alterations of hymns censured, 57 ; sometimes valuable, 62. 
Amendment, a real, 376. 

Ancient hymns the conservatives of truth, 29. 
Ancient Lyre, order for, 50. 

Anderson, Mrs. G. W. : sketch of and hymns by, 76. 
Angelus, Christopher: origin, studies, and hymn, 74. 
Anniversary at Andover, 381. 
Anthems, facts about, 364. 
Augustine: influence of singing on his heart, 26. 

Bacon, Rev. L., D.D. : character of his hymns, sketch of his life, and 
remarkable escape of, 76. 

Bakewell, Rev. John: hymn by, sketch of, and his long life, 77. 

Baldwin, Rev. T., D.D. : union hymn by, life and character of, 78. 

Baptist General Assembly of 1692: their counsel on singing, 32. 

Barbauld, Anna L. : connected with the English Unitarians, decease, 
early instructed by Doddridge, 79. 

Barton, Bernard : early bereavement of, character of his poetry, 
extract from one of his letters, 79. 

Batty, Rev. Christopher: hymn by, his great disinterestedness, con- 
nection Tvith the Wesleys, 81. 

399 



4UU INDEX. 

Baxter, lU-v. Richftrd: his delight in singing. 88; rolumin 
hi* writings, hymns by. character as a poet, 82. 

Beddome, Rev. Benjamin: sketch of his life, invited to London, 
attachment to Bourton, 83; his marriage, 84; sickness and 
death commended by Robert Ball, 

Beecher, Rev. Charles: family of, character of his publications, 86. 

Beecher, Rev. II. W. : extract from, on the character and influence 
of hymns, 19. 

Bellamy, Rev. Dr., on singing. 13. 

Bernard, St. : his Latin hymn, translation of its parts, 86. 

Berridge, Rev. John, his singular characteristics, 87; his extraor- 
dinary zeal and success, 88 : anecdotes relating to, 89 ; his 
prospect in death, 90. 

Bethune, Rev. Gh W., D.D. : his reproof of a hyuin-" imvrover" 60; 
pleasant origin of one of his hymns, 90 ; hymns on baptism, 
his entrance on the ministry, 91. 

Beza, Theodore: his encouragement of singing, 33. 

Billing, W., on the duty of singing, 39; his N. England Psalm-Singer, 
48. 

Blacklock, Rev. Thomas. D.D. : born in Scotland, early blindness, 91 ; 
marriage, habits of composition. 92; testimonies of Spencer 
and E. Burke. 92. 

Boden, Rev. James : his birth, early residence, 92 ; entrance on the 
ministry, his happy decease, 93. 

Bonar, Rev. Horatius, D.D. : a native of Scotland, his family con- 
nections, 93. 

Bond, Rev. T. E., M.D. : short popular hymn by, 94; sketch of his 
life and character, testimony of an intimate friend, 94. 

Boston congregations, 357. 

Boston, singing at. 41. 

Bowdler, John : his early character and decease, 95. 

Bowring, John, LL.D. : remarkable for his attainments, connected 
with the Unitarians, 96. 

Bradbum, Rev. Samuel, 337. 

Braintres, council at in 1723, 40: singing at, 41. 

Bremer, Frederika : a foreigner, character of her hymns, 96. 

Brewer, Rev. Jehoiada ; character of his hymns, sketch as a theo- 
logian, 96. 

Broaddus, Rev. Dr., 340. 



INDEX. 401 

Bromfield, Edw., Jr. : builder of the first organ in Boston, 41. 

Brother, the, and sister, 888. 

Brown, Rev. John N., D.D. : attached to the Baptists, decline of his 
health, devotedness to literature, 97. 

Brown, Mrs. Phoebe H. : her religious character misapprehended, 97 ; 
her defence, her hymn first printed, mission of her son, 98. 

Browne, Rev. Simon : origin of his ministry, singular malady, 98 ; 
its origin, Toplady's opinion of him, 99; Dr. Watts's testi- 
mony to, 100. 

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett : her first publication, Dr. Bethune's esti- 
mate of her talents, 100; her early afflictions and recovery, 
101. 

Bryant, John H. : native of New England, removed to Illinois, his 
mental character, 101. 

Bryant, William C. : birth and education, engagements and ge- 
nius, 102. 

Budden, William : hymn by, 102. 

Bunting, Rev. W. : his character, attainments and spirit of, 103. 

Bunyan, Rev. John : character as a hymn-writer, hymn by, 104. 

Burder, Rev. George : hymn by, sketch of, 104 ; usefulness of, 105. 

Burgess, Bishop : early studies of, consecrated bishop, works, 105. 

Burke, Hon. E. : his testimony to Dr. Blacklock, 92. 

Burnham, Rev. Richard : pastor of Baptist churches, his life a check- 
ered one, 106. 

Burns, Robert: destitute of piety, 106; peculiar talents, immo- 
rality, 107. 

California: tune so called, 51. 

Calvin, John : his introduction of singing, 33. 

Cambridge : psalms first printed at, 45. 

Campbell, Thomas: origin, early work, 107; respect of Americans 
for, decease, 108; anecdote of, 315. 

Captive, the young and her father : 329. 

Cawood, Rev. John : his education and works, 108. 

Cecil, Rev. Richard : beautiful hymn by, 108 ; his history and cha- 
racter, 109. 

Celano, Thomas Von: his celebrated Latin hymn, versions of, 109; 
extraordinary effects of, opinions of by Scott. Johnson, and 
others, 110; curious facts of. 111. 



40^! INDEX. 

Cenniek, Kev. John: favorite hymn by, dispute as to its author, 111 ; 
anecdote of, other hymns by Cenniek, 112. 

Chanting : Dr. Whittaker on its usefulness, 63. 

Chapin, Rev. E. H., D.D. : his birth, 112; charges and publica- 
tions, 113. 

Charlemagne : his authorship of Veni Creator, dispute respecting, 
character of, 113. 

Child, a sick, 322. 

Chimney-Sweeper, a, 319. 

China, 358. 

Choir: fully established at Worcester, 42; reproved by a minis- 
ter, 52, 53. . 

Chorister, a, administers reproof to a minister, 52. 

Christians : the early subjects of their singing, 24. 

Churches in Scotland, 374. 

Circle, a private, 379. 

Clarke, Kev. Dr. A. : his dislike to instrumental music in worship, 56. 

Clergyman, a Vermont, 321. 

Clergymen in Georgia, 346. 

Clergymen, thoughtless, 340. 

Cobbin, Rev. Ingram : birth and parentage of, failure of his health, 
his devotedness to Christian literature, 114. 

Coincidence, 358. 

Coleman, Dr. L. : his testimony as to the singing of the ancient 
pagans. 23 ; of the early Christians, 24 ; Germans, 34. 

Collier, the historian, on church-music, 65. 

Collegiate dinner at Andover, 373. 

Collyer, Rev. Dr. W. B. : his distinguished popularity, his numerous 
hymns, 115; interview with Dr. Raffles, 226. 

Common Prayer Book: its use as a text, 31. 

Conder, Josiah : birth and education, extent of poetical and other 
writings, 116; his testimony as to singing at the Reforma- 
tion, 31. 

Congregational services, length of, 64. 

Congregational singing, 37' ». 

Cotterill, Rev. Thomas : friend of James Montgomery, author of 
several hymns, 116 : his alteration of the hymns of others, 117. 

Cotton, Nathaniel. M.D. : success among the insane. Cowpers esti- 
mate of him. 117. 



INDEX. 408 

Cowper, William: early history, his i'jivorite residences still objects 
of attraction, 118; his beautiful hymns, "Light shining out of 
Darkness," "Oh for a closer walk with God," 119; Dr. 
Southey's mistake respecting him, "How blest thy creature 
is, God," 120; "Far from the world, Lord, I flee," 121 ; 
Cowper's reflection in church, 122; Cowper's share in the 
" Olneg Hymns" his contribution to the "Bills of Mortality ," 
123; "No longer I follow a sound," 124; "Hear, Lord, the 
song of praise and prayer," Andrew Fuller's testimony to 
Cowper's piety, 125. 

Coxe, Rev. A. C, D.D., his high reputation, connected with the Epis- 
copal Church, 126. 

Crosswell, Rev. W., D.D. : author of several beautiful hymns, 126; 
his death sudden and affecting, 1-7. 

Crowd, a vast, 380. 

Crurtenden, Robert : an eminent Londoner in the eighteenth century, 
an occasional preacher, 127 ; his conversion and happy death, 
128. 

Cunningham, Rev. J. W. : eminent for sweetness of Christian spirit, 
Head Master of Harrow School, 128. 

Cutting, Rev. S. S. : his life marked by activity and usefulness, yet 
promises much good for the Church, 129. 

Dagg, Rev. Dr. J. L. : interesting anecdote by, 340. 

Dale, Rev. Thomas : his early history, eminent success in his literary 

and poetical efforts, 129. 
Dark ages : state of singing in the, 30. 
David : his musical establishments, 22. 
Davies, Rev. : President at Princeton, author of several excellent 

hymns, his eminence as a preacher, 130. 
Davies, Rev. Eliel: his father schoolmaster of John B. Gough, 

"From every earthly pleasure,"' early decease, 131. 
Dawson, W. : his " Youths' Entertaining Amusement," 49. 
Dawson, W. : anecdotes of, 222, 345. 
Day, Stephen : his book of psalms first printed, 45. 
Deacon in a difficulty, 347. 

Denham, Rev. David: his early history, and places of ministry, 131. 
Dickson, Rev. David: favorite hymn by, authorship disputed. 132; 

affecting anecdote of its influence. 133. 



404 lNj-i.x. 

Doane, Bishop: Lis early history, and works, 184. 

Doddridge, Rev. Philip, D.D., 184: Dr. Slaughters testimony, suc- 
cess of his hymns, his versatility, mode of composing, 135; Dr. 
James Hamilton's beautiful tribute, 136; origin of the hymns 
'• Now let our mourning hearts revive." ; - Let Zions watchmen 
all awake," " My God, thy service well demands," " Shepherd 
of Israel, bend thine ear," 107. -And will the great eternal 
God," "Great God of heaven and nature, rise," his talent for 
satire, epigrams, 138; his early rising, and use of the hymn 
'• Awake, my soul, to meet the day," verses for children, their 
popularity and usefulness, 139; remarkable dream, 140. 

Dryden, John : author of paraphrase of " tr Spinhm, 9 * afas 

of " Te Deum Laudamus," 141. 

Duffield, Rev. George, Jr.: "Stand up! stand up for Jesus!" its 
solemn origin, his early history and Christian usefulness, 14ft 

Dwight, Rev. Timothy, D.D. : valuable character of hi- works, «« The 
Conquest of Canaan," 148. 

Dyer, Rev. Sidney: sketch of. and hymns by. 144. 

Eastburxe, Rev. J. W. : valuable character of hymn by, 144. 

Edmeston, James: sketch of, various works, 146. 

Edward VI. : state of singing in his day, 30. 

Edwards, Rev. Jonathan: his testimony on the character of the old 
hymns, 32 ; his testimony on singing, 45 : enjoined the duty, 55. 

Eliot, John: his translation of the psalms, 46. 

Elliott, Charlotte: eminent usefulness of hymn by, 144: sketch of 
her life, 145. 

Elliott, Rev. R. : author of well-known hymn, sketch of life. 145. 

Emmons, Rev. Dr., 360. 

Enfield, Rev. William, LL.D. : ministry and professorship in Eng- 
land, his life and sermons published by Dr. Aikin, 140. 

English clerks, 361. 

Eusebius, his testimony as to the singing of the primitive Christians, 
25. 

Evans, Rev. Jonathan: sketch of life and character, 146: his dis- 
tinguished and prolonged usefulness. 147. 

Facts, miscellaneous, 378. 
Family, a. in Louisiana, to-. 



INDEX 4U5 

Fanch, Rev. James: joint author of a hymn with Rer. Daniel 
Turner, 251. 

Fault found, 345. 

Fawcett, Rev. John, D.D. : long and devoted ministry, Lis early 
hymns, ''Blest be the tie that binds," 147 ; its popularity, 
148 ; <; Essay on Anger," and anecdote concerning it, his fond- 
ness for psalmody, 149; a closing scene, 160. 

Fellowes, John : character of his writings, contemporary with Gill and 
Toplady, 150; mistake corrected, 161. 

Fletcher, Rev. John: testimony to Rev. Thomas Oliver, 214; his 
favorite hymn, Mr. Southey and Mr. Benson's high estimate 
of his character, 276. 

Follen, Eliza Lee: hymns by, success of her writings, her bereave- 
ment, 151. 

Francis, Rev. Benjamin : early usefulness, 151 ; ignorance of the 
English language, his distinguished success, his piety, happy 
decease, 1~>2. 

Furman, Rev. Richard, D.D. : his character and successful labors, 
his influential position, 153. 

Furness, Rev. W. H., D.D. : hymns by, character of his writings; 
identified with numerous reform-movements. 153; fondness 
for the fine arts, 154. 

Gallaudet, Thomas H., LL.D. : interest in the deaf and dumb, 

character of his mind and writings, 154. 
Gambold, Rev. John: hymn by, 154: a favorite of Rowland Hill, his 

early history, his eminent piety us displayed in his writings, 

testimony of Judge Story, 155. 
Gerhard, Rev. Paul: popularity and character of his hymns, a fa- 
vorite German poet, 166; his "Hymn to Christ" 87. 
Germany : universal singing in, 34. 
Gibbons, Rev. Thomas, D.D. : intimate with Whitefield and Dr. Watts, 

Dr. Cotton Mather's testimony, 157. 
Gilbert, Ann : her family connections, 157 ; character of her writings, 

158. 
Gisborne, Rev. Thomas : his official position, high character and 

popularity of his writings, 158. 
Glenelge, Lord: warm friend of missions, 158; elevation to the 

peerage, 150. 



LOO 1M»LX. 

Good, John Mason, M.D. : his versatility, change of faith ; tribute of 

Mr. Allibone, 159. 
Gould : his description of singing at Plymouth Rock, 38. 
Gould, Hannah F: her early history, elevating character of her 

poetry, 160. 
Grant, John: his position and character, adaptation of secular 

melodies, 160. 
Greene, Thomas: favorite hymn by, 161. 
Griffin, Rev. Dr. E. D., 338. 

Grigg, Rev. Joseph: his early history, hymns by, 161. 
Griswold, Dr. R. W. : testimony of to J. H. Bryant. 101. 
Guion, Madame: sketch of by William Cowper, 161; her religious 

views, 162 ; employment while in prison, happy submission 

to her lot, 163. 

Hall, Robert, 320, 339. 

Hammond, Rev. Wm. : increasing usefulness of his compositions, 163 ; 
his change of faith, other works by, 164. 

Hart, Rev. Joseph : his faithfulness through affliction, testimony of 
Rev. Mr. Hughes, 164; funeral of, Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
165. 

Hawes, Rev. Thomas, LL.B., M.D. : expelled from Oxford Univer- 
sity, its consequence. Lady Huntingdon's chaplain, 165; his 
writings, interest in missiuiis, testimony of, and anecdote by, 
Rev. John Newton, 166. 

Heber, Bishop: his history and sudden death, "From Greenland's 
icy mountains," its origin, 167 ; alteration thereof, 168. 

Herbert, Rev. George : his exemplary life, fondness for music, a 
wayside incident, 169; his peaceful death, the forcible cha- 
racter of his hymns, 170. 

Hervey, Rev. G. W. : his remarks on John Wesley, 55. 

Hervey, Rev. James: his charity, writings, appearance, and elo- 
quence, 171 ; his estimate of himself, 172. 

Hill, Governor, 315. 

Hill. Rev. Rowland: his lack of poetical talent, usefulness of his 
hymns, 172; his delight in Sunday-schools, hymns revised by 
Cowper, 173. 

Home, Bishop: character of his hymns, 173: his fondness for the 
Psalms, 174. 



im>i;x. 407 

Humphries, Rev. Joseph : several hymns by, 174. 

Hymn, character of a, 19. 

Hymn, influence of a good, 21. 

H) l.in, origin of a. 20. 

Hymns, authors of the early, 24. 

Hymns, improper alterations in, 57. 

Hymns of the old style, 852. 

Ide, Rev. G. B., D.D. : sketch of life, hymns by, 174. 
Instrumental music in worship : John Wesley's dislike to, Dr. A. 
Clarke's disapproval of, 56. 

Jay, Rev. William : hymns by, his prolonged and successful ministry, 

his manner of preaching, 175. 
Jerome : testimony to the early singing, 26. 

Jesuits : their opposition to singing, 33 ; practised it in Brazil, 57. 
Jewess, a dying, 317. 
Jones, Rev. Edward: eminent piety of, 175; character of his 

writings, 176. 
Judson, Rev. Adoniram: hymns by, 176; early history of, 177; 

his devotion to Christian missions, 177. 

Keach, Rev. B. : his work on singing, 32. 

Kelly, Rev. Thomas: early history, 177; eloquence of, humility of, 
178; meeting with Lord Plunket, happy death, 179. 

Ken, Bishop: his hymns and Doxology, 179; his early history, in- 
stances of Christian fortitude, 180; Montgomery's testimony, 
181. 

Kent, John : humble origin of, sketch of his life and death, 182. 

Key, Francis S. : hymn by, scene at the communion-table, 183 

Kingsbury, Rev. William : two beautiful hymns by, his remarkable 
conversion, his long pastorate, his connection with the London 
Missionary Society, his peaceful death, 184. 

Kippis, Rev. Andrew, D.D. : his early life, character of his writings, 
185. 

Kirkham, Rev. John : hymn by, believed to have been a fellow- 
student of the Wesleys and Whitefield, 186. 

Klopstock and his wife, 336. 



408 INDEX. 

Lady, an aged, 322. 

Landlord, Kev. John: sketch of his life, his j>iet y, 186. 

Leavht, Dr. Joshua: on singing in seasons of revival, 67. 

Leland, Rev. John: origin of the hymn, "Christians, it your hearts 

are warm," 187. 
Logan, Rev. John: sketch of his life, 187; character of his writings, 

188. 
Longfellow, Henry W. : favorite hymns by, character of his poems, 

188. 
Lover, a taunting, 316. 
Luther, Martin : his love and practice of singing, 34 ; assisted by 

Walther, 35. 
Lutton, Ann : a correspondent of the " Revivalist," her hymn adapted 

to " Sweet Home" its usefulness, 189. 
Lyons, Mr. : his " Urania," 48. 
Lyte, Rev. Henry Francis: author of a hymn attributed to wrong 

authors, sketch of his life, character of his writings, 190. 

Mace, Master: his "Music's Monument," 37. 

Mackay, Mrs.: "Asleep in Jesus, blessed sleep," 190; anecdote of 

its origin, 191. 
Madan, Rev. Martin: remarkable conversion of, 191 ; sketch of his 

life and writings, 192 
Man, a young, 305. 
Man, a young, in Virginia, 323. 
Manly, Rev. Basil, Jr. : one of the editors of " The Baptist rsalmody" 

character of his hymns, his laborious life, 193. 
Marlowe, Mr. J. : his work on singing. 32. 
Marot, Clement: his version of the Psalms, 33. 
Mason, Rev. John: number and character of his hymns, 193. 
Mason, Dr. Lowell: his early literary history, 40: anecdote by, 243. 
Mather, Dr. C, on the services of the Pilgrim churches, 39; his 

translation of the Psalms, 47. 
Maze Pond, London : origin of the church in, 33. 
Medley, Rev. Samuel : his early life and conversion, his subsequent 

successful ministry, 194; his hymns and other writings, 195. 
Millerite preacher reproved, 52. 
Milman, Rev. Henry H. : character of his various writings, what 

his hymns lack, 195. 



indkx 409 

Milton, John: his view of David's singers, 22; hymns by, their 
beauty, 19G; sketch of "his manner of life," 197. 

Minister, a Tory, 342. 

Minister: reproof given by one to a chorister, 52. 

Miscellaneous, 388. 

Miscellaneous facts, 378. 

Missionaries' landing, the, 383. 

Montgomery, James: his testimony on the Doxology, 181; devoted 
labors for the Christian press, its influence, 197 ; premature 
report of his death, scene at the Wesleyan Methodist Con- 
ference at Sheffield, 198 ; his regular contribution to the Sun- 
day-school jubilees, 199 ; his last hymn for a Sunday-school 
Union, hymn written in York Castle, 200 ; his ideas and 
manner of composition, "Servant of God, well done!" 201; 
"Go to the grave in all thy glorious prime," occasion of their 
composition, 202. 

Moody, Rev. S. : his reproof of his precentor, 45. 

Moore, Thomas : high character of his poetic qualities, influence of 
his early poems, sketch of his life, 203 ; his description of 
Charles Wesley, 271. 

More, Hannah : Rev. John Newton's admiration of, 208. 

Morell, Rev. Thomas : several valuable hymns by, sketch of his life, 
204. 

Mother, an unhappy, 308. 

Mother, a suffering, 319. 

Muhlenberg, Rev. Wm, A., D.D. : favorite hymn by, its history, 204. 

Music : Rev. Charles Wesley on the proper use of instrumental, 
John Wesley and Dr. A. Clarke opposed to, 56. 

Music, singular, 351. 

Needham, Rev. John : hymns by, sketch of his life, 205. 

Neighbors, quarrelsome, 335. 

"New England Courant" on the Braintree Council, 40. 

Newton, Rev. James : high reputation and usefulness of, author of a 
volume of original hymns, 206. 

Newton, Rev. John: his early life and conversion, associated with 
Cowper, 206 ; his style and manner of preaching, his popu- 
larity, 207 ; his admiration of Hannah More, 208 ; delightful 
character of his writings, 209 ; a singular fact, 210. 



410 INDEX. 

New York merchants. 

Nobleman, an English, 309. 

Noel, Hon. and Rev. Baptist : hymns by, early history, change of 

opinion, 210. 
Norton, Andrews: hymns by, sketch of his life, 211. 

Oberlin, John F. : hymn by, his mother's early teachings, 211 ; his 

early piety and distinguished success, 212. 
Occum, Rev. Samson : his visit to England, hymn by, its usefulness, 213. 
Officer, a military, 82 
Officers of the British navy, 385. 
" Old Hundred," origin of the tune, 66. 
Olivers, Rev. Thomas: noble character of hymns by, sketch of his 

life, testimony of Rev. John Fletcher, 214; John Wesley's 

reference to him, 215. 
Oxford, Te Deum annually sung in the University of, 28. 

Pal, Krishna : first Hindoo convert, 215 ; his successful ministry, 

hymns by, 216. 
Palmer, Mrs. : hymn by, 216. 

Palmer, Rev. Ray, D.D. : origin of a favorite hymn by, 217 
Parker, Rev. J. : anecdote by, 305. 
Parody, an old, 351. 
Pastor, a dying, 324. 

Peabody, Rev. A. P., D.D. : character of his works, 217. 
Pearce, Rev. Samuel: the beauty of his hymns, his early death, 

218. 
Persecutor, an Irish, 304. 
Perronett, Rev. Edward: "All hail the power of Jesus' name!" its 

history, sketch of his life, 219. 
Pilgrim Fathers : their delight in singing, 38. 
Plymouth Rock : first song of praise at, 38. 
Pope, Alexander: ode by, its origin, John "Wesley's admiration of it, 

225. 
"Presbyterian Quarterly Review :" extract from on the character of a 

hymn, 19. 
Psalmist, the blind, 32G. 

Quaker hymn-book : one published, 51. 



NDEX. 



Ill 



Raffles, Rev. Thomas, D.D., LL.D. : intimacy with Dr. Collyor, 226 ; 
sudden death of Rev. Thomas Spencer, succeeded as pastor 
by Dr. R., sketch of his character, 227; pastoral hymns by, 228. 

Redstone Presbytei-y, 856. 

Reed, Rev. Andrew, D.D. : several hymns and other works by, 228; 
his visit to the United States, 229. 

Reformation : state of singing at the time of, 30. 

Revivals : character of music in, G7. 

Right feelings : importance of, 349. 

Robinson, Rev. Robert: hymns by, sketch of his life, 229; "Come, 
thou Fount of every blessing," anecdote regarding it, 230; 
favorite hymn, origin of, 231. 

Rowley : extracts from the history of. on singing, 43. 

Royalists and Roundheads : the collisions of, 36. 

Ryland, Rev. John, D.D. : his early history, 231 ; succeeds his father 
as pastor, Dr. John Pye Smith's estimate of him, "In all my 
Lord's appointed ways," its origin, 232 ; " Lord, teach a little 
child to pray," its interesting origin, and mode of circulating 
the hymn, 233. 

Sacramental Singing, 373. 

Scene, an impressive, 375. 

Shirley, Hon. and Rev. Walter : hymns by, his holy zeal and success- 
ful ministry, 235. 

Sigourney, Lydia Huntley : beauty of her compositions, her early 
history, her position as a writer, 236. 

Singing at Bangor, 353. 

Singing on board the North Carolina, 373. 

Singing, regulations of, 348. 

Singing: the primitive, universally practised, 25. 

Sisters : two in New York State, 328. 

Smith, Rev. S. F., D.D. : hymns by, one of the editors of " The Psalm- 
ist," 237. 

Spence, Rev. Joseph: testimony of to Dr. Blacklock, 92. 

Spencer, Rev. Thomas : sudden death of, 227. 

Sprague, Rev. Dr. : extract from his "American A?inals," 44. 

Steele, Anne : her early history, 237 ; testimony of Dr. Caleb Evans, 
her peaceful death, 238 ; appropriate epitaph, powerful in- 
fluence of her hymns, 239. 



412 INDEX. 

Btennett, Ber. Samuel, D.D. : personal friend of Geo. III., 239; re- 
fuses high preferment, his happy decease, 240. 

Sternhold and Hopkins : Thomas Fuller's opinion of their psalms, 
singular character of Sternhold, Scaliger's delight in the 
Eighteenth Psalm as rendered by Sternhold, 242; the popu- 
larity of their versions, 243. 

Stevens, Rev. B. : pastor at Kittery, 44. 

Stillman, Rev. Dr., 339. 

Strype : testimony of as to singing in 1559, 30. 

Sunday-school, an Irish, 312. 

Sutton, Rev. Amos, D.D. : hymn by, its beauty, sketch of his life, 
241. 

Swaine, Rev. Joseph : hymns by, sketch of his life, early death, 244. 

Symmes, Rev. Mr., on the singing of the New England settlers, 39. 

Tappan, Wm. B. : hymns by, his interest in Sabbath-schools, 245. 

Tate and Brady : their "New Version of the Psalms," sketch of their 
history, 246. 

Taylor, Rev. Thomas : hymn written by James Montgomery to com- 
memorate the death of, 201. 

Tersteegan, G. : hymns by, his humble and pious life, the valuable 
influence it exerted, beauty of his poetry, 247. 

Toplady, Rev. Augustus M. : his early history, his power as a 
preacher, 248 ; his blissful anticipations of death, 249 ; anec- 
dote by Dr. Pomeroy, 250. 

Topsfield : extract from Church Records of on singing, 44. 

Tuck, Miss : hymns by, and other works, 250. 

Tufts, Mr. : his introduction to singing, 48. 

Tunes : character of the old, 66 ; character of good, Andrew Fuller 
on, 68. 

Turner, Rev. Daniel : hymns by, sketch of his life and writings, 
251. 

Tupis: their love of music, 57. 

Walker, Rev. Mr., on the singing of the old New England churches, 

40. 
Wallin, Rev. Benjamin: hymn by, his early history, 252: succeeds 

his father as pastor of Maze Pond Baptist Church, 253. 
Walther: assistance rendered bv him to Luther, 35. 



INDEX. 413 

Ward, Rev. W. : missionary hymn by, anecdote of Win. Carey, 253 ; 
sketch of his life and labors, 254. 

Wardlaw, Rev. Ralph : hymns by, sketch of his life, and character 
of his writings, 254. 

Ware, Rev. Henry, D.D. : sketch of his life, 254; character of his 
hymns, 205. 

Washburn, H. S. : hymns by, his important services, 255. 

Watts, Rev. Isaac, D.D. : some of his hymns improved by John 
Wesley, 62 ; curious parody of one of his psalms, 51 ; his 
Huguenot descent, his parents suffer for conscience' sake, his 
early history, 256 ; character of the hymns in use before his 
time, his first attempt to improve them, 257 ; his first hymn- 
book, letter to Dr. Cotton Mather, 258; Mr. Montgomery's 
testimony to the value of his hymns, 259 ; his " Divine Songs 
for Children," 260 ; " How vain are all things here below," its 
history, 261 ; " There is a land of pure delight," tribute to its 
beauty, scene of its origin, 262 ; "Am I a soldier of the cross?" 
noble character of this hymn, 263 ; his friendship with Dr. 
Doddridge, " Give me the wings of faith, to rise," its powerful 
effect, 264 ; Mrs. S. C. Hall's visit to his home, 265 ; testi- 
mony of William Wilberforce, his psalms and hymns in Africa, 
266 ; testimony of William Wirt, 207. 

Wesleys: the alteration of hymns censured by John W., 62; his 
constant attention to singing, 54 ; his knowledge of musical 
notes, 55 ; publication of their hymn-books, 53 ; their early 
history and descent, 268 ; the power of their preaching, 269 ; 
the wonderful influence of their hymns, 270 ; Moore's descrip- 
tion of Charles Wesley, "Come, Desire of Nations, come," 
271; "How weak the thoughts and vain," history of their 
origin, 272; "Hymns written in the Times of the Tumults," 
June, 1780, by C. W., their history, quotation from satirical 
poem, " Hymns for the Nation," occasion of their composition, 
"Come, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost," its origin, 273; Mr. 
Creamer's defence of John Wesley, "Thou God of glorious 
majesty," where it was composed, 274; Mr. Montgomery's 
tribute to its beauty, Dr. Adam Clarke visits the scene of its 
composition, 275 ; " Stand ! the omnipotent decree," its special 
reference, "Give me the enlarged desire," a favorite hymn of 
John Fletcher, 276; "Woe to the men on earth who dwell," 
35* 



414 INUKX. 

" By faith we find the place above," their origin, 277 : " Glory- 
to God, whose sovereign grace," its interesting origin, 278; 
Whitefield's first sermon in the open air, happy results, 278 ; 
"Oft have we passed the guilty night," "Hearken to the 
solemn voice," their origin, "Worship, and thanks, and bless- 
ing," written after deliverance in a tumult, 280; "Oh for a 
thousand tongues to sing," written on the anniversary of their 
conversion, "Come, thou all-victorious Lord," where it 
was written, "See how great a flame aspires," 282; joyful 
occasion on which it was written, "Jesus, from thy heavenly 
place," "Long have I seemed to serve thee, Lord," peculiar 
circumstances of its composition, 283; "Come, let us join 
our friends above," anecdote of John Wesley and Rev. Thomas 
Spencer, 284; "God is in this and everyplace," coincidence 
connected with it, " The great Archangel's trump shall sound," 
its origin, 285; " Shrinking from the cold hand of death," 
anecdote concerning it, "Again we lift our voice," occasion 
of its composition, 286; "Infinite God, to thee we raise," 
Mr. Love's testimony to its beauty, " Thou hidden Love of 
God, whose height," 287 ; " How happy is the pilgrim's lot," 
Mr. Creamer's account of its personal reference to its author, 
288; "Behold the Saviour of mankind," its singular pre- 
servation and history, 289. 

Wesley, Samuel, Jr. : various hymns by, special beauty of one of 
them, 290. 

Western liturgies : character of them, 27. 

White, Henry Kirke : his early history, his works edited by Dr. 
Southey, 291 ; tablet erected to his memory, beautiful lines 
inscribed upon it by Professor Smythe, 292. 

Whitefield on chanting, 63. 

Whitefield, Rev. G. : his attention to singing, 55; his first sermon 
in the open air, 278. 

Whittier, John G. : a Quaker poet, lack of unction in his hymns, 293. 

William the Conqueror : influence of singing in his dying hour, 27. 

Williams, Rev. William : his early history and arduous labors, 293 ; 
character of his writings, 294. 

Willis, Nathaniel P. : hymn by, character of his writings, 294 ; a 
sweet thought, 295. 

Winchester College, Latin hymn annually sung in, 28. 



INDEX. 415 

Wirt, William: his opinion of Watts's Hymns, 267. 
"Women, two young, 834. 
Worcester: choir established at, 42. 

Wordsworth, William : sketch of his history, interesting extract 
from one of his letters, 295. 

Xavikk. Francis: hymn by, his missionary ardor, a lofty sentiment, 
297 : testimony of John Angel James, 298. 

fork Minster: psalm-singing in, 37. 



THE END. 



STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON k CO. 
PHILADELPHIA. 



T II E 



CHRISTIAN EXAMINEE. 



NOVEMBER, 1859. 



We should be glad, out of respect to the memory of one so recently 



1859.] 



Preachers and Sects. 



449 



called away, to speak well of Dr. Belcher's History of Hymns.* But 
it is impossible to praise a book so superficial, feeble, inadequate, incor- 
rect, and bigoted. The only really good thing in it is the first extract 
of the Introduction, which gives Henry Ward Beecher's thought on the 
influence of sacred poetry. All the rest is best described as fragmen- 
tary platitude and blunder. The omissions are as extraordinary as the 
admissions, and the critical judgments are equally false and ludicrous. 
What are we to think of a writer, who, inserting among hymnists Mrs. 
Anderson, Dr. Baldwin, William Budden, Ingram Cobbin, Richard 
Furman, Eliel Davis, and some score of others of whom no one ever 
heard, omits all mention of such writers as Bulfinch, Frothingham, 
Mrs. Hemans, Henry Moore, Pierpont, Roscoe, Thomas and Walter 
Scott, E, H. Sears, Sprague, John and Emily Taylor, Sir Henry Wot- 
ton, and others of equal note ? What shall be said of a scholar, who 
gravely informs us that Charlemagne is a lyric poet, and the author of 
the '• Veni Creator" of the Catholic Church, though some pages farther 
on. and borrowing from another authority, he makes Ambrose the 
author of that hymn ? Dr. Peabody of Portsmouth will be surprised 
to learn from this volume, not only that he is " Professor in the Cam- 
bridge University," but that he is the author of the funeral hymn here- 
tofore credited to the late Dr. Peabodv of Springfield, and that he is 



•6581 
*? uowddv : y[xox *W 'SHYAe -^ \J A*g -uisua^qg pus sj9^qs | 
•Mma-iin AHX3H rcvmiAl ^3 '9JIT ■wq^wj J° SJB9 A U3 X * 




i >m uoiSqai jo pAiAdi v p sun.ii >ug aq; qjtAv c /uuy J3WTC » 
jo saatdsriTj 'aqj japun <X *N 'noumpi MS>& V» 'oStj sjb&£ Aiq^ia 
oiinb ioVp9DU3rarao3 -sja^qg aqj. jo spadso-id jo uoiiipuoa aq> 3m 
-pJuSai avIu A"rrGi09ds Suiqiou siuasaad 4. ^SuT.readdy pnooas B;jsuqo q 
s.i9A9q9a; j\^aiDOg p^raQ aq} jo 'saui.ipoQ put? iiiaraujaAO*) 'suoinqn 
-ga^ pun s9it% 'sajdiouuj; 'Xjoisih 'uiSuq aq; P ranipuadraoQ ., anx 

u '£em oqAV }i jo ;no aq 'imp *\dT{i 

ui ajTj Xaqx "\" 'P°0 °* paipuoaaj 9C 1 °* uara ° m A- jd 9nre ; 11 ? H 
ui pm? ')suq3 joXsaqou aiqTjqojuasun aqj gurqoTjaid 'q^rjap put; ^ou9\ 

iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliiiniiiiiiiiiiillliiiill